{"study":[{"xmlId":"2665","NOAAStudyId":"8405","studyName":"Ammann and Wahl 2007 N. Hemisphere Temperature Reconstruction","doi":null,"dataPublisher":"NOAA","contactInfo":{"type":"CONTACT INFORMATION","shortName":"DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI","longName":"National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce ","address":"325 Broadway, E/NE31","city":"Boulder","state":"CO","postalCode":"80305-3328","country":"USA","dataCenterUrl":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data","email":"paleo@noaa.gov","phone":"303-497-6280","fax":"303-497-6513","constraints":"Please cite original publication, online resource, dataset and publication DOIs (where available), and date accessed when using downloaded data. If there is no publication information, please cite investigator, title, online resource, and date accessed. The appearance of external links associated with a dataset does not constitute endorsement by the Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of external Web sites or the information, products or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities, the Department of Commerce/NOAA does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. These links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this Department of Commerce/NOAA Web site."},"dataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","investigators":"Ammann, C.M.; Wahl, E.R.","version":"1.0","funding":[],"studyNotes":"","onlineResourceLink":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/8405","difMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/dif/xml/noaa-recon-8405.xml","isoMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/iso/xml/noaa-recon-8405.xml","originalSource":null,"dataTypeInformation":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/datasets/climate-reconstruction","studyCode":null,"scienceKeywords":["Air Temperature Reconstruction"],"reconstruction":"Y","contributionDate":"2009-02-01","entryId":"noaa-recon-8405","earliestYearBP":950,"mostRecentYearBP":-30,"earliestYearCE":1000,"mostRecentYearCE":1980,"publication":[],"site":[{"NOAASiteId":"37319","siteName":"Northern Hemisphere - ammann2007","mappable":"N","locationName":"Geographic Region>Northern Hemisphere","geo":{"geoType":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"POINT","coordinates":["0","80","180","180"]},"properties":{"southernmostLatitude":"0","northernmostLatitude":"80","westernmostLongitude":"180","easternmostLongitude":"180","minElevationMeters":null,"maxElevationMeters":null}},"paleoData":[{"dataTableName":"PCN - ammann2007","NOAADataTableId":"19446","earliestYear":1000,"mostRecentYear":1980,"timeUnit":"AD","earliestYearBP":950,"mostRecentYearBP":-30,"earliestYearCE":1000,"mostRecentYearCE":1980,"coreLengthMeters":null,"dataTableNotes":null,"species":[],"dataFile":[{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/contributions_by_author/ammann2007/ammann2007.txt","urlDescription":"Original Data and Full Metadata","linkText":"ammann2007.txt","variables":[{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","cvWhat":"age variable>age","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"time unit>age unit>year Common Era","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","cvWhat":"earth system variable>temperature variable>temperature>air temperature>surface air temperature","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"temperature unit>degree Celsius","cvSeasonality":"annual","cvDetail":"anomalized","cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":"reference period: 1902-1980 A.D.","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null}],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions"]}]}]}]},{"xmlId":"15997","NOAAStudyId":"18295","studyName":"California and Western Nevada Precipitation Reconstruction for 1571-1977 AD","doi":null,"dataPublisher":"NOAA","contactInfo":{"type":"CONTACT INFORMATION","shortName":"DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI","longName":"National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce ","address":"325 Broadway, E/NE31","city":"Boulder","state":"CO","postalCode":"80305-3328","country":"USA","dataCenterUrl":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data","email":"paleo@noaa.gov","phone":"303-497-6280","fax":"303-497-6513","constraints":"Please cite original publication, online resource, dataset and publication DOIs (where available), and date accessed when using downloaded data. If there is no publication information, please cite investigator, title, online resource, and date accessed. The appearance of external links associated with a dataset does not constitute endorsement by the Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of external Web sites or the information, products or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities, the Department of Commerce/NOAA does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. These links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this Department of Commerce/NOAA Web site."},"dataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","investigators":"Diaz, H.F.; Wahl, E.R.","version":"1.0","funding":[],"studyNotes":"Water year (October through following September) precipitation for California and western Nevada is reconstructed using existing western United States river flow reconstructions as predictor data. The full 0.5x0.5 degree gridded EV reconstruction for the entire continental United States (CONUS) west of 95 W from which the California and western Nevada reconstruction is extracted is included as a separate ASCII file (values are expressed as standardized anomalies). The rows of this file represent years AD (listed in the first column), starting with the third row; the rest of the columns provide the gridded reconstruction data, organized according to all longitudes for each latitude going from W to E. The first two rows (except for the 0 placeholder values in the first column) give the latitude (first row) and longitude (second row) information for each column.","onlineResourceLink":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/18295","difMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/dif/xml/noaa-recon-18295.xml","isoMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/iso/xml/noaa-recon-18295.xml","originalSource":null,"dataTypeInformation":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/datasets/climate-reconstruction","studyCode":null,"scienceKeywords":["drought","Precipitation Reconstruction"],"reconstruction":"Y","contributionDate":"2015-03-26","entryId":"noaa-recon-18295","earliestYearBP":379,"mostRecentYearBP":-27,"earliestYearCE":1571,"mostRecentYearCE":1977,"publication":[{"author":{"name":"Henry F. Diaz and Eugene R. Wahl"},"pubYear":2015,"title":"Recent California Water Year Precipitation Deficits: A 440-year Perspective","journal":"Journal of Climate","volume":"28","edition":null,"issue":"12","pages":"4637-4652","reportNumber":null,"citation":"Henry F. Diaz and Eugene R. Wahl. 2015. Recent California Water Year Precipitation Deficits: A 440-year Perspective. Journal of Climate, 28(12), 4637-4652. