Global Climate Report - April 2019

Maps and Time Series

Temperature and Precipitation Maps

Temperature Anomalies Time Series


April 2019 Selected Climate Anomalies and Events Map

Introduction

Temperature anomalies and percentiles are shown on the gridded maps below. The anomaly map on the left is a product of a merged land surface temperature (Global Historical Climatology Network, GHCN) and sea surface temperature (ERSST.v4) anomaly analysis as described in Huang et al. (2016). Temperature anomalies for land and ocean are analyzed separately and then merged to form the global analysis. For more information, please visit NCEI's Global Surface Temperature Anomalies page. The percentile map on the right provides additional information by placing the temperature anomaly observed for a specific place and time period into historical perspective, showing how the most current month, season or year compares with the past.


Supplemental April 2019 Information


Temperature

In the atmosphere, 500-millibar height pressure anomalies correlate well with temperatures at the Earth's surface. The average position of the upper-level ridges of high pressure and troughs of low pressure—depicted by positive and negative 500-millibar height anomalies on the April 2019 height and anomaly mapApril 2019 map—is generally reflected by areas of positive and negative temperature anomalies, respectively, at the surface.

April Temperature

For a second consecutive month, the global land and ocean surface temperature was the second highest for April since global records began in 1880. April's temperature departure of 0.93°C (1.67°F) above the 20th century average ranked second to April 2016 (+1.08°C / +1.94°F). April 2019 marks the 412th consecutive month and the 43rd consecutive April with temperatures, at least nominally, above the 20th century average. The global land and ocean temperature for April tied with September 2015 as the 11th highest monthly temperature departure from average among all months (1,672 months) on record. The 10 highest monthly temperatures departures from average have all occurred since 2015.

Above-average temperatures were present across much of the world's land and ocean surfaces. The most notable warm temperature departures from average were present across Greenland, Scandinavia, and northern and central Asia, where temperatures were 3.0°C (5.4°F) above average or higher. Record warm April temperatures were present across parts of Asia, Greenland, Scandinavia, Barents Sea, central Africa, and the Atlantic, western Indian, and the south Pacific oceans. The most notable cool temperature departures from average were present across Canada and the southern ocean off the southern coast of Australia, where temperature departures from average were 1.0°C (1.8°F) below average or cooler. No land or ocean areas had record cold April temperatures.

Averaged separately, the global land-only temperature for April was 1.48°C (2.66°F) above the 20th century average and tied with 2012 as the third highest in the 140-year record, behind 2016 (+1.89°C / +3.40°F) and 2007 (+1.50°C / +2.70°F). The global ocean-only temperature tied with 2017 as the second highest since global records began in 1880 at 0.72°C (1.30°F) above average. Only the global ocean temperature set in 2016 (+0.79°C / +1.42°F) was higher.

According to NCEI's Regional Analysis, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and Oceania had an April temperature that ranked among the nine highest for April on record. North America's temperature was above average at +1.08°C (+1.94°F) and ranked as the 20th highest April temperature on record. The Caribbean region had its coolest April since 2012.

Select national information is highlighted below. Please note that different countries report anomalies with respect to different base periods. The information provided here is based directly upon these data:

  • According to the Finnish Meteorological Institute, April 2019 temperatures were 2.0°–3.5°C (3.6°–6.3°F) above the 1981–2010 average across Finland. For 13 stations across the country, April 2019 was the warmest April on record. Of note, Utö Island had a temperature of 15.9°C (60.6°F) for April 2019. This value is 1.4°C (2.5°F) higher than the previous record. Records extend back to 1901 in Utö Island.
  • De Bilt, Netherlands had an April temperature of 10.9°C (51.6°F), which is 1.7°C (3.1°F) above the 1981–2010 average and the seventh highest April temperature since records began in 1901.
  • Austria also had a warmer-than-average April, with a nationally-averaged temperature that was 1.5°C (2.7°F) above average. This was one of Austria's 25 warmest Aprils since national records began in 1767.
  • Hong Kong's minimum and maximum temperatures were 2.1°C (3.8°F) above average, ranking as the highest and second highest for April, respectively. The mean temperature for Hong Kong was 2.2°C (4.0°F) above average and the fifth highest on record.
  • Warmer-than-average conditions were present across much of Australia during April 2019. Averaged as a whole, Australia's April 2019 national temperature of 1.35°C (2.43°F) above the 1961–1990 average tied as the seventh highest April temperature in the nation's 110-year record. Regionally, New South Wales had the highest temperature departure from average at +1.97°C (+3.55°F) and ranked as the fifth highest on record. South Australia and Northern Territory also had an April temperature that ranked among the ten highest since national records began in 1910.

