References and Further Reading:

Andrews, T. 1996. Coral Paleoclimatology: Natural recorders of interannual climatic variability in the tropical oeans and seas, Educational Slide Project: World Data Center-A for Paleoclimatology, National Geophysical Data Center's Paleoclimatology Program.

Barnes, R.D. 1980. Invertebrate Zoology, 4th edition. Saunders College, Philadelphia, USA.

Blanchon, P. 1997. Research Associate, Department of Geological Sciences, Indiana University. Personal Communication.

Cole, J.E. 1992. Interannual-decadal variability in tropical climate systems: Stable isotope records and general circulation model experiments, Ph.D. Thesis, Columbia University.

Cole, J.E., and R.B. Dunbar. 1996. ARTS: Annual Records of Tropical Systems, A PAGES/CLIVAR Initiative, Summary of scientific priorities and implementation strategies: ARTS Planning Workshop, Kauai, Hawaii, USA.

Diaz, H.F. and V. Markgraf, editors. 1992. El Niño: Historical and paleoclimate aspects of the Southern Oscillation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Dunbar, R.B., and J.E. Cole. 1993. Coral records of ocean-atmosphere variability: Report from the Workshop on Coral Paleoclimate Reconstruction. NOAA Climate & Global Change Program Special Report No. 10. Boulder: UCAR, 1993.

Dunbar, R.B., G.M. Wellington, M. Colgan, and P.W. Glynn. 1994. Eastern Pacific climate variability since 1600 A.D.: Stable isotopes in Galápagos corals. Paleoceanography 9:291-315.

Eakin, C.M. 1997. Paleoclimatology Program Manager, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Office of Global Programs, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.

Glynn, P.W., and G.M. Wellington. 1983. Corals and coral reefs of the Galápagos Islands. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, UAS.

Halpert, M.S. and C.F. Ropelewski. 1992. Surface temperature patterns associated with the Southern Oscillation. Journal of Climate 5:577-593.

Kiladis, G.N., and H.F. Diaz. 1989. Global climatic anomalies associated with extremes in the Southern Oscillation. Journal of Climate 2:1069-1090.

Linsley, B.K., R.B. Dunbar, G.M. Wellington, and D.A. Mucciarone. 1994. A coral-based reconstruction of Intertropical Convergence Zone variability over Central America since 1707. Journal of Geophysical Research 99:9977-9994.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Public Affairs, International Year of the Reef, Weekly Story Ideas:

Oceanus. 1994, volume 27, no. 2. Special issue on El Niño/Southern Oscillation.

The Open University. 1989. Ocean Circulation. Pergamon Press, London, United Kingdom.

Philander, G. 1989. El Niño and La Niña: A vast system of ocean-atmosphere exchanges covering the tropical Pacific. American Scientist 77:451.

Ropelewski, C.F., and M.S. Halpert. 1987. Global and regional scale precipitation patterns associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Monthly Weather Review 115:1606-1626.

Sharp, G.D. 1992. Fishery catch records, El Niño/Southern Oscillation, and longer-term climate change as inferred from fish remains in marrine sediments. Pages 379-417 In H.F. Diaz and V. Markgraf, editors. El Niño: Historical and Paleoclimate Aspects of the Southern Oscillation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Shen, G.T., J.E. Cole, D.W. Lea, L.J. Linn, T.A. McConnaughey, and R.G. Fairbanks. 1992. Surface ocean variability at Galápagos from 1936-1982: Calibration of geochemical tracers in corals. Paleoceanography 7:563-583.

Wallace, J.M., and S. Vogel. 1994. El Niño and Climate Prediction. Reports to the Nation, No. 3. Boulder: UCAR/OIES.

Wells, H.E. 1990. Holocene history of the El Niño phenomenon as recorded in flood sediments of northern coastal Peru In H.F. Diaz and V. Markgraf, editors. Workshop on Paleoclimatic Aspects of El Niño/Southern Oscillation.

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