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Akachuku, A.E., 1991. Wood growth determined from growth ring analysis in red pine (Pinus resinosa) trees forced to lean by a hurricane. IAWA Bull. 12, 263-274.

Alden, H.A., 1993. The effects of hurricane winds and associated salt spray on the growth and developmental anatomy of secondary xylem in slash pine (Pinus elliottii) from Cape St. George Island, Franklin County, Florida, USA. Ph.D dissertation, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, 145.

Doyle, T.W., Gorham, L.E., 1996. Detecting hurricane impact and recovery from tree rings. Tree Rings, Environment, and Humanity, J.S. Dean, D.M. Meko, and T.W. Swetnam, Eds., Radiocarbon, Tucson, AZ, 405-412.

Drew, A.P., 1998. Growth rings, phenology, hurricane disturbance and climate in Cyrilla racemiflora L., a rain forest tree of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. Biotropica 30, 35-49.

Dunwiddie, P.W., 1991. Forest history and composition of Halfway Pond Island, Plymouth County, Massachusetts. Rhodora 93, 347-360.

Evans, G., Platt, B., Engstrom, T., 1987. Kate's legacy: Chapter II. Tall Timbers Report 8(2): 2-3.

Foster, D.R., 1988. Disturbance history, community organization and vegetation dynamics of the old-growth Pisgah Forest, south-western New Hampshire, U.S.A. Journal of Ecology 76, 105-134.

Gorham, L.E., 1992. A dendroecological study of hurricane impact and recovery along the central Gulf Coast. M.S. thesis, Northeast Louisiana University, Monrow, 67.

Henry, J.D., Swan, J.M.A., 1974. Reconstructing forest history from live and dead plant material - an approach to the study of forest succession in southwest New Hampshire. Ecology 55, 772-783.

Johnson, S.R., Young, D.R., 1992. Variation in tree ring width in relation to storm activity for mid-Atlantic Barrier Island populations of Pinus taeda. Journal of Coastal Research 8, 99-104.

Kobayashi, O., Fuzakawa, K., 1993. Tree-ring analysis related to environmental factors (III): Relation between tree-ring information and climatic disasters of Picea abies. Jumoku-nenrin 6, 44-51.

Latimer, S.D., Devall, M.S., Thomas, C., Ellgaard, E.G., Kumar, S.D., Thien, L.B., 1996. Dendrochronology and heavy metal deposition in tree rings of baldcypress. Journal of Environmental Quality 25, 1411-1419.

Manabe, D., Kawakatsu, K., 1968. Chronological investigations on the annual ring and typhonic patterns of the Yakushima cedar. Reports of the Kyushu University of Forstry 22, 127-165.

Mann, D.H., Engstrom, F.B., Bubier, J.L., 1994. Fire history and tree recruitment in an uncut New England forest. Quaternary Research 42, 206-215.

Merrens, E.J., Peart, D.R., 1992. Effects of hurricane damage on individual growth and stand structure in a hardwood forest in New Hampshire, USA. Journal of Ecology 80, 787-795.

Oberbauer, S.F., P.S. Kariyawasam, and J.N. Burch, 1997. Comparative analysis of growth, nutrition, carbon isotope ratios, and hurricane-related mortality in slash pines in south Florida. Florida Scientist 60, 211-222.

Palik, B.J., Pederson, N., 1996. Overstory mortality and canopy disturbances in longleaf pine ecosystems. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26, 2035-2047.

Pederson N.A., Jones R.H., Sharitz, R.R., 1997. Age structure and possible origins of old Pinus taeda stands in a floodplain forest. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 124, 111-123.

Pillow, M.Y., 1931. Compression wood records hurricane. Journal of Forestry 29, 575-578.

Reams, G.A., Van Deusen, P.C., 1996. Detection of a hurricane signal in baldcypress tree-ring chronologies. Tree Rings, Environment, and Humanity, J.S. Dean, D.M. Meko, and T.W. Swetnam, Eds., Radiocarbon, Tucson, AZ,265-271.

Historical References

Alexander, W.H., 1902. Hurricanes, especially those of Puerto Rico and St. Kitts. Weather Bureau Bulletin 32. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.C.

Boose, E.R., K.E. Chamberlin, and D.R. Foster, 1997. Reconstructing historical hurricanes in New England. in 22nd Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology. Ft. Collins, CO, USA: American Meteorological Society.

