The www sites listed below were used
by the creators of this site for historical references as well
as the locations of many photos and graphics used for this perspective.
following is a list of all publications used as scientific or
content reference for this perspective.
- Cole, J.
and E. R. Cook. 1998. The changing relationship between ENSO
variability and moisture balance in the continental United States.
Geophys. Res. Lett. 25:4529-4532.
E. R., D. M. Meko, D. W. Stahle, and M. K. Cleaveland. 1996.
Tree-ring reconstructions of past drought across the coterminous
United States: tests of a regression method and calibration/verification
results. Pages 155-169 in J. S. Dean, D. M. Meko, and T. W. Swetnam,
editors. Tree Rings, Environment, and Humanity. Radiocarbon,
- Cook, E. R., D. M. Meko, and C. W. Stockton. 1997. A new
assessment of possible solar and lunar forcing of the bidecadal
drought rhythm in the western U.S. Journal of Climate 10:1343-1356.
- Cook, E. R., D. M. Meko, D. W. Stahle, and M. K. Cleaveland.
1999. Drought reconstructions for the continental United States.
Journal of Climate 12:1145-1162.
W. 1997. Rates, timing, and cyclicity of Holocene eolian
activity in north-central United States: Evidence from varved
lake sediments. Geology 25(4):331-334.
- Dean, W. E., T. S. Ahlbrandt, R. Y. Anderson, and J. P. Bradbury.
1996. Regional aridity in North America during the middle Holocene.
S.L., Oglesby, R., and Webb, R.S. 2001. Temporal and spatial patterns
of Holocene dune activity on the Great Plains of North America:
megadroughts and climate links. Global and Planetary Change 29, 1-29.
Download in PDF format.
- Forman, S. L. and K. Munyikwa. 1999.
An overview of Holocene dune activity on the Great Plains. EOS
Transactions. American Geophysical Union 80(46):F55.
- Gregory, J. M., J. F. B. Mitchell,
and A. J. Brady. 1997. Summer drought in northern midlatitudes
in a time-dependent CO2 climate experiment. Journal of Climate
- Grimm, E. C., and J. S. Clark. 1999.
Fossil pollen and charcoal evidence for drought intensity and
variability in the northern Great Plains. EOS, AGU Volume 80:46,
H. 1996. A 2129-year reconstruction of precipitation for
northwestern New Mexico, U.S.A. Pages 191-204 in J. S. Dean,
D. M. Meko, and T. W. Swetnam, editors. Tree Rings, Environment
and Humanity. Radiocarbon, Tucson, AZ.
- Hayes, M. J., M. D. Svoboda, D. A. Wilhite, and O. V. Vanyarkho.
1999. Monitoring the 1996 drought using the Standardized Precipitation
Index. Bulletin of American Meteorological Society 80(3):429-438.
D.A., J. H. Curtis, and M. Brenner. 1995. Possible role of
climate in the collapse of the Classic Maya Civilization. Nature
M. K. and L. J. Graumlich. 1996. Climatic variations and
forcing mechanisms of the last 2000 years. Volume 141. Multi-millenial
dendroclimatic studies from the western United States. NATO ASI
Series, pp. 109-124.
- Keen, K. L., and L. C. K. Shane. 1990. A continuous record
of Holocene eolian activity and vegetation change at Lake Ann,
east-central Minnesota. Geological Society of America Bulletin,
- Laird, K.
R., S. C. Fritz, K. A. Maasch, and B. F. Cumming. 1996. Greater
drought intensity and frequency before A.D. 1200 in the Northern
Great Plains, U.S.A. Nature 384:552-554.
- Laird, K.R., S.C. Fritz, E.C. Grimm, and P.G. Mueller. 1996.
Century-scale paleoclimatic reconstructions from Moon Lake,
a closed-basin lake in the northern Great Plains.
Limnol. Oceanogr. 41(5): 890-902.
- Laird, K. R., S. C. Fritz, and B. F. Cumming. 1998. A diatom-based
reconstruction of drought intensity, duration, and frequency
from Moon Lake, North Dakota: a sub-decadal record of the last
2300 years. J. Paleolimnol. 19:161-179.
- Lockeretz, W. 1978. The lessons of the Dust Bowl. American
- Mearns, L. O., F. Giorgi, C. Shields,
and L. McDaniel. 2000. Evaluation of high frequency variability
of climate in regional climate model experiments over the U.S.
Great Plains: an impacts perspective. In preparation for Climate
- McGregor, K. M. 1985. Drought during the 1930s and 1950s
in the central United States. Physical Geography 6(3)288-301.
- Qin, B., S. P. Harrison, and J. E. Kutzbach.
1998. Evaluation of modelled regional water balance using lake
status data: a comparison of 6ka simulations with the NCAR CCM.
Pages 535-548 in T. Webb, III, editor. Late Quaternary Climates:
Data Syntheses and Model Experiments. Quaternary Science Reviews
- Riebsame, W. E., S. A. Changnon, and
T. R. Karl. 1991. Drought and natural sesources management in
the United States: impacts and implications of the 1987-89 drought.
Westview Press 11-92.
- Stahle, D. W., et al. 2000. Tree-ring
data document 16th century megadrought over North America. EOS
Transactions. Am. Geophy. Union 81(12):121,125.
- Stahle, D.
W., M. K. Cleaveland, D. B. Blanton, M. D. Therrell, and
D. A. Gay. 1998. The lost colony and Jamestown droughts. Science
- Steinbeck, J. 1939. The Grapes of Wrath. Viking Penguin,
- Stine, S. 1994. Extreme and persistent
drought in California and Patagonia during medieval time. Nature
- Tannehill, I.R. 1947. Drought and
Its Causes and Effects. Princeton University Press, 597 pp.
- Trenberth, K. E., G. W. Branstator, P. A. Arkin. 1988. Origins
of the 1988 North American drought. Science 242:1640-1645.
- Webb T. III, K. A. Anderson, P. J. Bartlein,
R. S. Webb. 1998. Late Quaternary climate change in eastern North
America: a comparison of pollen-derived estimates with climate
model results. Quaternary Science Reviews 17:587-606.