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00774.1","type":"publication","identifier":{"type":"doi","id":"10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00774.1","url":"http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00774.1"},"abstract":"An analysis of the October 2013–September 2014 precipitation in the western United States and in particular over the California-Nevada region suggests this anomalously dry season, while extreme, is not unprecedented in comparison with the ~120-year long instrumental record of water year (WY, October–September) totals, and in comparison with a 407-year WY precipitation reconstruction back to 1571. Over this longer period nine other years are known or estimated to have been nearly as dry or drier than WY 2014. The three-year deficit for WY's 2012-2014, which in California exceeded the annual mean precipitation, is more extreme but also not unprecedented, occurring three other times over the past ~ 440 years in the reconstruction. WY precipitation has also been deficient on average for the past 14 years, and such a run of predominantly dry WY’s is also a rare occurrence in our merged reconstructed plus instrumental period record.","pubRank":"1"}],"site":[{"NOAASiteId":"56501","siteName":"California and western Nevada","mappable":"N","locationName":"Continent>North America>United States Of America","geo":{"geoType":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"POLYGON","coordinates":["32.5","42","-124.4","-116.5"]},"properties":{"southernmostLatitude":"32.5","northernmostLatitude":"42","westernmostLongitude":"-124.4","easternmostLongitude":"-116.5","minElevationMeters":null,"maxElevationMeters":null}},"paleoData":[{"dataTableName":"CA-wNV precip Diaz-Wahl15","NOAADataTableId":"28654","earliestYear":1571,"mostRecentYear":1977,"timeUnit":"AD","earliestYearBP":379,"mostRecentYearBP":-27,"earliestYearCE":1571,"mostRecentYearCE":1977,"coreLengthMeters":null,"dataTableNotes":null,"species":[],"dataFile":[{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/reconstructions/diaz2015/diaz-wahl2015.txt","urlDescription":"Formatted Text File","linkText":"California and western Nevada reconstruction","variables":[{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>hydroclimatic variable>hydroclimate rate>precipitation","cvMaterial":"reconstruction material>physical measurement>ring width","cvError":"goodness-of-fit measure>root mean square error>one root mean square error lower bound","cvUnit":"length unit>inch","cvSeasonality":"annual>Oct-Sep","cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":"computational method>statistical analysis method>principal component analysis|computational method>statistical analysis method>regression analysis","cvAdditionalInfo":"PC spatial regression","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"age variable>age","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"time unit>age unit>year Common Era","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>hydroclimatic variable>hydroclimate rate>precipitation","cvMaterial":"reconstruction material>physical measurement>ring width","cvError":null,"cvUnit":"length unit>inch","cvSeasonality":"annual>Oct-Sep","cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":"computational method>statistical analysis method>principal component analysis|computational method>statistical analysis method>regression analysis","cvAdditionalInfo":"PC spatial regression","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"earth system 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Era","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"sampling metadata>latitude","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"angle unit>degree>degree north","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"sampling metadata>longitude","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"angle unit>degree>degree east","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>hydroclimatic variable>hydroclimate rate>precipitation","cvMaterial":"reconstruction material>physical measurement>ring width","cvError":null,"cvUnit":"length unit>inch","cvSeasonality":"annual>Oct-Sep","cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":"computational method>statistical analysis method>principal component analysis|computational method>statistical analysis method>regression analysis","cvAdditionalInfo":"principal components regression","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null}],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions>precipitation"]}]}]}]},{"xmlId":"17329","NOAAStudyId":"19600","studyName":"European Mean and Spatial Summer Temperature Reconstructions Since Roman Times","doi":null,"dataPublisher":"NOAA","contactInfo":{"type":"CONTACT INFORMATION","shortName":"DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI","longName":"National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce ","address":"325 Broadway, E/NE31","city":"Boulder","state":"CO","postalCode":"80305-3328","country":"USA","dataCenterUrl":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data","email":"paleo@noaa.gov","phone":"303-497-6280","fax":"303-497-6513","constraints":"Please cite original publication, online resource, dataset and publication DOIs (where available), and date accessed when using downloaded data. If there is no publication information, please cite investigator, title, online resource, and date accessed. The appearance of external links associated with a dataset does not constitute endorsement by the Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of external Web sites or the information, products or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities, the Department of Commerce/NOAA does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. These links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this Department of Commerce/NOAA Web site."},"dataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","investigators":"Luterbacher, J.; Werner, J.P.; Smerdon, J.E.; Fernández-Donado, L.; González-Rouco, J.F.; Barriopedro, D.; Ljungqvist, F.C.; Büntgen, U.; Zorita, E.; Wagner, S.; Esper, J.; McCarroll, D.; Toreti, A.; Frank, D.C.; Jungclaus, J.H.; Barriendos, M.; Bertolin, C.; Bothe, O.; Brázdil, R.; Camuffo, D.; Dobrovolný, P.; Gagen, M.H.; García-Bustamante, E.; Ge, Q.; Gómez-Navarro, J.J.; Guiot, J.; Hao, Z.; Hegerl, G.C.; Holmgren, K.; Klimenko, V.V.; Martín-Chivelet, J.; Pfister, C.; Roberts, N.; Schindler, A.; Schurer, A.P.; Solomina, O.; von Gunten, L.; Wahl, E.R.; Wanner, H.; Wetter, O.; Xoplaki, E.; Yuan, N.; Zanchettin, D.; Zhang, H.; Zerefos, C.","version":"1.0","funding":[{"fundingAgency":"US National Science Foundation","fundingGrant":null},{"fundingAgency":"US NOAA","fundingGrant":null},{"fundingAgency":"Swiss National Science Foundation","fundingGrant":null}],"studyNotes":"Spatial (5x5 degree grid) reconstructions of European summer (June-August) temperature back to 755 CE based on a Bayesian hierarchical modelling (BHM), plus estimates of the European mean temperature variation since 138 BCE, based on composite-plus-scaling (CPS).","onlineResourceLink":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/19600","difMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/dif/xml/noaa-recon-19600.xml","isoMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/iso/xml/noaa-recon-19600.xml","originalSource":null,"dataTypeInformation":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/datasets/climate-reconstruction","studyCode":null,"scienceKeywords":["PAGES Euro-Med 2k","Air Temperature Reconstruction"],"reconstruction":"Y","contributionDate":"2016-01-29","entryId":"noaa-recon-19600","earliestYearBP":2088,"mostRecentYearBP":-61,"earliestYearCE":-138,"mostRecentYearCE":2011,"publication":[{"author":{"name":"J. Luterbacher, J. P. Werner, J. E. Smerdon, L. Fernández-Donado, F. J. González Rouco, D. Barriopedro, F.C. Ljungqvist, U. Büntgen, E. Zorita, S. Wagner, J. Esper, D. McCarroll, A. Toreti, D. Frank, J. H. Jungclaus, M. Barriendos, C. Bertolin, O. Bothe, R. Brázdil, D. Camuffo, P. Dobrovolný, M. Gagen, E. García-Bustamante, Q. Ge, J. J. Gómez-Navarro, J. Guiot, Z. Hao, G. C. Hegerl, K. Holmgren, V.V. Klimenko, J. Martín-Chivelet, C. Pfister, N. Roberts, A. Schindler, A. Schurer, O. Solomina, L. von Gunten, E. Wahl, H. Wanner, O. Wetter, E. Xoplaki, N. Yuan, D. Zanchettin, H. Zhang and C. Zerefos."},"pubYear":2016,"title":"European summer temperatures since Roman times","journal":"Environmental Research Letters","volume":"11","edition":"024001","issue":"2","pages":null,"reportNumber":null,"citation":"J. Luterbacher, J. P. Werner, J. E. Smerdon, L. Fernández-Donado, F. J. González Rouco, D. Barriopedro, F.C. Ljungqvist, U. Büntgen, E. Zorita, S. Wagner, J. Esper, D. McCarroll, A. Toreti, D. Frank, J. H. Jungclaus, M. Barriendos, C. Bertolin, O. Bothe, R. Brázdil, D. Camuffo, P. Dobrovolný, M. Gagen, E. García-Bustamante, Q. Ge, J. J. Gómez-Navarro, J. Guiot, Z. Hao, G. C. Hegerl, K. Holmgren, V.V. Klimenko, J. Martín-Chivelet, C. Pfister, N. Roberts, A. Schindler, A. Schurer, O. Solomina, L. von Gunten, E. Wahl, H. Wanner, O. Wetter, E. Xoplaki, N. Yuan, D. Zanchettin, H. Zhang and C. Zerefos. 2016. European summer temperatures since Roman times. Environmental Research Letters, 11, 2, 024001. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/11/2/024001","type":"publication","identifier":{"type":"doi","id":"10.1088/1748-9326/11/2/024001","url":"http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/11/2/024001"},"abstract":"The spatial context is critical when assessing present-day climate anomalies, attributing them to potential forcings and making statements regarding their frequency and severity in a long-term perspective. Recent international initiatives have expanded the number of high-quality proxy-records and developed new statistical reconstruction methods. These advances allow more rigorous regional past temperature reconstructions and, in turn, the possibility of evaluating climate models on policy-relevant, spatio-temporal scales. Here we provide a new proxy-based, annually-resolved, spatial reconstruction of the European summer (June-August) temperature fields back to 755 CE based on Bayesian hierarchical modelling (BHM), together with estimates of the European mean temperature variation since 138 BCE based on BHM and composite-plus-scaling (CPS). Our reconstructions compare well with independent instrumental and proxy-based temperature estimates, but suggest a larger amplitude in summer temperature variability than previously reported. Both CPS and BHM reconstructions indicate that the mean 20th century European summer temperature was not significantly different from some earlier centuries, including the 1st, 2nd, 8th and 10th centuries CE. The 1st century (in BHM also the 10th century) may even have been slightly warmer than the 20th century, but the difference is not statistically significant. Comparing each 50 yr period with the 1951-2000 period reveals a similar pattern. Recent summers, however, have been unusually warm in the context of the last two millennia and there are no 30 yr periods in either reconstruction that exceed the mean average European summer temperature of the last 3 decades (1986-2015 CE). A comparison with an ensemble of climate model simulations suggests that the reconstructed European summer temperature variability over the period 850-2000 CE reflects changes in both internal variability and external forcing on multi-decadal time-scales. For pan-European temperatures we find slightly better agreement between the reconstruction and the model simulations with high-end estimates for total solar irradiance. Temperature differences between the medieval period, the recent period and the Little Ice Age are larger in the reconstructions than the simulations. This may indicate inflated variability of the reconstructions, a lack of sensitivity and processes to changes in external forcing on the simulated European climate and/or an underestimation of internal variability on centennial and longer time scales.","pubRank":"1"}],"site":[{"NOAASiteId":"37038","siteName":"Europe","mappable":"N","locationName":"Continent>Europe","geo":{"geoType":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"POLYGON","coordinates":["35","70","-25","40"]},"properties":{"southernmostLatitude":"35","northernmostLatitude":"70","westernmostLongitude":"-25","easternmostLongitude":"40","minElevationMeters":null,"maxElevationMeters":null}},"paleoData":[{"dataTableName":"Luterbacher2016temp","NOAADataTableId":"30218","earliestYear":-138,"mostRecentYear":2011,"timeUnit":"AD","earliestYearBP":2088,"mostRecentYearBP":-61,"earliestYearCE":-138,"mostRecentYearCE":2011,"coreLengthMeters":null,"dataTableNotes":null,"species":[],"dataFile":[{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/pages2k/EuroMed2k/readme-luterbacher2016.txt","urlDescription":"Data Description","linkText":"EuroMed2k Readme File","variables":[],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions>air 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If there is no publication information, please cite investigator, title, online resource, and date accessed. The appearance of external links associated with a dataset does not constitute endorsement by the Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of external Web sites or the information, products or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities, the Department of Commerce/NOAA does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. These links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this Department of Commerce/NOAA Web site."