Bravo, J., et al., 1997. Sedimentary evidence for the 1938 hurricane in southern New England. in 22nd Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology. Ft. Collins, CO: American Meteorological Society.

Caviedes, C.N.,1991. Five hundred years of hurricanes in the Caribbean: their relationship with global climatic variabilities. GeoJournal 23: 301-310.

Chenoweth, M., 1996. Ships' logbooks and "The Year without a Summer." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 77: 2077-2093.

Dunn, G.E. and B.I. Miller, 1960. Atlantic hurricanes. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, LA.

Ehhalt, D.H. and H.G. Ostlund, 1970. Deuterium in Hurricane Faith 1966: Preliminary Results. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1970. 75(412): 2323-2327.

Evans, S.J., 1848. A chronological list of hurricanes which have occurred in the West Indies since the year 1493; with interesting descriptions. Nautical Magazine (London): 397, 453, 524.

Fassig, O.L., 1913. Hurricanes of the West Indies. Bulletin X. U.S. Weather Bureau, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.C.

Fernández- Partagás, J. and H.F. Diaz., 1996. Atlantic hurricanes in the second half of the nineteenth century. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 77: 2899-2906.

Fernández- Partagás, J. and H.F. Diaz.,1995. A reconstruction of historical tropical cyclone frequency in the Atlantic from documentary and other historical sources. Part I: 1851-1870.

Fernández- Partagás, J. and H.F. Diaz, 1995. A reconstruction of historical tropical cyclone frequency in the Atlantic from documentary and other historical sources. Part II: 1871-1880.

Fernández- Partagás, J. and H.F. Diaz, 1996. A reconstruction of historical tropical cyclone frequency in the Atlantic from documentary and other historical sources. Part III: 1881-1890.

Garcia, R., L. Gimeno, E. Hernandez, and R. Prieto, 2000. An approach to North Atlantic atmospheric circulation in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries from historical sources. Climate Research 14: 147-151.

Garriott, E.B., 1900. West Indian Hurricanes. Bulletin H. U.S. Weather Bureau. Washington, D.C.

Henry, A.J. 1929. The frequency of tropical cyclones (West Indian Hurricanes) that closely approach or enter the continental United States. Monthly Weather Review 57: 328-332.

Lapham, I.A., 1872. List of the great storms, hurricanes, and tornadoes of the United States (1635-1870). Journal of the Franklin Institute 63: 210-216.

Liu, K.-B., 1999. Millennial-scale variability in catastrophic hurricane landfalls along the Gulf of Mexico Coast. in AMS 23rd Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology. Dallas, TX, USA: American Meteorological Society.

Ludlam, D.M., 1963. Early American Hurricanes. American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA.

Millas, J.C., 1968. Hurricanes of the Caribbean and adjacent regions,1492 1800. Academy of the Arts and Sciences of the Americas. Miami, FL.

Poey, A., 1855. A chronological table comprising 400 cyclonic hurricanes which have occurred in the West Indies and in the North Atlantic within 362 years, from 1493-1855. The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society (London) 25: 291-328.

Rappaport, E.N. and J. Fernández-Partagás, 1997. History of the deadliest Atlantic tropical cyclones since the discovery of the New World. In: Hurricanes, Climate and Socioeconomic Impacts (H.F. Diaz and R.S. Pulwarty, eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelburg-New York, 93-108.

Rappaport, E.N. and A. Ruffman, 1999. The catastrophic 1775 hurricane(s): the search for data and understanding. Preprints, 23rd Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Dallas, TX. American Meteorological Society. Boston, MA, 787-790.

Reading, A.J., 1990. Caribbean tropical storm activity over the past four centuries. International Journal of Climatology 10: 365-376.

Sandrik, A. and B. Jarvinen, 1999. A reevaulation of the Georgia and northeast Florida tropical cyclone of 2 October 1898. Preprints, 23rd Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Dallas, TX. American Meteorological Society. Boston, MA, 475-478.

Sullivan, C.L., 1986. Hurricanes of the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Gulf Publishing Company. Biloxi, MS.

Tannehill, I.R.,1938. Hurricanes, their nature and history. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Tibbetts, J., 1998. Early Europeans in America: Hurricanes steer the course of history, in Coastal Heritage. 3-12.

