|Temporal Scale||Who||What||Where||When||How||Why||Wild Card|
Q. What is one day using annual scale powers of ten?
A. ~10-.027 year. clisci0.html
| Q. Who introduced you to the
A. Open answer
| Q. What is thermal response
and give an example of how it occurs over the course of a normal day?
A. The delay from when heat first hits and object and when that object begins to respond to the heat. clisci0.html
| Q. Where is the sun rising now
on the planet?
A. Open answer, see cliihis0.html
| Q. When does the apparent sunrise
and sunset occur in your community today?
A. Open answer, see resource0.html
| Q. How does weather differ from
A. Weather occurs over hours and days, while climate occurs over longer times scales.
| Q. Why is the diurnal cycle
important to plants and what is the process that allows them to store solar
A. Plants require sunlight for the process of photosynthesis clisci0.html
| Q. What is the forecasted high
and low temperature and chance of precipitation for today in your community?
A. Open answer
Q. How is one year expressed as powers of ten temporal scaling?
A. 100 year. clisci1.html
| Q. Who uses a Decision Calendar
to organize around the annual water year?
A. Water and/or reservoir managers. clisci1.html
| Q. What is the fundamental cause
of the seasonal changes over a year?
A. The tilt of the Earth on its axis which changes the angle of solar radiation. clisci1.html
| Q. Where do the sun's direct
rays hit during the vernal or autumnal equinox?
A. The equator. 1.html
| Q. When does the water year
A. Beginning of October hydrograph.html
| Q. How do many marine mammals
adapt to seasonal changes?
A. Through migration or hiberation. cliihis1.html
| Q. Why is obliquity important
for seasonal changes?
A. Obliquity, the angle of tilt of the Earth on its axis, changes the angle of solar radiation hitting the Earth at different times of years. clisci1.html
| Q. How does the weather today
compare with a year ago in your community?
A. Open answer, but may be able to find answer through data.html
Q. How is ten years expressed as powers of ten temporal scaling?
A. 101 year. clisci10.html
| Q. Who has suggested that fewer
extreme weather or climate events is not always "better" from
an impacts standpoint?
A. Roger Pielke, Jr. cliihis10.html
| Q. What is ENSO?
A. El Niņo Southern Oscillation, an interannual climate phenomenon in the Pacific Ocean. clisci10.html
| Q. Where were fishing industries
severely impacted during the 1982-83 El Niņos?
A. In Peru and Equador clisci10.html
| Q. When are droughts in the
southern U.S. and flooding in the Pacific Northwest more likely?
A. During La Niņa events. clisci10.html
| Q. How do oceanic phenomenon
such as ENSO influence global climate?
A. By slowly absorbing and releasing heat.clisci10.html
| Q. Why is ENSO important in
predicting Atlantic hurricanes?
A. Damages and frequency increase during La Niņas, decrease during El Niņos. clisci10.html
| Q. Is there an ENSO teleconnection
with your region?
A. Open answer, but consult clisci10.html
Q. How is one hundred years expressed as powers of ten temporal scaling?
A. 102 year. clisci100.html
| Q. Who coined the term Pacific
Decadal Oscillation or PDO?
A. Steven Hare. clisci100.html
| Q. What occurred between the
mid 1940s and early 1970s to global climate?
A. It cooled somewhat. 100.html
| Q. Where were 300,000-500,000
people killed due to winds coupled with a storm surge in 1970?
A. Bangladesh cliihis100.html
| Q. When did the Great Smog of
A. December, 1952 100.html
| Q. How many people were there
at the beginning and end of the 20th Century?
A. 1.5 billion and +6 billion. 100.html
| Q. Why is population regarded
as an important factor in climate change?
A. More people are impacted by weather and climate, and generally more impact on the climate and environmental systems. cliihis100.html
| Q. How has your community changed
in the past 100 years in terms of population and climate?
