NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service National Climatic Data Center, U.S. Department of Commerce
NOAA Paleoclimatology Program, NCDC Paleoclimatology Branch  
Paleoclimatology Navigation Bar Bookmark and Share
NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA National Climatic Data Center U.S. Department of Commerce Paleo Home Data Paleo Projects Paleo Perspectives Education and Outreach About Paleo Program Site Map
Data Access Tutorial Glossary About CTL CTL Site Map
CTL Overview white space
Today white space
1 Year white space
10 Years white space
100 Years white space
1,000 Years white space
10,000 Years white space
100,000 Years white space

white space
    Climate History Timeline
100,000 B.P.
90,000 B.P.
80,000 B.P.
70,000 B.P.
60,000 B.P.
50,000 B.P.
40,000 B.P.
30,000 B.P.
20,000 B.P.
10,000 B.P.
Ice Age Timeline: End of Pleistocene Early Homo sapiens diet includes fish and seafood
Recent discoveries in caves along South African coast dating to 70,000 years before present suggest people using bone tools and living on fish and mammals in the region.
Large scale extinctions of mammals and birds in Australia Cave paintings, stone and bone tools in much of Europe Cro-Magnons thrive in cold European climate... but not for long.

Global temperature averages 14 degrees F cooler than today.

Estimated 5 million Homo Sapiens on planet. Megafauna extinctions in North America

Past 10,000 Years

10,000 B.P.
9,000 BP
8,000 BP
7,000 BP
6,000 BP
5,000 BP
4,000 BP
3,000 BP
2,000 BP
1,000 BP
Holocene Timeline Developments in Agriculture & Technology

First evidence of plant domestication. Enhanced monsoons 10K to 6K: wetter N. Africa, drier central N. America.

Flax in Syria and Turkey used for clothing (linen) and oil Beans used in eastern Mediterranean Zea mays, squash, beans and peppers used in Americas Cotton grown in Pakistan, cultivated grapes in Afghanistan Soybeans, rice, wheat, barley, and millet used in China Olives, peaches and apricots cultivated in eastern Mediterranean

Phoenicians sail in the Mediterranean, Polynesians sail the Pacific.


Sailors discover how to use monsoon patterns to their advantage.

254-345 million Homo Sapiens on the planet.
1000 A.D.
1100 AD
1200 AD
1300 AD
1400 AD
1500 AD
1600 AD
1700 AD
1800 AD
1900 AD
Millennial Timeline:
Human Exploration & Development
Leif Eriksson, lands on the North American continent Forests in Europe depleted to build cathedrals Major volcanic event in 1259 may impact global climate

Bubonic plague kills millions in Europe and around Mediterranean.

Sailors discover how to use the seasonal "trade winds" Multi-decadal droughts impact American S.W. and beyond. Atmospheric CO2 levels 6% below average Holocene level. "Little Ice Age" continues to chill much of Europe Prolonged period of drought between 1849 and 1905 in Arizona 1.6 billion Homo Sapiens on the planet.
1900 AD
1910 AD
1920 AD
1930 AD
1940 AD
1950 AD
1960 AD
1970 AD
1980 AD
1990 AD
Centennial Timline: Major Climate Events & Human Impacts Hurricane, flooding kill 8,000 in Galveston, Texas, Sept. 1900 1917-1920- Influenza pandemic leaves 20 million dead worldwide Great Okeechobee Flood and Hurricane kills up to 3,500, 1928

Dust Bowl drought impacts 100 million acres of Great Plains.


Chinese Drought causes 3 million to perish due to starvation, 1941-42 Great Smog of London kills 8000, Dec. 1952. Typhoon Vera kills nearly 5,000, 1.5M homeless, Japan, 1958 Hurricane Camille slams into Mississippi with 25 feet storm surge. Flooding in Vietnam kills 100,000, 1971.
Blizzard in Iran leaves 4000 dead, 1972.
1982-1983 El Niño impacts fishing, economies throughout Pacific Basin. Hurricane Andrew causes $25B in damages, 1992, Mississippi flood damage $18B.
1991 AD
1992 AD
1993 AD
1994 AD
1995 AD
1996 AD
1997 AD
1998 AD
1999 AD
2000 AD
Decadal Timeline: The Roarin' 1990s Bangladesh Cyclone kills over 138,000." Perfect Storm" develops off Nova Scotia. August- Hurricane Andrew hits Florida, killing 54, costing $25 billion. "Storm of the Century" hits U.S. east coast with 270 missing. Midwest flooding causes $18 billion damage. Severe ice storm in southeast US causes an estimated $3 billion in damages. Atlantic Hurricane Season second busiest hurricane season since 1871. 830 die in Midwest heatwave. Hurricanes Bertha and Fran hit the North Carolina resulting in major flooding Impact of 1997-1998 ENSO warm event estimated at $25.0-33.0 billion Hurricane Mitch devastates Central America, killing estimated 11,000 La Niña linked to droughts conditions in much of US and high precipitation in Pacific Northwest. Wildfires in the Western US burn over 6 million acres. +6 billion Homo Sapiens on planet.
Winter Solstice
Spring Equinox
Summer Solstice
Autumn Equinox
Winter Solstice

Past 24 Hours
Diurnal Cycle


Dividing Line
Privacy Policy information User Survey link First Gov logo Disclaimer information
Dividing Line
Downloaded Monday, 23-Jan-2017 07:36:33 EST
Last Updated Wednesday, 20-Aug-2008 11:22:39 EDT by
Please see the Paleoclimatology Contact Page or the NCDC Contact Page if you have questions or comments.