Global Climate Report - October 2019


October 2019 Selected Climate Anomalies and Events Map

Introduction

Temperature anomalies and percentiles are shown on the gridded maps below. The anomaly map on the left is a product of a merged land surface temperature (Global Historical Climatology Network, GHCN) and sea surface temperature (ERSST version 5) anomaly analysis. Temperature anomalies for land and ocean are analyzed separately and then merged to form the global analysis. For more information, please visit NCEI's Global Surface Temperature Anomalies page. The percentile map on the right provides additional information by placing the temperature anomaly observed for a specific place and time period into historical perspective, showing how the most current month, season or year compares with the past.


Temperature

In the atmosphere, 500-millibar height pressure anomalies correlate well with temperatures at the Earth's surface. The average position of the upper-level ridges of high pressure and troughs of low pressure—depicted by positive and negative 500-millibar height anomalies on the October 2019 map—is generally reflected by areas of positive and negative temperature anomalies at the surface, respectively.

October Temperature

The combined global land and ocean surface temperature departure from average for October 2019 was the second highest for October in the 140-year record at 0.98°C (1.76°F) above the 20th century average 14.0°C (57.1°F). This value is just 0.06°C (0.11°F) shy of tying the record warm October set in 2015. The 10 warmest Octobers have occurred since 2003; however, the five warmest Octobers have all occurred since 2015. The Octobers in 2015, 2018, and 2019 were the only Octobers with a land and ocean temperature departure from average above +0.90°C (+1.62°F). This was also the 43rd consecutive October and the 418th consecutive month with temperatures, at least nominally, above the 20th century average.

Global Land and Ocean Temperature Anomalies for October

The global land-only surface temperature was 1.46°C (2.63°F) above average and the second highest on record, trailing behind 2015 by 0.03°C (0.05°F). The global ocean-only surface temperature was also second highest on record at 0.80°C (1.44°F) above average. October 2015 had a higher global ocean temperature departure anomaly of 0.87°C (1.57°F).

The Northern Hemisphere global land and ocean temperature for October 2019 tied with 2015 as the warmest October in the 140-year record at 1.21°C (2.18°F) above average. The Southern Hemisphere land and ocean surface temperature was the third highest on record at +0.74°C (+1.33°F). Only Octobers of 2015 (+0.87°C / +1.57°F) and 2018 (+0.75°C / +1.35°F) were warmer.

October 2019 was characterized by warmer-than-average temperatures across much of the global surface. The most notable warm temperature departures from average were observed across much of Alaska, northern Canada, north-central Russia, eastern Europe, the Middle East and western Australia, where temperatures were at least 2.0°C (3.6°F) or higher. The most notable cooler-than-average temperatures were present across parts of the western half of the contiguous U.S. and southwestern Canada, where temperatures were at least 1.5°C (2.7°F) below average or cooler. Record warm October temperatures were mainly present across parts of the North and Western Pacific Ocean and northeastern Canada, as well as scattered across parts of the South Atlantic Ocean, Africa, Europe, the Middle East, the Indian Ocean, and South America. Only a small area in the western contiguous U.S. had record cold October temperatures.

Regionally, Europe, Africa, Asia, Oceania, the Caribbean region, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Hawaiian region had an October temperature departure from average that ranked among the top four warmest Octobers on record. Of note, the Hawaiian region had its second warmest October (tied with 2015) on record. October 1968 was warmer (+1.30°C / +2.34°F) for the Hawaiian region.

October Anomaly Rank
(out of 140 years)
Records
°C °F Year(s) °C °F
Global
Land +1.46 ± 0.17 +2.63 ± 0.31 Warmest 2nd 2015 +1.49 +2.68
Coolest 139th 1912 -0.95 -1.71
Ocean +0.80 ± 0.15 +1.44 ± 0.27 Warmest 2nd 2015 +0.87 +1.57
Coolest 139th 1908 -0.48 -0.86
Land and Ocean +0.98 ± 0.15 +1.76 ± 0.27 Warmest 2nd 2015 +1.04 +1.87
Coolest 139th 1912 -0.54 -0.97
Northern Hemisphere
Land +1.41 ± 0.21 +2.54 ± 0.38 Warmest 1st 2019 +1.41 +2.54
Coolest 140th 1912 -1.28 -2.30
Ocean +1.09 ± 0.14 +1.96 ± 0.25 Warmest 1st 2015, 2019 +1.09 +1.96
Coolest 140th 1892 -0.54 -0.97
Ties: 2015
Land and Ocean +1.21 ± 0.18 +2.18 ± 0.32 Warmest 1st 2015, 2019 +1.21 +2.18
Coolest 140th 1912 -0.79 -1.42
Ties: 2015
Southern Hemisphere
Land +1.57 ± 0.13 +2.83 ± 0.23 Warmest 2nd 2015 +1.72 +3.10
Coolest 139th 1880 -0.89 -1.60
Ocean +0.58 ± 0.15 +1.04 ± 0.27 Warmest 5th 2015 +0.71 +1.28
Coolest 136th 1903 -0.45 -0.81
Land and Ocean +0.74 ± 0.14 +1.33 ± 0.25 Warmest 3rd 2015 +0.87 +1.57
Coolest 138th 1903 -0.48 -0.86

The most current data can be accessed via the Global Surface Temperature Anomalies page.

