Tropopsphere

Lower Troposphere

November Lower Troposphere
November Anomaly Rank
(out of 41 years)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH +0.55 +0.99 Coolest 41st 1985 -0.28 -0.50 +0.13 +0.24
Warmest 1st 2019 +0.48 +0.86
RSS +0.55 +0.99 Coolest 41st 1984 -0.43 -0.77 +0.19 +0.34
Warmest 1st 2019 +0.53 +0.95
September-November Lower Troposphere
September–
November
Anomaly Rank
(out of 41 years)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH +0.54 +0.97 Coolest 41st 1985 -0.36 -0.65 +0.15 +0.27
Warmest 1st 2019 +0.51 +0.92
RSS +0.59 +1.06 Coolest 40th 1984 -0.44 -0.79 +0.21 +0.38
Warmest 1st 2019, 2017 +0.59 +1.06
Ties: 2017
Year-to-Date Lower Troposphere
January–
November
Anomaly Rank
(out of 41 years)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH +0.43 +0.77 Coolest 39th 1985 -0.37 -0.67 +0.13 +0.24
Warmest 3rd 2016 +0.55 +0.99
RSS +0.56 +1.01 Coolest 40th 1985 -0.43 -0.77 +0.20 +0.36
Warmest 2nd 2016 +0.65 +1.17

Mid-troposphere

November Mid-troposphere
November Anomaly Rank
(out of 41 years)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH +0.44 +0.79 Coolest 40th 1985 -0.28 -0.50 +0.09 +0.16
Warmest 1st 2019, 2016 +0.44 +0.79
Ties: 2016
RSS +0.48 +0.86 Coolest 40th 1985 -0.33 -0.59 +0.12 +0.22
Warmest 2nd 2016 +0.49 +0.88
STAR +0.41 +0.74 Coolest 41st 1985 -0.33 -0.59 +0.12 +0.22
Warmest 1st 2019, 2016 +0.41 +0.74
Ties: 2016
UW-UAH +0.52 +0.94 Coolest 40th 1984 -0.33 -0.59 +0.15 +0.27
Warmest 2nd 2016 +0.57 +1.03
UW-RSS +0.56 +1.01 Coolest 40th 1985 -0.37 -0.67 +0.18 +0.32
Warmest 2nd 2016 +0.62 +1.12
September-November Mid-troposphere
September–
November
Anomaly Rank
(out of 41 years*)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH +0.46 +0.83 Coolest 40th 1985 -0.33 -0.59 +0.11 +0.21
Warmest 1st 2019, 2017 +0.46 +0.83
Ties: 2017
RSS +0.51 +0.92 Coolest 40th 1985 -0.39 -0.70 +0.15 +0.28
Warmest 2nd 2017 +0.52 +0.94
UW-UAH +0.51 +0.92 Coolest 39th 1984 -0.39 -0.70 +0.17 +0.30
Warmest 3rd 2016, 2017 +0.56 +1.01
UW-RSS +0.56 +1.01 Coolest 39th 1984, 1985 -0.43 -0.77 +0.21 +0.38
Warmest 3rd 2016 +0.63 +1.13
RATPAC* +0.73 +1.31 Coolest 61st 1964 -0.88 -1.58 +0.19 +0.35
Warmest 2nd 2017 +0.75 +1.35

*RATPAC rank is based on 62 years of data

Year-to-Date Mid-troposphere
January–
November
Anomaly Rank
(out of 41 years*)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH +0.36 +0.65 Coolest 39th 1985 -0.30 -0.54 +0.09 +0.17
Warmest 3rd 2016 +0.48 +0.86
RSS +0.44 +0.79 Coolest 39th 1985 -0.34 -0.61 +0.14 +0.25
Warmest 3rd 2016 +0.55 +0.99
STAR +0.37 +0.67 Coolest 38th 1985 -0.35 -0.63 +0.13 +0.23
Warmest 4th 1998, 2016 +0.47 +0.85
UW-UAH +0.45 +0.81 Coolest 39th 1985 -0.34 -0.61 +0.15 +0.26
Warmest 3rd 2016 +0.59 +1.06
UW-RSS +0.53 +0.95 Coolest 39th 1985 -0.38 -0.68 +0.19 +0.34
Warmest 3rd 2016 +0.68 +1.22
RATPAC* +0.70 +1.26 Coolest 61st 1965 -0.79 -1.42 +0.18 +0.32
Warmest 2nd 2016 +0.82 +1.48