Travis, J., 2000. Hunting prehistoric hurricanes. Science News 157, 333-335.

Tucker, T., 1996. Beware the Hurricane: the story of the cyclonic tropical storms that have struck Bermuda 1609-1995. The Island Press, Ltd.

Walsh, R. and A. Reading, 1991. Historical changes in tropical cyclone frequency within the Caribbean since 1500. Wurzburger Geographische Arbeiten 80: 199-240.


Diaz, H.F. and R.S. Pulwarty, 1997. Hurricanes: Climate and Socioeconomic Impacts. Springer, New York. 292

Sediments References

Collins, E.S., D.B. Scott, and P.T. Gayes, 1999. Hurricane records on the South Carolina Coast: Can they be detected in the sediment record? Quaternary International. 56: p. 15-26.

Donnelly, J.P et al., 2001. 700 year sedimentary record of intense hurricane landfalls in southern New England. GSA Bulletin, 113, in press.

Liu, K-b. And M.L. Fearn. 2000. Holocene history of catastrophic hurricane landfalls along the Gulf of Mexico coast reconstructed from coastal lake and marsh sediments. In: Current Stresses and Potential Vulnerabilities: Implications of Global Change for the Gulf Coast Region of the United States, Z.H. Ning and K.K. Abdollahi, (eds.). Franklin Press, Inc., 38-47.

Liu, K-b., and M.L. Fearn, 2001. Reconstructions of prehistoric landfall frequencies of catatrrophic hurricanes in northwestern Florida from lake sediment records. Quaternary Research 54, 238-245.

Schwimmer, D.R. and W.J. Frazier, 1994. Lake-sediment record of late Holocene hurricane activities from coastal Alabama: Comment and Reply. Geology
21: 285.


Elsner, J. B., A.B. Kara, 1999. Hurricanes of the North Atlantic: Climate and Society. Oxford, New York, 488.

Elsner, J.B., T. Jagger, and X.-F. Nui, 2000. Changes in the rates of North Atlantic major hurricane activity during the 20th century. Geophysical Research Letters, 27, 1743-1746.

Enfield, D.B., A.M. Mestas-Nunez, and P.J. Trimble, 2001. The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and its relationship to rainfall and river flows in the continental. U.S. Geophysical Research Letters, (in press).

Enfield, D.B. and A.M. Mestas-Nunez, 1999. Multiscale variabilities in
global sea surface temperatures and their relationships with tropospheric
climate patterns. Journal of Climate, 12:2719-2733.

Goldenberg, S. B., C. Landsea, A.M. Mestas-Nunez, W. Gray, 2001. The Recent Increase in Atlantic Hurricane Activity: Causes and Implications. Science, 293:5529, 474-479.

Landsea, C.W., 2001. Comment on "Changes in the rates of North Atlantic major hurricane activity during the 20th century. Geophys. Res. Lett., 2871.

Landsea, C.W., N. Nicholls, W.M. Gray, & L.A. Avila, 1996. Downward trends in the frequency of intense Atlantic hurricanes during the past five decades. Geophysical Research Letters, 1697-1700.

Landsea, C.W., R.A. Pielke, Jr., A.M. Mestas-Nunez and J.A. Knaff, 1999. Atlantic basin hurricanes: Indices of climatic changes. Climatic Change, 42: 89-129.

Lawrence, J.R. and S.D. Gedzelman, 1995. Detection of tropical cyclone activity in the geologic past. EOS Transactions, AGU Annual Meeting Abstracts, (15): F310.

Lawrence, J.R. and S.D. Gedzelman, 1996. Low stable isotope ratios of tropical cyclone rains. Geophysical Research Letters 23(5): 527-530.

Malmquist, D.L., 1998. Why Proxy Data on Past Tropical Cyclone Frequencies are Important to (Re)insurers. in American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting. San Francisco, CA: Published as a supplement to Eos, Transactions, AGU Volume 79, Number 45.

Mestas-Nunez, A.M and D.B. Enfield, 1999. Rotated global modes of non-ENSO
sea surface temperature variability. Journal of Climate, 12:2734-2746.

Solow, A.R., L. Moore, 2000. Testing for a trend in a partially incomplete hurricane record. J. Climate, 13, 3696-3699.

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