Upper Air - August 2018


Troposphere

Lower Troposphere

August Lower Troposphere
August Anomaly Rank
(out of 40 years)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH +0.19 +0.34 Coolest 32nd 1992 -0.45 -0.81 +0.11 +0.21
Warmest 9th 1998 +0.52 +0.94
RSS i +0.20 +0.36 Coolest 33rd 1992 -0.47 -0.85 +0.14 +0.25
Warmest 7th 1998 +0.48 +0.86
Ties: 2007
June-August Lower Troposphere
June–
August
Anomaly Rank
(out of 40 years)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH +0.24 +0.43 Coolest 35th 1985 -0.37 -0.67 +0.11 +0.20
Warmest 5th 1998 +0.53 +0.95
Ties: 2002, 2015
RSS i +0.26 +0.47 Coolest 34th 1985 -0.38 -0.68 +0.14 +0.25
Warmest 7th 1998 +0.50 +0.90
Year-to-Date Lower Troposphere
January–
August
Anomaly Rank
(out of 40 years)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH +0.23 +0.41 Coolest 35th 1985 -0.37 -0.67 +0.12 +0.22
Warmest 6th 1998, 2016 +0.57 +1.03
RSS i +0.21 +0.38 Coolest 33rd 1985 -0.39 -0.70 +0.13 +0.24
Warmest 8th 2016 +0.57 +1.03

Mid-troposphere

August Mid-troposphere
August Anomaly Rank
(out of 40 years)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH +0.13 +0.23 Coolest 30th 1992 -0.28 -0.50 +0.09 +0.16
Warmest 11th 1998 +0.43 +0.77
RSS i +0.14 +0.25 Coolest 29th 1992 -0.32 -0.58 +0.10 +0.19
Warmest 11th 1998 +0.44 +0.79
Ties: 1995
STAR i +0.16 +0.29 Coolest 28th 1985, 1992 -0.34 -0.61 +0.13 +0.24
Warmest 13th 1998 +0.44 +0.79
UW-UAH +0.24 +0.43 Coolest 34th 1992 -0.44 -0.79 +0.14 +0.25
Warmest 7th 1998 +0.54 +0.97
UW-RSS +0.24 +0.43 Coolest 33rd 1992 -0.49 -0.88 +0.15 +0.27
Warmest 8th 1998 +0.55 +0.99
June-August Mid-troposphere
June–
August
Anomaly Rank
(out of 40 years*)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH +0.19 +0.34 Coolest 33rd 1985 -0.35 -0.63 +0.08 +0.15
Warmest 8th 1998 +0.47 +0.85
RSS i +0.20 +0.36 Coolest 33rd 1985 -0.35 -0.63 +0.10 +0.18
Warmest 7th 1998 +0.48 +0.86
Ties: 1991
UW-UAH +0.29 +0.52 Coolest 35th 1985 -0.40 -0.72 +0.13 +0.24
Warmest 6th 1998 +0.55 +0.99
UW-RSS +0.29 +0.52 Coolest 35th 1985 -0.40 -0.72 +0.14 +0.26
Warmest 6th 1998 +0.56 +1.01
RATPAC* +0.47 +0.85 Coolest 57th 1965 -0.81 -1.46 +0.18 +0.32
Warmest 5th 2016 +0.68 +1.22

*RATPAC rank is based on 61 years of data

Year-to-Date Mid-troposphere
January–
August
Anomaly Rank
(out of 40 years*)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH +0.16 +0.29 Coolest 34th 1985 -0.29 -0.52 +0.08 +0.15
Warmest 7th 1998 +0.52 +0.94
RSS i +0.15 +0.27 Coolest 31st 1989 -0.28 -0.50 +0.09 +0.16
Warmest 9th 1998 +0.53 +0.95
Ties: 1983, 2007
STAR i +0.18 +0.32 Coolest 30th 1985 -0.34 -0.61 +0.12 +0.21
Warmest 10th 1998 +0.54 +0.97
Ties: 2004
UW-UAH +0.25 +0.45 Coolest 35th 1985 -0.32 -0.58 +0.13 +0.24
Warmest 6th 1998, 2016 +0.60 +1.08
UW-RSS +0.23 +0.41 Coolest 33rd 1989 -0.33 -0.59 +0.14 +0.24
Warmest 7th 1998 +0.61 +1.10
Ties: 2005
RATPAC* +0.46 +0.83 Coolest 56th 1965 -0.89 -1.60 +0.17 +0.30
Warmest 6th 2016 +0.89 +1.60