*RATPAC rank is based on 62 years of data

Stratosphere

Lower Stratosphere

November Lower Stratosphere
November Anomaly Rank
(out of 41 years)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH -0.43 -0.77 Coolest 7th 2000 -0.72 -1.30 -0.32 -0.58
Warmest 35th 1982 +1.43 +2.57
RSS -0.32 -0.58 Coolest 12th 2000 -0.66 -1.19 -0.26 -0.47
Warmest 29th 1982 +1.36 +2.45
Ties: 2003
STAR -0.35 -0.63 Coolest 13th 2016 -0.62 -1.12 -0.31 -0.55
Warmest 30th 1982 +1.39 +2.50
September-November Lower Stratosphere
September–
November
Anomaly Rank
(out of 41 years)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH -0.43 -0.77 Coolest 10th 2016 -0.63 -1.13 -0.31 -0.56
Warmest 32nd 1991 +1.46 +2.63
RSS -0.30 -0.54 Coolest 15th 2000, 2016 -0.55 -0.99 -0.25 -0.44
Warmest 26th 1991 +1.44 +2.59
Ties: 2017
STAR -0.19 -0.34 Coolest 24th 2016 -0.64 -1.15 -0.29 -0.53
Warmest 18th 1991 +1.45 +2.61
Year-to-Date Lower Stratosphere
January–
November
Anomaly Rank
(out of 41 years)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH -0.51 -0.92 Coolest 2nd 2016 -0.55 -0.99 -0.29 -0.52
Warmest 40th 1992 +1.00 +1.80
RSS -0.36 -0.65 Coolest 4th 2016 -0.46 -0.83 -0.22 -0.40
Warmest 37th 1992 +0.97 +1.75
Ties: 2008
STAR -0.34 -0.61 Coolest 8th 2016 -0.50 -0.90 -0.24 -0.43
Warmest 33rd 1992 +0.98 +1.76
Ties: 2017

Background

Temperatures above the Earth's surface are measured within the lower troposphere, middle troposphere, and stratosphere using in-situ balloon-borne instruments (radiosondes) and polar-orbiting satellites (NOAA's TIROS-N). The radiosonde and satellite records have been adjusted to remove time-dependent biases (artificialities caused by changes in radiosonde instruments and measurement practices as well as changes in satellite instruments and orbital features through time). Global averages from radiosonde data are available from 1958 to present, while satellite measurements date back to 1979.

The mid-troposphere temperatures are centered in the in the atmospheric layer approximately 3–10 km [2–6 miles] above the Earth's surface, which also includes a portion of the lower stratosphere. (The Microwave Sounding Unit [MSU] channel used to measure mid-tropospheric temperatures receives about 25 percent of its signal above 10 km [6 miles].) Because the stratosphere has cooled due to increasing greenhouse gases in the troposphere and losses of ozone in the stratosphere, the stratospheric contribution to the tropospheric average, as measured from satellites, creates an artificial component of cooling to the mid-troposphere temperatures. The University of Washington (UW) versions of the UAH and RSS analyses attempt to remove the stratospheric influence from the mid-troposphere measurements, and as a result the UW versions tend to have a larger warming trend than either the UAH or RSS versions. For additional information, please see NCEI's Microwave Sounding Unit page.

The radiosonde data used in this global analysis were developed using the Lanzante, Klein, Seidel (2003) ("LKS") bias-adjusted dataset and the First Difference Method (Free et al. 2004) (RATPAC). Additional details are available. Satellite data have been adjusted by the Global Hydrology and Climate Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). An independent analysis is also performed by Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) and a third analysis has been performed by Dr. Qiang Fu of the University of Washington (UW) (Fu et al. 2004)** to remove the influence of the stratosphere on the mid-troposphere value. Global averages from radiosonde data are available from 1958 to present, while satellite measurements began in 1979.

References


Citing This Report

NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, State of the Climate: Upper Air for November 2019, published online December 2019, retrieved on October 22, 2021 from https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/upper-air/201911.

Metadata

https://data.nodc.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/iso?id=gov.noaa.ncdc:C00762