},"dataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","investigators":"Diaz, H.F.; Wahl, E.R.; Zorita, E.; Giambelluca, T.W.; Eischeid, J.","version":"1.0","funding":[],"studyNotes":"Reconstructions of Hawaii winter (Dec-Feb) precipitation and northeast Pacific sea-level pressure for the past 500 years. These reconstructions utilize analogs states selected from MPI climate model using gridded California water year precipitation, southwestern N America JJA PDSI, and western N America FM surface temperature reconstructions. ","onlineResourceLink":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/20465","difMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/dif/xml/noaa-recon-20465.xml","isoMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/iso/xml/noaa-recon-20465.xml","originalSource":null,"dataTypeInformation":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/datasets/climate-reconstruction","studyCode":null,"scienceKeywords":["Other Reconstruction","pressure","Precipitation Reconstruction"],"reconstruction":"Y","contributionDate":"2016-09-02","entryId":"noaa-recon-20465","earliestYearBP":450,"mostRecentYearBP":-62,"earliestYearCE":1500,"mostRecentYearCE":2012,"publication":[{"author":{"name":"Henry F. Diaz, Eugene R. Wahl, Eduardo Zorita, Thomas W. Giambelluca, Jon K. Eischeid"},"pubYear":2016,"title":"A Five-Century Reconstruction of Hawaiian Islands Winter Rainfall","journal":"Journal of Climate","volume":"29","edition":null,"issue":"15","pages":"5661-5674","reportNumber":null,"citation":"Henry F. Diaz, Eugene R. Wahl, Eduardo Zorita, Thomas W. Giambelluca, Jon K. Eischeid. 2016. A Five-Century Reconstruction of Hawaiian Islands Winter Rainfall. Journal of Climate, 29(15), 5661-5674. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0815.1","type":"publication","identifier":{"type":"doi","id":"10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0815.1","url":"http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0815.1"},"abstract":"Few if any high-resolution (annually resolved) paleoclimate records are available for the Hawaiian Islands prior to ~1850 CE, after which some instrumental records start to become available. This paper shows how atmospheric teleconnection patterns between North America and the northeastern North Pacific (NNP) allow for reconstruction of Hawaiian Islands rainfall using remote proxy information from North America. Based on a newly available precipitation dataset for the state of Hawaii and observed and reconstructed December-February (DJF) sea level pressures (SLPs) in the North Pacific Ocean, the authors make use of a strong relationship between winter SLP variability in the northeast Pacific and corresponding DJF Hawaii rainfall variations to reconstruct and evaluate that season's rainfall over the period 1500-2012 CE. A general drying trend, though with substantial decadal and longer-term variability, is evident, particularly during the last ~160 years. Hawaiian Islands rainfall exhibits strong modulation by El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), as well as in relation to Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO)-like variability. For significant periods of time, the reconstructed large-scale changes in the North Pacific SLP field described here and by construction the long-term decline in Hawaiian winter rainfall are broadly consistent with long-term changes in tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) based on ENSO reconstructions documented in several other studies, particularly over the last two centuries. Also noted are some rather large multidecadal fluctuations in rainfall (and hence in NNP SLP) in the eighteenth century of undetermined provenance.","pubRank":"1"}],"site":[{"NOAASiteId":"56496","siteName":"Hawaiian Islands","mappable":"Y","locationName":"Ocean>Pacific Ocean>Central Pacific Ocean>Hawaiian Islands","geo":{"geoType":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"POLYGON","coordinates":["18.72","23.95","-166.74","-156.15"]},"properties":{"southernmostLatitude":"18.72","northernmostLatitude":"23.95","westernmostLongitude":"-166.74","easternmostLongitude":"-156.15","minElevationMeters":null,"maxElevationMeters":null}},"paleoData":[{"dataTableName":"Hawaii2016precip","NOAADataTableId":"31159","earliestYear":1500,"mostRecentYear":2012,"timeUnit":"AD","earliestYearBP":450,"mostRecentYearBP":-62,"earliestYearCE":1500,"mostRecentYearCE":2012,"coreLengthMeters":null,"dataTableNotes":null,"species":[],"dataFile":[{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/treering/reconstructions/hawaii2016precip.txt","urlDescription":"Text Data File","linkText":"Hawaiian Islands 500 Year Winter Rainfall Reconstructions","variables":[{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"age variable>age","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"time unit>age unit>year Common Era","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>hydroclimatic variable>hydroclimate rate>precipitation","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":"confidence interval>90% confidence interval lower bound","cvUnit":"length unit>millimeter","cvSeasonality":"3-month period>Dec-Feb","cvDetail":"filtered","cvMethod":"computational method>statistical analysis method>regression analysis","cvAdditionalInfo":"filtered with 21 year Gaussian; 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If there is no publication information, please cite investigator, title, online resource, and date accessed. The appearance of external links associated with a dataset does not constitute endorsement by the Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of external Web sites or the information, products or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities, the Department of Commerce/NOAA does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. These links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this Department of Commerce/NOAA Web site."},"dataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","investigators":"Gille, E.P.; Wahl, E.R.; Vose, R.S.; Cook, E.R.","version":"1.0","funding":[],"studyNotes":"The half degree gridded Jun-Aug PMDI reconstructions from Cook et al. (2010) were recalibrated using the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) 5km grid PMDI data. The 5km data were first upscaled to match the original half-degree grid. The recalibration was performed using a kernel density distribution mapping (KDDM) technique outlined in McGinnis et al. (2015) using an R-package provided by Seth McGinnis. We used a 50-year recalibration period covering 1929-1978 CE. We also adjusted each grid point's mean PMDI value for the recalibration period to be zero to avoid importing wet or dry bias into the recalibration. The recalibrated data set covers the continental United States just as the GHCN instrumental data does. Since instrumental data was used for 1979–2005 CE in the Cook dataset, recalibration applied only to the years 0–1978 CE. The 1979-2017 instrumental years were filled in using data from NCEI's GHCN 5km instrumental PMDI data. November 2017: The PMDI data sets were updated by recalibrating with the Oct 2017 GHCN PMDI data, and the post-recalibration years (1979-2017) were filled in using that same data. The images were all updated using the new data sets.","onlineResourceLink":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/22454","difMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/dif/xml/noaa-recon-22454.xml","isoMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/iso/xml/noaa-recon-22454.xml","originalSource":null,"dataTypeInformation":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/datasets/climate-reconstruction","studyCode":null,"scienceKeywords":["drought","Palmer Drought Index Reconstruction"],"reconstruction":"Y","contributionDate":"2017-08-03","entryId":"noaa-recon-22454","earliestYearBP":1950,"mostRecentYearBP":-67,"earliestYearCE":0,"mostRecentYearCE":2017,"publication":[{"author":{"name":"Cook, E.R., Seager, R., Heim, R.R., Vose, R.S., Herweijer, C., and Woodhouse, C."