El Niño persisted across the tropical Pacific Ocean during April 2019. According to NOAA's Climate Prediction Center, El Niño is likely (~70% chance) to continue through the Northern Hemisphere summer (Southern Hemisphere winter). This forecast focuses on the ocean surface temperatures between 5°N and 5°S latitude and 170°W to 120°W longitude, called the Niño 3.4 region.

April Anomaly Rank
(out of 140 years)
Records
°C °F Year(s) °C °F
Global
Land +1.48 ± 0.11 +2.66 ± 0.20 Warmest 3rd 2016 +1.89 +3.40
Coolest 138th 1905 -0.87 -1.57
Ties: 2012
Ocean +0.72 ± 0.14 +1.30 ± 0.25 Warmest 2nd 2016 +0.79 +1.42
Coolest 139th 1911 -0.54 -0.97
Ties: 2017
Land and Ocean +0.93 ± 0.13 +1.67 ± 0.23 Warmest 2nd 2016 +1.08 +1.94
Coolest 139th 1909 -0.53 -0.95
Northern Hemisphere
Land +1.56 ± 0.13 +2.81 ± 0.23 Warmest 5th 2016 +2.10 +3.78
Coolest 136th 1905 -1.12 -2.02
Ties: 2017
Ocean +0.79 ± 0.13 +1.42 ± 0.23 Warmest 2nd 2016 +0.83 +1.49
Coolest 139th 1911 -0.53 -0.95
Land and Ocean +1.08 ± 0.13 +1.94 ± 0.23 Warmest 2nd 2016 +1.31 +2.36
Coolest 139th 1905, 1909 -0.62 -1.12
Southern Hemisphere
Land +1.30 ± 0.15 +2.34 ± 0.27 Warmest 3rd 2018 +1.51 +2.72
Coolest 138th 1908, 1917 -0.77 -1.39
Ocean +0.67 ± 0.15 +1.21 ± 0.27 Warmest 3rd 2016 +0.77 +1.39
Coolest 138th 1911 -0.54 -0.97
Land and Ocean +0.77 ± 0.14 +1.39 ± 0.25 Warmest 2nd 2016 +0.85 +1.53
Coolest 139th 1911 -0.54 -0.97

The most current data can be accessed via the Global Surface Temperature Anomalies page.

Year-to-date Temperature

The first four months of the year were characterized by warmer-than-average conditions across much of the global land and ocean surfaces. The most notable warm temperature departures from average were present across parts of Alaska, northwestern Canada, and north-central Russia, where temperatures were 3.5°C (6.3°F) above average or higher. Record warm January–April temperatures were present across parts of Australia, southern Africa, southeastern Brazil, central Asia, southern Atlantic and southwestern Indian oceans, as well as the Barents, East China and the Tasman Seas. Meanwhile, the most notable cooler-than-average temperatures were present across much of Canada and the north-central contiguous U.S., where temperatures were at least 2.0°C (3.6°F) below average. No land or ocean areas had record cold January–April temperatures.

Averaged as a whole, this was the third warmest January–April period on record at 0.90°C (1.62°F) above the 20th century average. Only Aprils 2016 and 2017 were warmer. The five highest January–April global land and ocean temperatures have occurred since 2010. The global land-only and ocean-only temperatures were also the third highest on record.

Regionally, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia, Oceania and the Caribbean region had a January–April temperature that ranked among the 10 highest on record. Of note, Oceania had its highest January–April temperature on record at +1.53°C (+2.75°F), surpassing the previous record set in 2018 by 0.04°C (0.07°F).

Select national information is highlighted below. Please note that different countries report anomalies with respect to different base periods. The information provided here is based directly upon these data:

