Upper Air - November 2011


Note: Beginning in December 2010, all data are reported here with respect to the 1981–2010 base period. Prior to December 2010, radiosonde data were reported with respect to the 1961–1990 base period and satellite data were reported with respect to the 1979–1998 base period. Remote Sensing Systems continues to provide data to NCEI with respect to the 1979–1998 base period; however, NCEI readjusts the data to the 1981–2010 base period so that the satellite measurements are comparable. This change provides a more consistent comparison between the various datasets.

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Note: Effective with the January 2011 report, Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) transitioned to a new version (3.3) of the RSS MSU/AMSU atmospheric temperature datasets. Information about the differences between version 3.2 and 3.3 is available.

Troposphere

Lower Troposphere

November Lower Troposphere
November Anomaly Rank
(out of 33 years)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH +0.12 +0.22 Coolest 23rd 1984 -0.52 -0.94 +0.16 +0.29
Warmest 11th 2009 +0.39 +0.70
RSS i -0.06 -0.11 Coolest 13th 1984 -0.37 -0.67 +0.12 +0.22
Warmest 20th 2003 +0.25 +0.45
September-November Lower Troposphere
September–
November
Anomaly Rank
(out of 33 years)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH +0.18 +0.32 Coolest 26th 1984 -0.48 -0.86 +0.17 +0.30
Warmest 8th 2010 +0.35 +0.63
RSS i +0.04 +0.07 Coolest 19th 1984 -0.39 -0.70 +0.15 +0.26
Warmest 14th 1998 +0.28 +0.50
Year-to-Date Lower Troposphere
January–
November
Anomaly Rank
(out of 33 years)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH +0.16 +0.29 Coolest 25th 1984 -0.34 -0.61 +0.14 +0.25
Warmest 9th 1998 +0.45 +0.81
RSS i +0.05 +0.09 Coolest 22nd 1985 -0.37 -0.67 +0.14 +0.26
Warmest 12th 1998 +0.47 +0.85

Mid-troposphere

November Mid-troposphere
November Anomaly Rank
(out of 33 years)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH -0.06 -0.11 Coolest 9th 1984 -0.27 -0.49 +0.04 +0.07
Warmest 25th 2009 +0.24 +0.43
RSS i -0.10 -0.18 Coolest 9th 1985 -0.29 -0.52 +0.06 +0.11
Warmest 25th 2009, 2002 +0.24 +0.43
UW-UAH +0.04 +0.07 Coolest 16th 1984 -0.40 -0.72 +0.12 +0.22
Warmest 17th 2009 +0.32 +0.58
UW-RSS -0.02 -0.04 Coolest 15th 1985, 1984 -0.31 -0.56 +0.12 +0.22
Warmest 19th 2009 +0.30 +0.54
September-November Mid-troposphere
September–
November
Anomaly Rank
(out of 33 years*)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH +0.02 +0.04 Coolest 17th 1984 -0.33 -0.59 +0.08 +0.14
Warmest 16th 2010 +0.25 +0.45
RSS i -0.02 -0.04 Coolest 14th 1985 -0.34 -0.61 +0.10 +0.18
Warmest 18th 1998 +0.26 +0.47
UW-UAH +0.12 +0.22 Coolest 24th 1984 -0.44 -0.79 +0.16 +0.28
Warmest 10th 2010, 1998 +0.35 +0.63
UW-RSS +0.07 +0.13 Coolest 19th 1984 -0.38 -0.68 +0.16 +0.28
Warmest 14th 1998 +0.34 +0.61
RATPAC* +0.12 +0.22 Coolest 43rd 1964 -0.86 -1.55 +0.16 +0.29
Warmest 12th 2006 +0.45 +0.81