},"pubYear":2010,"title":"Megadroughts in North America: Placing IPCC projections of hydroclimatic change in a long-term paleoclimate context","journal":"Journal of Quaternary Science","volume":"25","edition":null,"issue":"1","pages":"48-61","reportNumber":null,"citation":"Cook, E.R., Seager, R., Heim, R.R., Vose, R.S., Herweijer, C., and Woodhouse, C. 2010. Megadroughts in North America: Placing IPCC projections of hydroclimatic change in a long-term paleoclimate context. Journal of Quaternary Science, 25(1), 48-61. doi: 10.1002/jqs.1303","type":"publication","identifier":{"type":"doi","id":"10.1002/jqs.1303","url":"http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jqs.1303"},"abstract":"IPCC Assessment Report 4 model projections suggest that the subtropical dry zones of the world will both dry and expand poleward in the future due to greenhouse warming. The US Southwest is particularly vulnerable in this regard and model projections indicate a progressive drying there out to the end of the 21st century. At the same time, the USA has been in a state of drought over much of the West for about 10 years now. While severe, this turn of the century drought has not yet clearly exceeded the severity of two exceptional droughts in the 20th century. So while the coincidence between the turn of the century drought and projected drying in the Southwest is cause for concern, it is premature to claim that the model projections are correct. At the same time, great new insights into past drought variability over North America have been made through the development of the North American Drought Atlas from tree rings. Analyses of this drought atlas have revealed past megadroughts of unprecedented duration in the West, largely in the Medieval period about 1000 years ago. A vastly improved Living Blended Drought Atlas (LBDA) for North America now under develop- ment reveals these megadroughts in far greater detail. The LBDA indicates the occurrence of the same Medieval megadroughts in the West and similar-scale megadroughts in the agriculturally and commercially important Mississippi Valley. Possible causes of these megadroughts and their implications for the future are discussed.","pubRank":"1"}],"site":[{"NOAASiteId":"56845","siteName":"Continental United States","mappable":"N","locationName":"Continent>North America>United States Of America","geo":{"geoType":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"POLYGON","coordinates":["24","50","-124","-68"]},"properties":{"southernmostLatitude":"24","northernmostLatitude":"50","westernmostLongitude":"-124","easternmostLongitude":"-68","minElevationMeters":null,"maxElevationMeters":null}},"paleoData":[{"dataTableName":"CONUS Recalib PMDI Gille2017","NOAADataTableId":"33588","earliestYear":0,"mostRecentYear":2005,"timeUnit":"AD","earliestYearBP":1950,"mostRecentYearBP":-55,"earliestYearCE":0,"mostRecentYearCE":2005,"coreLengthMeters":null,"dataTableNotes":null,"species":[],"dataFile":[{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/drought/LBDP-v2/lbda-v2_pmdi_kddm_template.txt","urlDescription":"NOAA Template File","linkText":"Study Description and Metadata Only ","variables":[],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions"]},{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/drought/LBDP-v2/lbda-v2_pmdi_kddm_cols_2017.txt","urlDescription":"NOAA Template File","linkText":"Data in column format - 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If there is no publication information, please cite investigator, title, online resource, and date accessed. The appearance of external links associated with a dataset does not constitute endorsement by the Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of external Web sites or the information, products or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities, the Department of Commerce/NOAA does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. These links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this Department of Commerce/NOAA Web site."},"dataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","investigators":"Dätwyler, C.; Abram, N.J.; Grosjean, M.; Wahl, E.R.; Neukom, R.","version":"1.0","funding":[{"fundingAgency":"Swiss National Science Foundation","fundingGrant":"Ambizione PZ00P2_154802"}],"studyNotes":"Multiproxy El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) reconstructions for the past 1,000 years, expressed as first principal component, plus underlying proxy data and references.","onlineResourceLink":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/25891","difMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/dif/xml/noaa-recon-25891.xml","isoMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/iso/xml/noaa-recon-25891.xml","originalSource":null,"dataTypeInformation":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/datasets/climate-reconstruction","studyCode":null,"scienceKeywords":["Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulation Patterns Reconstruction"],"reconstruction":"Y","contributionDate":"2019-03-11","entryId":"noaa-recon-25891","earliestYearBP":950,"mostRecentYearBP":-40,"earliestYearCE":1000,"mostRecentYearCE":1990,"publication":[{"author":{"name":"Christoph Dätwyler, Nerilie J. Abram, Martin Grosjean, Eugene R. Wahl, Raphael Neukom"},"pubYear":2019,"title":"El Nino-Southern Oscillation variability, teleconnection changes and responses to large volcanic eruptions since AD 1000","journal":"International Journal of Climatology","volume":null,"edition":null,"issue":null,"pages":null,"reportNumber":null,"citation":"Christoph Dätwyler, Nerilie J. Abram, Martin Grosjean, Eugene R. Wahl, Raphael Neukom. 