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References (USHCN)

  • Alexandersson, H. and A. Moberg, 1997: Homogenization of Swedish temperature data. Part I: Homogeneity test for linear trends. Int. J. Climatol., 17, 25-34. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0088(199701)17:1<25::AID-JOB103>3.0.CO;2-J.
  • Baker, D. G., 1975: Effect of observation time on mean temperature estimation. J. Appl. Meteor., 14, 471-476. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1975)014<0471:EOOTOM>2.0.CO;2.
  • Durre I., M. J. B.E. Gleason, T. G. Houston, and R. S. Vose, 2010: Comprehensive automated quality assurance of daily surface observations. J. Applied Meteor. and Climatol., 49, 1615-1633. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2010JAMC2375.1.
  • Easterling, D. R., T. R. Karl, E.H. Mason, P. Y. Hughes, and D. P. Bowman. 1996. United States Historical Climatology Network (U.S. HCN) Monthly Temperature and Precipitation Data. ORNL/CDIAC-87. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/205081.
  • Easterling, D. R., T. R. Karl, J. H. Lawrimore, and S. A. Del Greco. 1999. United States Historical Climatology Network Daily Temperature, Precipitation, and Snow Data for 1871-1997. https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc735162/ORNL/CDIAC-118. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/epubs/ndp/ushcn/ndp070.html.
  • Fall, S., A. Watts, J. Nielsen-Gammon, E. Jones, D. Niyogi, J. R. Christy, and R. A. Pielke Sr. (2011), Analysis of the impacts of station exposure on the U.S. Historical Climatology Network temperatures and temperature trends, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D14120, doi:10.1029/2010JD015146.
  • Hughes, P. Y., E. H. Mason, T. R. Karl, and W. A. Brower. 1992. United States Historical Climatology Network Daily Temperature and Precipitation Data. ORNL/CDIAC-50. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
  • Karl, T. R., C. N. Williams, Jr., and F. T. Quinlan. 1990. United States Historical Climatology Network (HCN) Serial Temperature and Precipitation Data. ORNL/CDIAC-30. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
  • Karl, T.R., H.F. Diaz, and G. Kukla, 1988: Urbanization: its detection and effect in the United States climate record, J. Climate1, 1099-1123.  doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1988)001<1099:UIDAEI>2.0.CO;2.
  • Karl, T.R., C.N. Williams, Jr., P.J. Young, and W.M. Wendland, 1986: A model to estimate the time of observation bias associated with monthly mean maximum, minimum, and mean temperature for the United States, J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 25, 145-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1986)025<0145:AMTETT>2.0.CO;2.
  • Karl, T.R., and C.N. Williams Jr., 1987: An approach to adjusting climatological time series for discontinuous inhomogeneities. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 26, 1744-1763. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1987)026<1744:AATACT>2.0.CO;2.
  • Karl, T.R, H. F. Diaz, and G. Kukla, 1988: Urbanization: Its detection and effect in the United States climate record. J. Climate, 1, 10991123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1988)001<1099:UIDAEI>2.0.CO;2.
  • Quayle, R. G., D. R. Easterling, T. R. Karl, and P. Y. Hughes, 1991: Effects of recent thermometer changes in the Cooperative Station Network. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 72, 17181723. doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1991)072<1718:EORTCI>2.0.CO;2.
  • Lawrimore, J.H., M.J. Menne, B.E. Gleason, C.N. Williams, D.B. Wuertz, R.S. Vose, and J. Rennie, 2011: An overview of the Global Historical Climatology Network Monthly Mean Temperature Dataset, Version 3. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 116, D19121, doi:10.1029/2011JD016187.
  • Lund, R., and J. Reeves, 2002: Detection of undocumented changepoints: a revision of the two-phase regression model. J. Climate15, 2547-2554. doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<2547:DOUCAR>2.0.CO;2.
  • Menne, M.J., and C.N. Williams, Jr., 2005: Detection of undocumented changepoints using multiple test statistics and composite reference series. J. Climate18, 4271-4286. doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3524.1.
  • Menne, M.J., and C.N. Williams, Jr., 2009: Homogenization of temperature series via pairwise comparisons. J. Climate22, 1700-1717. doi: 10.1175/2008JCLI2263.1.
  • Menne, M.J., C.N. Williams, and R.S. Vose, 2009: The United States Historical Climatology Network Monthly Temperature Data - Version 2. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society90, 993-1107. doi:10.1175/2008BAMS2613.1.
  • Menne, M.J., C.N. Willaims, Jr., and M.A. Palecki, 2010: On the reliability of the U.S. surface temperature record. J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1029/2009JD013094, in press. (accepted 7 January 2010).
  • Menne, M.J., I. Durre, R.S. Vose, B.E. Gleason, and T.G. Houston, 2012: An overview of the Global Historical Climatology Network-Daily Database. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology,, 29, 897-910. doi:0.1175/JTECH-D-11-00103.1.
  • Quinlan, F. T., T. R. Karl, and C. N. Williams, Jr. 1987. United States Historical Climatology Network (HCN) Serial Temperature and Precipitation Data. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
  • Venema, V. K. C., O. Mestre, E. Aguilar, I. Auer, J.A. Guijarro, P. Domonkos, G. Vertacnik, T. Szentimrey, P. Stepanek, P. Zahradnicek, J. Viarre, G. Müller-Westermeier, M. Lakatos, C.N. Williams, M.J. Menne, R. Lindau, D. Rasol, E. Rustemeier, K. Kolokythas, T. Marinova, L. Andresen, F. Acquaotta, S. Fratianni, S. Cheval, M. Klancar, M. Brunetti, C. Gruber, M. Prohom Duran, T. Likso, P. Esteban, and T. Brandsma, 2012: Benchmarking homogenization algorithms for monthly data. Climates of the Past, 8, 89-115, doi:10.5194/cp-8-89-2012.
  • Vose, R.S., C.N. Williams, T.C. Peterson, T.R. Karl, and D.R. Easterling, 2003: An evaluation of the time of observation bias adjustment in the US Historical Climatology Network. Geophysical Research Letters30 (20), 2046, doi:10.1029/2003GL018111.
  • Vose, R.S., S. Applequist, M.J. Menne, C.N. Williams and P.W. Thorne: An intercomparison of temperature trends in the U.S. Historical Climatology Network and recent atmospheric reanalyses. Geophyical.Research Letters, 39, L10703, doi:10.1029/2012GL051387.
  • Wang, X.L., 2003: Comments on "Detection of undocumented changepoints: A revision of the two-phase model". J. Climate16, 3383-3385. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<3383:CODOUC>2.0.CO;2.
  • Williams, C.N, M.J. Menne and J.H Lawrimore (2012a), Modifications to Pairwise Homogeneity Adjustment software to improve run-time efficiency. NOAA Technical Report NCDC No. GHCNM-12-01R.
  • Williams, C.N, M.J. Menne and J.H Lawrimore (2012b), Modifications to Pairwise Homogeneity Adjustment software to address coding errors and improve run-time efficiency. NOAA Technical Report NCDC No. GHCNM-12-02.
  • Williams, C.N., M.J. Menne, and P.W. Thorne, 2012c: Benchmarking the performance of pairwise homogenization of surface temperatures in the United States. Journal of Geophysical Research- Atmospheres,. 117, D5, doi:10.1029/2011JD016761