A. Open answer.
Q. What is one thousand years expressed as powers of ten temporal scaling?
A. 103 year. clisci1000.html
| Q. Who were the people living
in the American South West 1000 years ago who may have been impacted by
A. Ancient Pueblo peoples. cliihis1000.html
| Q. What forces account for 40-65%
of decadal-scale temperature variations during the past 1000 years before
A. According to Crowley, solar irradiance and volcanism clisci1000.html
| Q. Where does the Thermohaline
circulation system vent tropical heat?
A. The North Atlantic. thc.html
| Q. When did the Medieval Warm
Period begin and when did it end?
A. It began around 1000 AD and lasted until approximately 1350 AD. 1000.html
| Q. How are climate changes over
1000 years or more studied?
A. Paleo proxies such as cores from coral reefs, ice, ocean and lake sediments. clisci1000.html
| Q. Why was Iceland surrounded
by sea-ice around 1695?
A. The Little Ice Age from around 1350 to 1900. resource1000.html
| Q. How was the climate and environment
in your community different 1000 years ago from now?
A. Open answer, but check data.html
Q. What is ten thousand years expressed as powers of ten temporal scaling?
A. 104 year. clisci10k.html
| Q. Who first suggested that
a catastrophic flooding of the Black Sea could have been the biblical flood?
A. William Ryan and Walter C. Pitman clihis10k.html
| Q. What is the most recent epoch
called following the end of the last Ice Age?
A. The Holocene. glossary.html#h
| Q. Where did irrigation and
agriculture begin about 10,000 years ago?
A. The Middle East clihis10k.html
| Q. When did the Black Sea become
A. 7600 years ago. clihis10k.html
| Q. How many people are estimated
to have existed 10,000 years ago?
A. About 5 million. 10k.html
| Q. Why were summer temperatures
in the northern hemisphere warmer 5,000 to 7,000 years ago than today?
A. Changes in the Earth's orbital cycle. clisci10k.html
| Q. Why is the domestication
of water through irrigation considered by some to be the first technological
A. Open answer, but check clihis10k.html
Q. What is 100,000 years expressed as powers of ten temporal scaling?
A. 105 year. clisci100k.html
| Q. Who thrived in cold European
climates some 30,000 years ago?
A. Cro-Magnons. 100k.html
| Q. What is the Younger Dryas?
A. A period of abrupt cooling 15KYA followed by abrupt warming some 11.6KY
| Q. Where did many species of
animals become extinct shortly after Homo sapiens arrived 50KYA?
A. Australia. 100k.html
| Q. When did the Younger Dryas
A. 11,600 years ago. 100k.html
| Q. How can orbital cycles influence
A. Precession, eccentricity, and obliquity can cause changes in solar radiation reaching Earth. clisci100k.html
| Q. Why was sea level some 120
meters lower than today some 18KYA?
A. More of Earth's water in solid rather than liquid during Last Glacial Maximum. clisci100k.htmll
| Q. What geologic event may have
triggered an abrupt climate change 71KYA?
A. Eruption of Mount Toba. clihis100k.htm
| Q. Who developed the Gaia hypothesis
which proposes a global climate thermostat?
A. James Lovelock and Lynn Margulis cliihisbeyond.html
| Q. What major event occurred
some 251 million years ago?
A. The Permian Mass Extinction. cliscibeyond.html
| Q. Where did human ancestors
A. Africa. cliihisbeyond.html
|Q. When did Earth's
A. 4.6 X109 or 4.6 billion years ago. about3.html#time
| Q. According to the Gaia hypothesis,
how has the Earth avoided freezing or experiencing a run-away Greenhouse
A. Biologic systems serve as climatic thermostat. cliihisbeyond.html
|Q. Why did the
Earth's early atmosphere gain free oxygen (O2)
A. Photosynthesis from plants released free oxygen into the atmosphere. beyond.html
| Q. What are the two primary
natural phenomenon that we measure time by?
A. Days (rotation of Earth on axis) and Years (rotation of Earth around the sun). about3.html#time