2019. El Nino-Southern Oscillation variability, teleconnection changes and responses to large volcanic eruptions since AD 1000. International Journal of Climatology. . doi: 10.1002/joc.5983","type":"publication","identifier":{"type":"doi","id":"10.1002/joc.5983","url":"http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.5983"},"abstract":"The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the earth's dominant mode of inter-annual climate variability. It alternates between warm (El Nino) and cold (La Nina) states, with global impacts on climate and society. This study provides new ENSO reconstructions based on a large, updated collection of proxy records. We use a novel reconstruction approach that employs running principal components, which allows us to take covariance changes between proxy records into account and thereby identify periods of likely teleconnection changes. Using different implementations of the principal component analysis enables us to identify periods within the last millennium when quantifications of ENSO are most robust. These periods range from 1580 to the end of the 17th century and from 1825 to present. We incorporate an assessment of consistency among our new and existing ENSO reconstructions leading to five short phases of low agreement among the reconstructions between 1700 and 1786. We find a consistent spatial pattern of proxy covariance during these four phases, differing from the structure seen over the instrumental period. This pattern points towards changes in teleconnections in the west Pacific/Australasian region, compared to the present state. Using our new reconstructions, we find a significant response of ENSO towards more La Nina-like conditions 3-5 years after major volcanic events. We further show that our new reconstructions and existing reconstructions largely agree on the state of ENSO during volcanic eruptions in the years 1695 and 1784, which helps put into perspective the climatic response to these events. During all other large volcanic eruptions of the last 1000 years, there is no reconstruction coherency with regard to the state of ENSO.","pubRank":"1"}],"site":[{"NOAASiteId":"54325","siteName":"Nino3.4","mappable":"N","locationName":"Ocean>Pacific Ocean>Eastern Pacific Ocean","geo":{"geoType":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"POLYGON","coordinates":["-5","5","-170","-120"]},"properties":{"southernmostLatitude":"-5","northernmostLatitude":"5","westernmostLongitude":"-170","easternmostLongitude":"-120","minElevationMeters":null,"maxElevationMeters":null}},"paleoData":[{"dataTableName":"Datwyler2019ENSO","NOAADataTableId":"38733","earliestYear":1000,"mostRecentYear":1990,"timeUnit":"AD","earliestYearBP":950,"mostRecentYearBP":-40,"earliestYearCE":1000,"mostRecentYearCE":1990,"coreLengthMeters":null,"dataTableNotes":null,"species":[],"dataFile":[{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/reconstructions/datwyler2019/","urlDescription":"Data Folder","linkText":"ENSO Reconstructions and Proxy Records","variables":[{"cvDataType":null,"cvWhat":"age variable>age","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"time unit>age unit>year Common Era","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"INSTRUMENTAL","cvWhat":"earth system variable>temperature variable>temperature>sea water temperature>sea surface temperature","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"temperature unit>degree Celsius","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":"anomalized","cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":"ERSSTv4 Nino3.4; anomalies wrt to 1981-2010","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","cvWhat":"statistical variable>multivariate eigenvector-based variable>principal component","cvMaterial":"reconstruction material>multiple proxies","cvError":null,"cvUnit":"dimensionless","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":"first principal component of ENSO sensitive proxies","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","cvWhat":"statistical variable>multivariate eigenvector-based variable>principal component","cvMaterial":"reconstruction material>multiple proxies","cvError":null,"cvUnit":"dimensionless","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":"filtered","cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":"first principal component of ENSO sensitive proxies; 31-year filtered","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null}],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions>atmospheric circulation"]}]}]}]},{"xmlId":"674","NOAAStudyId":"8407","studyName":"NOAA Paleoclimatology Reconstructions Network","doi":null,"dataPublisher":"NOAA","contactInfo":{"type":"CONTACT INFORMATION","shortName":"DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI","longName":"National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce ","address":"325 Broadway, E/NE31","city":"Boulder","state":"CO","postalCode":"80305-3328","country":"USA","dataCenterUrl":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data","email":"paleo@noaa.gov","phone":"303-497-6280","fax":"303-497-6513","constraints":"Please cite original publication, online resource, dataset and publication DOIs (where available), and date accessed when using downloaded data. If there is no publication information, please cite investigator, title, online resource, and date accessed. The appearance of external links associated with a dataset does not constitute endorsement by the Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of external Web sites or the information, products or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities, the Department of Commerce/NOAA does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. These links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this Department of Commerce/NOAA Web site."},"dataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","investigators":"Wahl, E.R.; Anderson, D.M.; Bauer, B.A.; Buckner, R.; Gille, E.P.; Gross, W.S.; Hartman, M.; Shah, A.","version":"1.0","funding":[],"studyNotes":"NOAA Paleoclimatology Paleoclimate Network (PCN) version 2.0.0, \nincluding 92 high-resolution temperature records over the past \n2+ millennia, 1209 proxy data time series used by Mann et al. \n(2008, 2009), and instrumental data of the HadCRUT3 and HadCRUT3v \ncombined global land and ocean gridded (5°x5°) surface temperature \ndata sets, averaged to annual and seasonal time resolution by \nNOAA Paleoclimatology. The Reconstructions, Proxy, and Instrumental\ndata sets are described in detail below.\n\n\nThe RECONSTRUCTIONS include global, hemispheric, regional, \nand local reconstructions, generally with annual time-step resolution. \nThe records come with many categories of metadata, including complete \ncitations to original publications, seasonal period reconstructed \n(when applicable), anomaly period (if reconstructions are anomalies), \nlatitude/longitude coverage, and URLs to the original NOAA Paleoclimate \nweb pages from which the data were drawn. Each record is available \nas a separate ASCII file with fixed header and data formats, \nallowing machine reading of the data and time-step information. \nAll the records together are also available in netCDF, ASCII, \nand Excel formats, including the complete metadata within the \nfiles themselves. The netCDF format version is provided in two files, \nthe first with each record represented as a separate variable and the \nsecond as a time-by-study array in which each record is represented \nas a component of the study dimension. Sample scripts to open the \nnetCDF versions in the R programming environment are also provided.