*RATPAC rank is based on 54 years of data

Year-to-Date Mid-troposphere
January–
November
Anomaly Rank
(out of 33 years*)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH +0.01 +0.02 Coolest 17th 1984 -0.24 -0.43 +0.05 +0.10
Warmest 16th 1998 +0.45 +0.81
RSS i 0.00 0.00 Coolest 17th 1985 -0.29 -0.52 +0.09 +0.16
Warmest 17th 1998 +0.46 +0.83
UW-UAH +0.09 +0.16 Coolest 24th 1984 -0.32 -0.58 +0.11 +0.21
Warmest 10th 1998 +0.55 +0.99
UW-RSS +0.07 +0.13 Coolest 23rd 1985, 1984 -0.32 -0.58 +0.14 +0.26
Warmest 11th 1998 +0.54 +0.97
RATPAC* +0.15 +0.27 Coolest 46th 1965 -0.79 -1.42 +0.15 +0.28
Warmest 9th 2010 +0.51 +0.92

*RATPAC rank is based on 54 years of data

Stratosphere

November Stratosphere
November Anomaly Rank
(out of 33 years)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH -0.50 -0.90 Coolest 4th 2000 -0.70 -1.26 -0.46 -0.83
Warmest 30th 1982 +1.50 +2.70
RSS i -0.43 -0.77 Coolest 4th 2000 -0.66 -1.19 -0.36 -0.65
Warmest 30th 1982 +1.36 +2.45
September-November Stratosphere
September–
November
Anomaly Rank
(out of 33 years)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH -0.46 -0.83 Coolest 7th 2000 -0.65 -1.17 -0.44 -0.80
Warmest 27th 1991 +1.52 +2.74
RSS i -0.39 -0.70 Coolest 6th 2000 -0.56 -1.01 -0.34 -0.60
Warmest 28th 1991 +1.47 +2.65
Year-to-Date Stratosphere
January–
November
Anomaly Rank
(out of 33 years)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH -0.41 -0.74 Coolest 3rd 2008 -0.48 -0.86 -0.38 -0.68
Warmest 30th 1982 +1.01 +1.82
RSS i -0.36 -0.65 Coolest 3rd 2008, 1996 -0.39 -0.70 -0.30 -0.54
Warmest 31st 1992 +0.97 +1.75

Background Information

Temperatures above the Earth's surface are measured within the lower troposphere, middle troposphere, and stratosphere using in-situ balloon-borne instruments (radiosondes) and polar-orbiting satellites (NOAA's TIROS-N). The radiosonde and satellite records have been adjusted to remove time-dependent biases (artificialities caused by changes in radiosonde instruments and measurement practices as well as changes in satellite instruments and orbital features through time). Global averages from radiosonde data are available from 1958 to present, while satellite measurements date back to 1979.

The mid-troposphere temperatures are centered in the in the atmospheric layer approximately 3–10 km [2–6 miles] above the Earth's surface, which also includes a portion of the lower stratosphere. (The Microwave Sounding Unit [MSU] channel used to measure mid-tropospheric temperatures receives about 25 percent of its signal above 10 km [6 miles].) Because the stratosphere has cooled due to increasing greenhouse gases in the troposphere and losses of ozone in the stratosphere, the stratospheric contribution to the tropospheric average, as measured from satellites, creates an artificial component of cooling to the mid-troposphere temperatures. The University of Washington (UW) versions of the UAH and RSS analyses attempt to remove the stratospheric influence from the mid-troposphere measurements, and as a result the UW versions tend to have a larger warming trend than either the UAH or RSS versions. For additional information, please see NCEI's Microwave Sounding Unit page.

The radiosonde data used in this global analysis were developed using the Lanzante, Klein, Seidel (2003) ("LKS") bias-adjusted dataset and the First Difference Method (Free et al. 2004) (RATPAC). Additional details are available. Satellite data have been adjusted by the Global Hydrology and Climate Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). An independent analysis is also performed by Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) and a third analysis has been performed by Dr. Qiang Fu of the University of Washington (UW) (Fu et al. 2004)** to remove the influence of the stratosphere on the mid-troposphere value. Global averages from radiosonde data are available from 1958 to present, while satellite measurements began in 1979.

References


Citing This Report

NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, State of the Climate: Upper Air for November 2011, published online December 2011, retrieved on October 15, 2019 from https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/upper-air/201111.

Metadata