*RATPAC rank is based on 61 years of data

Stratosphere

August Stratosphere
August Anomaly Rank
(out of 40 years)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH -0.46 -0.83 Coolest 6th 2016 -0.70 -1.26 -0.28 -0.51
Warmest 35th 1991 +1.18 +2.12
RSS i -0.39 -0.70 Coolest 6th 2016 -0.58 -1.04 -0.23 -0.41
Warmest 34th 1991 +1.18 +2.12
Ties: 2000
STAR i -0.45 -0.81 Coolest 5th 2016 -0.65 -1.17 -0.25 -0.45
Warmest 36th 1991 +1.18 +2.12
June-August Stratosphere
June–
August
Anomaly Rank
(out of 40 years)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH -0.42 -0.76 Coolest 8th 2016 -0.71 -1.28 -0.27 -0.49
Warmest 33rd 1982 +1.05 +1.89
RSS i -0.35 -0.63 Coolest 9th 2016 -0.60 -1.08 -0.23 -0.41
Warmest 32nd 1982 +0.99 +1.78
STAR i -0.37 -0.67 Coolest 8th 2016 -0.63 -1.13 -0.23 -0.41
Warmest 33rd 1982 +0.99 +1.78
Year-to-Date Stratosphere
January–
August
Anomaly Rank
(out of 40 years)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH -0.43 -0.77 Coolest 3rd 2016 -0.51 -0.92 -0.28 -0.50
Warmest 37th 1992 +1.01 +1.82
Ties: 2008
RSS i -0.38 -0.68 Coolest 3rd 2016 -0.47 -0.85 -0.24 -0.42
Warmest 37th 1992 +0.99 +1.78
Ties: 1996, 2008
STAR i -0.38 -0.68 Coolest 4th 2016 -0.47 -0.85 -0.23 -0.41
Warmest 37th 1992 +0.99 +1.78

Background Information

Temperatures above the Earth's surface are measured within the lower troposphere, middle troposphere, and stratosphere using in-situ balloon-borne instruments (radiosondes) and polar-orbiting satellites (NOAA's TIROS-N). The radiosonde and satellite records have been adjusted to remove time-dependent biases (artificialities caused by changes in radiosonde instruments and measurement practices as well as changes in satellite instruments and orbital features through time). Global averages from radiosonde data are available from 1958 to present, while satellite measurements date back to 1979.

The mid-troposphere temperatures are centered in the in the atmospheric layer approximately 3–10 km [2–6 miles] above the Earth's surface, which also includes a portion of the lower stratosphere. (The Microwave Sounding Unit [MSU] channel used to measure mid-tropospheric temperatures receives about 25 percent of its signal above 10 km [6 miles].) Because the stratosphere has cooled due to increasing greenhouse gases in the troposphere and losses of ozone in the stratosphere, the stratospheric contribution to the tropospheric average, as measured from satellites, creates an artificial component of cooling to the mid-troposphere temperatures. The University of Washington (UW) versions of the UAH and RSS analyses attempt to remove the stratospheric influence from the mid-troposphere measurements, and as a result the UW versions tend to have a larger warming trend than either the UAH or RSS versions. For additional information, please see NCEI's Microwave Sounding Unit page.

The radiosonde data used in this global analysis were developed using the Lanzante, Klein, Seidel (2003) ("LKS") bias-adjusted dataset and the First Difference Method (Free et al. 2004) (RATPAC). Additional details are available. Satellite data have been adjusted by the Global Hydrology and Climate Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). An independent analysis is also performed by Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) and a third analysis has been performed by Dr. Qiang Fu of the University of Washington (UW) (Fu et al. 2004)** to remove the influence of the stratosphere on the mid-troposphere value. Global averages from radiosonde data are available from 1958 to present, while satellite measurements began in 1979.

References


Citing This Report

NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, State of the Climate: Upper Air for August 2018, published online September 2018, retrieved on December 9, 2018 from https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/upper-air/201808.

Metadata