\n\n","onlineResourceLink":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/8407","difMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/dif/xml/noaa-recon-8407.xml","isoMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/iso/xml/noaa-recon-8407.xml","originalSource":null,"dataTypeInformation":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/datasets/climate-reconstruction","studyCode":null,"scienceKeywords":["Air Temperature Reconstruction"],"reconstruction":"Y","contributionDate":"2009-03-01","entryId":"noaa-recon-8407","earliestYearBP":1950,"mostRecentYearBP":-50,"earliestYearCE":0,"mostRecentYearCE":2000,"publication":[{"author":null,"pubYear":2010,"title":"An archive of high-resolution temperature reconstructions over the past 2+ millennia","journal":"Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems","volume":null,"edition":null,"issue":null,"pages":null,"reportNumber":null,"citation":"Wahl, E.R., D.M. Anderson, B.A. Bauer, R. Buckner, E.P. Gille, \r\nW.S. Gross, M. Hartman, and A. Shah. 2010. \r\nAn archive of high-resolution temperature reconstructions \r\nover the past 2+ millennia. \r\nGeochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 11, Q01001, doi:10.1029/2009GC002817. \r\n","type":"publication","identifier":{"type":"doi","id":"10.1029/2009GC002817","url":"http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2009GC002817"},"abstract":"High-resolution temperature reconstructions (typically annually \r\nto seasonally resolved) have played a key role in understanding \r\npaleoclimate immediately prior to the beginning of the instrumental \r\nrecord, especially when calibrated to form an extension of comparable \r\ninstrumental data coverage (global, hemispheric, and regional). \r\nSuch calibration allows the information in the instrumental record \r\nto be quantitatively extended backward in time in an objective way, \r\nenabling description of much longer term fluctuations in climate \r\nthan possible with instrumental data alone, although with \r\nsignificantly increased uncertainties inherent in proxy-based \r\nreconstructions. This data brief describes a newly integrated \r\narchive of nearly all the high-resolution temperature reconstructions \r\nof the past 2+ millennia included in NOAA's National Climatic Data \r\nCenter, from small-regional to global scale, which also have been \r\nrecalibrated to a standard set of instrumental data. Examination \r\nof the spectral structure of the data is additionally provided.\r\n","pubRank":"1"}],"site":[{"NOAASiteId":"22723","siteName":"Global","mappable":"N","locationName":"Geographic Region>Global","geo":{"geoType":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"POLYGON","coordinates":["-90","90","-180","180"]},"properties":{"southernmostLatitude":"-90","northernmostLatitude":"90","westernmostLongitude":"-180","easternmostLongitude":"180","minElevationMeters":null,"maxElevationMeters":null}},"paleoData":[{"dataTableName":"PCNv20","NOAADataTableId":"20557","earliestYear":0,"mostRecentYear":2000,"timeUnit":"AD","earliestYearBP":1950,"mostRecentYearBP":-50,"earliestYearCE":0,"mostRecentYearCE":2000,"coreLengthMeters":null,"dataTableNotes":null,"species":[],"dataFile":[{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/reconstructions/pcn/","urlDescription":"Data Folder","linkText":"NOAA Paleoclimatology Reconstructions Network","variables":[{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE 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If there is no publication information, please cite investigator, title, online resource, and date accessed. The appearance of external links associated with a dataset does not constitute endorsement by the Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of external Web sites or the information, products or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities, the Department of Commerce/NOAA does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. 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Before the late-19th to the early-21st century, there are three prominent low-frequency periods in our extended reconstruction starting at 480 CE, notably the Dark Ages cool period (about 500-700 CE) and Little Ice Age (about 1200-1900 CE), and the warmer medieval climate anomaly (MCA; about 750-1100 CE). The 9th and the 11th century are the warmest centuries and they constitute the core of the MCA in our reconstruction, a period characterized by centennial-scale aridity in the North American West. These two warm peaks are slightly warmer than the baseline period (1904-1980), but nevertheless much cooler than temperate North American temperatures during the early-21st century.","pubRank":"1"}],"site":[{"NOAASiteId":"55829","siteName":"Temperate North America","mappable":"N","locationName":"Continent>North America","geo":{"geoType":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"POLYGON","coordinates":["30","55","-130","-75"]},"properties":{"southernmostLatitude":"30","northernmostLatitude":"55","westernmostLongitude":"-130","easternmostLongitude":"-75","minElevationMeters":null,"maxElevationMeters":null}},"paleoData":[{"dataTableName":"Trouet2013NAM480pollen","NOAADataTableId":"26273","earliestYear":480,"mostRecentYear":1950,"timeUnit":"AD","earliestYearBP":1470,"mostRecentYearBP":0,"earliestYearCE":480,"mostRecentYearCE":1950,"coreLengthMeters":null,"dataTableNotes":null,"species":[],"dataFile":[{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/pages2k/trouet2013nam480pollen.txt","urlDescription":"Data File","linkText":"PAGES North America 2k Temperature, Pollen-based 30 Year Resolution ","variables":[{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|POLLEN","cvWhat":"earth system variable>temperature variable>temperature>air temperature>surface air temperature","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"temperature unit>degree Celsius","cvSeasonality":"annual","cvDetail":"anomalized","cvMethod":"computational method>statistical analysis method>principal component analysis|computational method>statistical analysis method>regression analysis","cvAdditionalInfo":"wrt 1904-1980; 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principal components regression; 2m air temperature","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null}],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions>air temperature"]}]},{"dataTableName":"Trouet2013NAM1200TR-dec","NOAADataTableId":"26274","earliestYear":1204,"mostRecentYear":1974,"timeUnit":"AD","earliestYearBP":746,"mostRecentYearBP":-24,"earliestYearCE":1204,"mostRecentYearCE":1974,"coreLengthMeters":null,"dataTableNotes":null,"species":[],"dataFile":[{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/pages2k/trouet2013nam1200tr-dec.txt","urlDescription":"Data File","linkText":"PAGES North America 2k Temperature, Tree-Ring-based 10 Year Resolution ","variables":[{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>temperature variable>temperature>air temperature>surface air temperature","cvMaterial":"reconstruction material>physical measurement>ring width","cvError":"percentile","cvUnit":"temperature unit>degree Celsius","cvSeasonality":"annual","cvDetail":"anomalized","cvMethod":"computational method>statistical analysis method>regression analysis","cvAdditionalInfo":"95th