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Scientific References

Briffa, K.R., P.D. Jones, F.H. Schweingruber and T.J. Osborn,  "Influence of volcanic eruptions on northern hemisphere summer temperature over the past 600 years."  Nature, Volume 393, pp. 450-455. 1998.

Briffa, K.R., T.J. Osborn, F.H. Schweingruber, I.C. Harris, P.D. Jones, S.G. Shiyatov, and E.A. Vaganov, "Low-frequency temperature variations from a northern tree-ring density network." J. Geophys. Res. 106, 2929 2941. 2001

CLIMAP, 1984. "Difference between modern sea surface temperature and estimated February sea surface temperature (in °C) at the last interglaciation 120,000 years ago." Image taken from text. Crowley, T.J. and North, G.R.  Paleoclimatology - Oxford Monographs on Geology and Geophysics. No. 18. Figure 6.10, p.118. Oxford University Press, Inc. New York, NY. 1991.

Crowley, T.J. ,  "Causes of Climate Change Over the Past 1000 Years",   Science, Volume 289: 270-277, July 14, 2000.

Crowley, T.J. and G.R. North,  "Distribution of climatically sensitive deposits for the mid-Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian-Cenomanian, 120-90 Ma.)"  Paleoclimatology - Oxford Monographs on Geology and Geophysics. No. 18. Image, figure 8.3, p.157. Oxford University Press, Inc. New York, NY. 1991.

Esper, J., E.R. Cook, and F.H. Schweingruber, "Low-Frequency Signals in Long Tree-Ring Chronologies for Reconstructing Past Temperature Variability." Science, Volume 295, Number 5563, 22 March 2002, 2002.

Huang, S.. "Merging Information from Different Resources for New Insights into Climate Change in the Past and Future." Geophys. Res, Lett. 31, L13205, doi:10.1029/2004GL019781, 2004.

Huang, S., H.N. Pollack, and P.-Y. Shen.  "Temperature trends over the past five centuries reconstructed from borehole temperatures."   Nature, Volume 403, pp. 756-758. 2000.

Hughes, M.K. and H.F. Diaz,  "Was there a 'Medieval Warm Period' and if so, when and where?"   Climatic Change, Volume 26, pp. 109-142. 1994.

Jones, P.D., K.R. Briffa, T.P. Barnett and S.F.B. Tett,  "High-resolution palaeoclimatic records for the last millennium: interpretation, integration and comparison with general circulation model control-run temperatures."  The Holocene, Volume 8, pp. 455-471. 1998.

Jones, P.D. and M.E. Mann,. "Climate Over Past Millennia." Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 42, No. 2, RG2002, doi:10.1029/2003RG000143, 2004.

Kerwin, M., J.T. Overpeck, R.S. Webb, A. DeVernal, D.H. Rind and R.J. Healy,  "The role of oceanic forcing in mid-Holocene northern hemisphere climatic change." Paleoceanography, 14, pp. 200-210. 1999.

Mann, M.E., R.S. Bradley and M.K. Hughes,  "Global-scale temperature patterns and climate forcing over the past six centuries."  Nature, Volume 392, pp. 779-787. 1998.

Mann, M.E., R.S. Bradley and M.K. Hughes,  "Northern hemisphere temperatures during the past millennium: inferences, uncertainties and limitations." Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 26, pp. 759-762. 1999.

Moberg, A, D.M. Sonechkin, K. Holmgren, N.M. Datsenko, and W. Karlén, "Highly variable Northern Hemisphere Temperatures Reconstructed from Low- and High-Resolution Proxy Data." Nature, Vol. 433, No. 7026, pp. 613 - 617, 2005.

National Research Council (NRC), 2006. Surface Temperature Reconstructions For the Last 2,000 Years. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

Osborn, T.J. and K.R. Briffa, "The Spatial Extent of 20th-Century Warmth in the Context of the Past 1200 Years." Science, Vol. 311, Issue 5762, pp. 841 . 844, 2006.

Overpeck, J.T., K. Hughen, D. Hardy, R. Bradley, R. Case, M. Douglas, B. Finney, K. Gajewski, G. Jacoby, A. Jennings, S. Lamoureux, A. Lasca, G. MacDonald, J. Moore, M. Retelle, S. Smith, A. Wolfe, and G. Zielinski.  "Arctic environmental change of the last four centuries."  Science, Volume 278, pp. 1251-1256.

Pollack, H.N., S. Huang and P.-Y. Shen,  "Climate change record in subsurface temperatures: a global perspective"  Science, Volume 282, pp. 279-281. 1998.

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