  • According to Australia's Bureau of Meteorology, the nation's maximum and minimum temperatures for January–April 2019 were the highest in the nation's 110-year record.
January–April Anomaly Rank
(out of 140 years)
Records
°C °F Year(s) °C °F
Global
Land +1.46 ± 0.15 +2.63 ± 0.27 Warmest 3rd 2016 +2.04 +3.67
Coolest 138th 1893 -1.06 -1.91
Ocean +0.69 ± 0.16 +1.24 ± 0.29 Warmest 3rd 2016 +0.82 +1.48
Coolest 138th 1911 -0.50 -0.90
Land and Ocean +0.90 ± 0.16 +1.62 ± 0.29 Warmest 3rd 2016 +1.15 +2.07
Coolest 138th 1911 -0.54 -0.97
Northern Hemisphere
Land +1.54 ± 0.21 +2.77 ± 0.38 Warmest 6th 2016 +2.31 +4.16
Coolest 135th 1893 -1.28 -2.30
Ocean +0.73 ± 0.15 +1.31 ± 0.27 Warmest 3rd 2016 +0.87 +1.57
Coolest 138th 1909, 1911 -0.46 -0.83
Land and Ocean +1.04 ± 0.16 +1.87 ± 0.29 Warmest 4th 2016 +1.42 +2.56
Coolest 137th 1893 -0.74 -1.33
Southern Hemisphere
Land +1.24 ± 0.14 +2.23 ± 0.25 Warmest 2nd 2016 +1.32 +2.38
Coolest 139th 1917 -0.80 -1.44
Ocean +0.67 ± 0.16 +1.21 ± 0.29 Warmest 3rd 2016 +0.79 +1.42
Coolest 138th 1911 -0.52 -0.94
Land and Ocean +0.76 ± 0.16 +1.37 ± 0.29 Warmest 2nd 2016 +0.87 +1.57
Coolest 139th 1911 -0.54 -0.97

The most current data can be accessed via the Global Surface Temperature Anomalies page.

Precipitation

April Precipitation

The maps below represent precipitation percent of normal (left, using a base period of 1961–90) and precipitation percentiles (right, using the period of record) based on the GHCN dataset of land surface stations. As is typical, precipitation anomalies varied significantly around the world. Precipitation during April 2019 was generally drier than normal across Canada, Alaska, Mexico, southern South America, northern Europe, Australia, and scattered across central and southern Asia. Wetter-than-normal conditions were notable across the contiguous U.S. northern Argentina, southern Brazil, southern Europe, northern Russia, and parts of southwestern Asia.

Select national information is highlighted below. (Please note that different countries report anomalies with respect to different base periods. The information provided here is based directly upon these data):

  • Spain had its wettest April since 2008 and the fourth wettest since national records began in 1965 at 96 mm (3.8 inches) or 48% above the 1981–2010 average of 65 mm (2.6 inches). Several locations in southeastern Spain set new daily and monthly precipitation records. Of note, the Alicante-Elche Airport received a total of 98.9 mm (3.9 inches) on 15 April 2019, surpassing the previous record of 38 mm (1.5 inches) set in 15 April 2004. The Alicante-Elche Airport also set a new monthly precipitation record with a total of 186 mm (7.3 inches).
  • Australia, as a whole, had a drier-than-average April. The nationally-averaged precipitation total of 21.1 mm (0.8 inch) was 31% below the 1961–1990 average and the 46th driest April in the 120-year precipitation record. The region with the most precipitation deficit was South Australia at 81% below average, resulting in the 19th driest April on record. Victoria had its driest April since 1997 and the sixth driest on record at 79% below average.
  • Drier-than-average conditions were present across much of Finland, with some locations having their driest April on record. Pello had a total of 3.6 mm (0.14 inch) for th month—the lowest precipitation total in April since records began for this location 50 years ago. The dry and warm conditions contributed to the development of wildfires in southern Finland at the end of the month.
  • The Bahrain International Airport in the Kingdom of Bahrain had a total of six rainy days during April 2019, resulting in a monthly total precipitation of 31.3 mm (1.23 inches). This was over three times more precipitation than the April normal of 10.0 mm (0.39 inch) and was the fifth highest April precipitation total since records began in 1902. The wettest April took place in 1961 with a total of 69.9 mm (2.75 inches).
  • Tropical Cyclone Kenneth made landfall in northern Mozambique on April 25 as an equivalent Category 4 hurricane in the Saffir-Simpson scale. The storm was the second tropical cyclone to impact Mozambique within weeks of each other (Tropical Cyclone Idai). According to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), this was the first time that two major (equivalent to Category 3 or higher in the Saffir-Simpson scale) tropical cyclones make landfall in Mozambique in the same season. Kenneth was also the first tropical cyclone to impact northern Mozambique, an area where no storms have been observed since satellite records began. According to the WMO, the northern city of Pemba had a total of 168.7 mm (6.6 inches) of rain in a 24-hour period from April 27–28, with an additional 254.7 mm (10.0 inches) from April 28–29. The heavy rainfall across northern Mozambique led to severe floods and landslides. The South West Indian Ocean 2018/19 tied tied with the record season of 1993/94.

References


Citing This Report

NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, State of the Climate: Global Climate Report for April 2019, published online May 2019, retrieved on July 21, 2019 from https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/201904.

Metadata