to the importance
of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the global
climate system, NOAA provides numerous resources on this phenomenon,
El Niño homepage and the PMEL
El Niño Theme page. Also see the International Research
Institute for Climate Prediction ENSO
Quick Look for the latest forecast.
(Climate Diagnostic Center) ENSO website to access ENSO data,
and USGS' Water
Website for streamflow data to reconstruct past runoff patterns.
NOAA and related resources include:
the Stories They Tell
patterns as visualized in a hydrograph can be a valuable tool
for tracking patterns of drought or wet periods. When correlated
with precipitation records or paleo proxies, illustrating how
climate varies year-to-year, and whether or not such patterns
as ENSO impact regional climate.
A series of dry years are an indicator of hydrologic drought conditions.
Spikes in runoff may imply heavier than normal precipitation and
possible flood events, while high runoff during late summer months
may reflect strong monsoon conditions.
below streamflow graph of Boulder Creek from the USGS's
Water Resources in the United States website provides a snapshot
of how runoff has varied in a recent ten-year period. Using "discharge,"
as a measure of flow, the units of measure are cubic-feet-per-second