Global Climate Report - November 2019
Mean Monthly Temperature Records Across the Globe

« Global Climate Report - November 2019

Mean Monthly Temperature Records Across the Globe


Beginning with the November 2019 Global Climate Report, NOAA is releasing the mean monthly temperature records product. This product provides historical perspectives on the occurrences of warm or cold mean monthly temperatures across the globe from the gridded (5° by 5°) NOAAGlobalTemp. On a monthly basis, the percentage area of the globe experiencing record warm or record cold conditions is reported as a time series for the month from 1951 to the present, complementing the percentile maps. In addition, the ratio of warm-to-cold records is plotted as a time series. For example, a ratio value of 2 indicates that the global area experiencing record warm mean monthly temperatures over the most recent month was 2 times larger than the global area experiencing record cold conditions. Time series of these ratios computed from seasonal (December–February, March–May, June–August, September–November) or annual (January–December) aggregations of monthly mean temperature records will also be produced.


Only grid cells that are completely free of missing values from 1951-present are utilized in the analysis, generally limiting our domain to 45°S to 75°N. For each retained grid cell, the warmest and coldest mean monthly temperatures in the 1951-present period of record are identified for each month. These monthly records are expressed as percent areas aggregated over 3 spatial domains: global land-only areas, global ocean-only areas, and the combined global land and ocean. The spatial aggregation accounts for differences in grid cell size with latitude (i.e., cosine weighting) as well as the fraction of land and ocean areas within coastal grid cells. Monthly ratios are computed by dividing the areal extents experiencing warm records with the areal extents experiencing cold records. For seasonal and annual aggregations, the warm and cold record areal extents are summed separately before dividing the totals.

  • Ratio values between 0.8 (five-to-four) and 1.25 (four-to-five) are shown in gray.
  • Red circles indicate values above 1.25.
  • Blue circles indicate values below 0.8.
  • Dark red (dark blue) values represent one of two things:
    • A ratio value that is greater than 50 (less than 0.02)
    • An observation in which the warm (cold) record area is non-zero and the cold (warm) record area is zero.
  • In rare cases, the warm and cold record areas are both zero, in which case the value would be shown as a dark gray circle over unity (i.e., a value of 1).

November 2019 Global Land and Ocean

During November 2019, 9.11% of the world's land and ocean surfaces had a record high November temperature; however, no land or ocean areas had a record low November temperature. This was the second highest November percentage for record high temperatures across the globe since 1951. Only November 2015 had a higher percentage at 10.61%. Four of the five highest record warm percentages for the month of November have occurred since 2010. Compared to all months, November 2019 had its 18th highest percentage of the globe with record warm temperatures in the 827-monthly record. November 2019 marked the 23rd consecutive November in which less than 1% of the globe had record cold November temperatures.

Record warm November temperatures across the global land encompassed 8.02% of the global land surface. This was the fourth highest on record, behind November of 2016 (8.82%), 2010 (8.26%), and 2015 (8.13%). However, no land area had a record cold temperature during November 2019.

About 9.69% of the global ocean surfaces had a record warm temperature during November 2019. This was the second highest percentage for record warm November ocean temperature in the 69-year record. Only November 2015 had a higher percentage at 11.91%. However, no ocean area had a record cold November temperature in 2019.

Citing This Report

NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, State of the Climate: Global Climate Report for November 2019, published online December 2019, retrieved on January 17, 2020 from