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Receding glacier, southern Greenland. One of many glaciers on southern Greenland that has retreated (melted) dramatically since the end of the Little Ice Age (about 1850). In front of the present ice margin is the large brown unvegetated region formerly occupied by ice and bounded by the "end moraine," or rocky ridge that marks the maximum Little Ice Age extent of the glacier. Photo credit: Jonathan Overpeck.
Muskox on Greenland. Arctic wildlife undoubtedly have been, and will be, affected by Arctic climate and vegetation change. Photo credit: Jonathan Overpeck.

Arctic Environmental Change of the Last Four Centuries
J. Overpeck, K. Hughen, D. Hardy, R. Bradley, R. Case, M. Douglas, B. Finney, K. Gajewski, G. Jacoby, A. Jennings, S. Lamoureux, A. Lasca, G. MacDonald, J. Moore, M. Retelle,  S. Smith, A. Wolfe, & G. Zielinski.
Science, v. 278, n. 5341 p. 1251-1256, 1997.
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Abstract A compilation of paleoclimate records from lake sediments, trees, glaciers, and marine sediments provides a view of circum-Arctic environmental variability over the last 400 years. From 1840 to the mid-20th century, the Arctic warmed to the highest levels in four centuries. This warming ended the Little Ice Age in the Arctic and has caused dramatic retreats of glaciers, melting  of permafrost and sea-ice, and alteration of terrestrial and lake ecosystems. Although significant warming, particularly after 1920, was likely due to increases in atmospheric trace-gases, the initiation of the warming in the mid-19th century suggests that increased solar irradiance, decreased volcanic activity, and feedbacks internal to the climate system played roles.

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