Select national information is highlighted below. Please note that different countries report anomalies with respect to different base periods. The information provided here is based directly upon these data:

  • Warmer-than-average conditions engulfed much of Spain during October 2019. Overall, this was the 13th warmest October since national records began in 1965, with a national average temperature of 17.2°C (63.0°F) or 1.3°C (2.3°F) above the 1981–2010 average.
  • France's October 2019 national temperature of 15.1°C (59.2°F) was 1.6°C (2.9°F) above the 1981–2010 average. This value ranked among the 10 warmest Octobers since national records began in 1900.
  • Austria's October 2019 average temperature was 1.7°C (3.1°F) above the 1981–2010 average, resulting in a top 20 warmest October in the nation's 253-year record. Several locations recorded maximum temperatures of 25.0°C (77.0°F) or higher during the last third of the month of October. According to Austria's ZAMG, this was the latest occurrence in October for maximum temperatures to be greater or equal to 25.0°C (77.0°F).
  • Switzerland had its fifth warmest October since national records began in 1864 with a national average temperature of 8.5°C (47.3°F) or 1.9°C (3.4°F) above the 1981–2010 average.
  • The Kingdom of Bahrain's mean temperature of 32.1°C (89.8°F) was 2.9°C (5.2°F) above average and the highest October temperature since national records began in 1902. This value surpassed the previous record of 31.7°C (89.1°F) set in October 2015. The nation's maximum and minimum temperatures were also the highest on record at 2.8°C (5.0°F) and 4.1°C (7.4°F) above average, respectively.
  • Hong Kong's average mean temperature of 26.6°C (79.9°F) was 1.1°C (2.0°F) above average and the second highest October in the nation's record. The national maximum temperature was the highest on record at 29.5°C (85.1°F) or 1.7°F (3.1°F) above average.
  • Australia's mean temperature was 2.17°C (3.91°F) above the 1961–1990 average and ranked as the third highest October temperature departure on record. October 2015 was record warm with a temperature departure from average at +3.03°C (+5.45°F). Regionally, New South Wales, South Australia, and Western Australia had an October temperature that ranked among the four highest in the nation's 110-year record. The nation's above-average mean temperature was mainly driven by a very warm national maximum temperature (+2.91°C / +5.24°F), which ranked as the second highest maximum temperature. Only October 2015 had a higher maximum temperature departure from average at +3.60°C (+6.48°F). The nation's minimum temperature was 1.42°C (2.56°F) above average and the eighth highest October temperature on record. All regions had an October maximum temperature that ranked among the nine highest maximum temperature departures on record. Of note, Western Australia (+3.58°C / +6.44°F) and the Northern Territory (+2.30°C / +4.14°F) had their second highest maximum temperature departure on record behind 2015 (+3.88°C / +6.98°F) and 1988 (+2.67°C / +4.81°F), respectively.

ENSO-neutral conditions continued during October 2019. According to NOAA's Climate Prediction Center, ENSO-neutral is favored during the Northern Hemisphere winter (Southern Hemisphere summer) 2019–20 through the Northern Hemisphere spring (Southern Hemisphere fall) 2020. This forecast focuses on the ocean surface temperatures between 5°N and 5°S latitude and 170°W to 120°W longitude, called the Niño 3.4 region.

Year-to-date Temperature

The first ten months of 2019 ranked as the second warmest January–October on record, with a combined global land and ocean surface temperature of 0.94°C (1.69°F) above the 20th century average of 14.1°C (57.4°F). This is only 0.09°C (0.16°F) shy of tying the record warm January–October set in 2016.

Global Land and Ocean Temperature Anomalies for January-October

The global land-only surface temperature was the third highest for January–October at 1.41°C (2.54°F) above average, trailing behind 2016 (warmest) and 2017 (second warmest). The global oceans-only surface temperature was also the second warmest such period on record at 0.77°C (1.39°F) above average. Only January–October 2016 was warmer (+0.82°C / +1.48°F) for the global oceans.

The Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere land and ocean surface temperatures were both the second warmest January–October on record at +1.14°C (+2.05°F) and +0.75°C (+1.35°F), respectively.

Regionally, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia, Oceania and the Hawaiian region had a January–October temperature average that ranked among the three highest such periods on record.

The most notable warm temperature departures from average were present across much of Alaska, northwestern Canada and central Russia, where temperatures were at least 2.0°C (3.6°F) above average. Meanwhile, the most notable cool temperature departures from average were present across much of the north-central contiguous United States and south-central Canada, where temperatures were at least 1.0°C (1.8°F) below average or cooler. Record warm January–October temperatures were observed across much of the southern half of Africa, western Indian Ocean, Madagascar, and across parts of Australia, the western Pacific Ocean, Asia, the Atlantic Ocean and North and South America. No land or ocean areas had record cold temperatures during January–October 2019.

Select national information is highlighted below. Please note that different countries report anomalies with respect to different base periods. The information provided here is based directly upon these data:

  • Australia's January–October national temperature ranked as the second highest in the nation's 110-year temperature record.
January–October Anomaly Rank
(out of 140 years)
Records
°C °F Year(s) °C °F
Global
Land +1.41 ± 0.16 +2.54 ± 0.29 Warmest 3rd 2016 +1.60 +2.88
Coolest 138th 1884 -0.72 -1.30
Ocean +0.77 ± 0.18 +1.39 ± 0.32 Warmest 2nd 2016 +0.82 +1.48
Coolest 139th 1904 -0.48 -0.86
Land and Ocean +0.94 ± 0.17 +1.69 ± 0.31 Warmest 2nd 2016 +1.03 +1.85
Coolest 139th 1904 -0.50 -0.90
Northern Hemisphere
Land +1.44 ± 0.19 +2.59 ± 0.34 Warmest 4th 2016 +1.76 +3.17
Coolest 137th 1884 -0.82 -1.48
Ocean +0.95 ± 0.17 +1.71 ± 0.31 Warmest 2nd 2016 +0.96 +1.73
Coolest 139th 1904 -0.52 -0.94
Land and Ocean +1.14 ± 0.17 +2.05 ± 0.31 Warmest 2nd 2016 +1.26 +2.27
Coolest 139th 1904 -0.54 -0.97
Southern Hemisphere
Land +1.32 ± 0.13 +2.38 ± 0.23 Warmest 1st 2019 +1.32 +2.38
Coolest 140th 1917 -0.73 -1.31
Ocean +0.64 ± 0.18 +1.15 ± 0.32 Warmest 2nd 2016 +0.72 +1.30
Coolest 139th 1911 -0.47 -0.85
Ties: 2017
Land and Ocean +0.75 ± 0.17 +1.35 ± 0.31 Warmest 2nd 2016 +0.80 +1.44
Coolest 139th 1911 -0.50 -0.90

Precipitation

October Precipitation

The maps shown above represent precipitation percent of normal (left, using a base period of 1961–1990) and precipitation percentiles (right, using the period of record) based on the GHCN dataset of land surface stations. As is typical, precipitation anomalies during October 2019 varied significantly around the world. October precipitation was generally drier than normal across much of Australia, the western half of the contiguous U.S., eastern and southern South America, eastern and southern Europe, as well as parts of central and southern Asia. Wetter-than-normal conditions were notable across the eastern half of the contiguous U.S., western Africa, northern Europe, southern India, Japan, and across parts of central Asia.

Select national information is highlighted below. (Please note that different countries report anomalies with respect to different base periods. The information provided here is based directly upon these data):

  • October 2019 precipitation total for France was 40% above average and was one of the 10 wettest Octobers since 1959.
  • The month of October was characterized as dry across Australia. Overall, this was the driest October since 2002 and tied as the fifth driest October in the nation's 120-year record at 65% below average. Regionally, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, and Western Australia had a top 10 dry October. Of note, South Australia had its second lowest October precipitation total at 89% below average, trailing behind October 2014.
  • Typhoon Hagibis made landfall in Japan's Izu peninsula on October 12, impacting the nation with strong winds and record-breaking rainfall. The storm also brought damaging storm surge and caused coastal and inland flooding. According to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Hakone-machi (located in southwestern Kanagawa) had a total of 1,000 mm (39.4 inches) of rain due to Hagibis. Hagibis was one of the most rapidly intensifying tropical cyclones on record in the region and one of the highest-impact storms to affect Japan in many years.

References


Citing This Report

NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, State of the Climate: Global Climate Report for October 2019, published online November 2019, retrieved on May 27, 2020 from https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/201910.

Metadata