percentile; 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wrt 1904-1980; simple linear regression; 2m air temperature","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>temperature variable>temperature>air temperature>surface air temperature","cvMaterial":"reconstruction material>physical measurement>ring width","cvError":"percentile","cvUnit":"temperature unit>degree Celsius","cvSeasonality":"annual","cvDetail":"anomalized","cvMethod":"computational method>statistical analysis method>regression analysis","cvAdditionalInfo":"2.5th percentile; wrt 1904-1980; simple linear regression; 2m air temperature","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>temperature variable>temperature>air temperature>surface air temperature","cvMaterial":"reconstruction material>physical measurement>ring width","cvError":"percentile","cvUnit":"temperature unit>degree Celsius","cvSeasonality":"annual","cvDetail":"anomalized","cvMethod":"computational method>statistical analysis method>regression analysis","cvAdditionalInfo":"5th percentile; wrt 1904-1980; simple linear regression; 2m air temperature","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>temperature variable>temperature>air temperature>surface air temperature","cvMaterial":"reconstruction material>physical measurement>ring width","cvError":"percentile","cvUnit":"temperature unit>degree Celsius","cvSeasonality":"annual","cvDetail":"anomalized","cvMethod":"computational method>statistical analysis method>regression analysis","cvAdditionalInfo":"16th percentile; wrt 1904-1980; simple linear regression; 2m air temperature","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>temperature variable>temperature>air temperature>surface air temperature","cvMaterial":"reconstruction material>physical measurement>ring width","cvError":"percentile","cvUnit":"temperature unit>degree Celsius","cvSeasonality":"annual","cvDetail":"anomalized","cvMethod":"computational method>statistical analysis method>regression analysis","cvAdditionalInfo":"84th percentile; wrt 1904-1980; simple linear regression; 2m air temperature","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null}],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions>air temperature"]}]},{"dataTableName":"Trouet2013NAM1200TRann","NOAADataTableId":"26275","earliestYear":1200,"mostRecentYear":1987,"timeUnit":"AD","earliestYearBP":750,"mostRecentYearBP":-37,"earliestYearCE":1200,"mostRecentYearCE":1987,"coreLengthMeters":null,"dataTableNotes":null,"species":[],"dataFile":[{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/pages2k/trouet2013nam1200tr-ann.txt","urlDescription":"Data File","linkText":"PAGES North America 2k Temperature, Tree-Ring-based Annual Resolution ","variables":[{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"age variable>age","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"time unit>age unit>year Common Era","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>temperature variable>temperature>air temperature>surface air temperature","cvMaterial":"reconstruction material>physical measurement>ring width","cvError":null,"cvUnit":"temperature unit>degree Celsius","cvSeasonality":"annual","cvDetail":"anomalized","cvMethod":"computational method>statistical analysis method>regression analysis","cvAdditionalInfo":"wrt 1904-1980; principal components spatial regression; 2m air temperature","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>temperature variable>temperature>air temperature>surface air temperature","cvMaterial":"reconstruction material>physical measurement>ring width","cvError":"percentile","cvUnit":"temperature unit>degree Celsius","cvSeasonality":"annual","cvDetail":"anomalized","cvMethod":"computational method>statistical analysis method>regression analysis","cvAdditionalInfo":"2.5th percentile; wrt 1904-1980; principal components spatial regression; 2m air temperature","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>temperature variable>temperature>air temperature>surface air temperature","cvMaterial":"reconstruction material>physical measurement>ring width","cvError":"percentile","cvUnit":"temperature unit>degree Celsius","cvSeasonality":"annual","cvDetail":"anomalized","cvMethod":"computational method>statistical analysis method>regression analysis","cvAdditionalInfo":"97.5th percentile; wrt 1904-1980; principal components spatial regression; 2m air temperature","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null}],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions>air temperature"]}]}]}]},{"xmlId":"19128","NOAAStudyId":"21171","studyName":"PAGES2k Global 2,000 Year Multiproxy Database","doi":null,"dataPublisher":"NOAA","contactInfo":{"type":"CONTACT INFORMATION","shortName":"DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI","longName":"National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce ","address":"325 Broadway, E/NE31","city":"Boulder","state":"CO","postalCode":"80305-3328","country":"USA","dataCenterUrl":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data","email":"paleo@noaa.gov","phone":"303-497-6280","fax":"303-497-6513","constraints":"Please cite original publication, online resource, dataset and publication DOIs (where available), and date accessed when using downloaded data. If there is no publication information, please cite investigator, title, online resource, and date accessed. The appearance of external links associated with a dataset does not constitute endorsement by the Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of external Web sites or the information, products or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities, the Department of Commerce/NOAA does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. These links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this Department of Commerce/NOAA Web site."},"dataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","investigators":"Emile-Geay, J.; McKay, N.P.; Kaufman, D.S.; von Gunten, L.; Wang, J.; Anchukaitis, K.J.; Abram, N.J.; Addison, J.A.; Curran, M.A.J.; Evans, M.N.; Henley, B.J.; Hao, Z.; Martrat, B.; McGregor, H.V.; Neukom, R.; Pederson, G.T.; Stenni, B.; Thirumalai, K.; Werner, J.P.; Xu, C.; Divine, D.V.; Dixon, B.; Gergis, J.; Mundo, I.A.; Nakatsuka, T.; Phipps, S.J.; Routson, C.; Steig, E.J.; Tierney, J.E.; Tyler, J.J.; Allen, K.J.; Bertler, N.A.N.; Björklund, J.; Chase, B.M.; Chen, M.-T.; Cook, E.R.; de Jong, R.; DeLong, K.L.; Dixon, D.A.; Ekaykin, A.A.; Ersek, V.; Filipsson, H.L.; Francus, P.; Freund, M.B.; Frezzotti, M.; Gaire, N.P.; Gajewski, K.J.; Ge, Q.; Goosse, H.; Gornostaeva, A.; Grosjean, M.; Horiuchi, K.; Hormes, A.; Husum, K.; Isaksson, E.; Kandasamy, K.; Kawamura, K.; Kilbourne, K.H.; Koç, N.; Leduc, G.; Linderholm, H.W.; Lorrey, A.; Mikhalenko, V.N.; Mortyn, P.G.; Motoyama, H.; Moy, A.D.; Mulvaney, R.; Munz, P.M.; Nash, D.J.; Oerter, H.; Opel, T.; Orsi, A.J.; Ovchinnikov, D.V.; Porter, T.J.; Roop, H.A.; Saenger, C.P.; Sano, M.; Sauchyn, D.J.; Saunders, K.M.; Seidenkrantz, M.-S.; Severi, M.; Shao, X.M.; Sicre, M.-A.; Sigl, M.; Sinclair, K.; St. George, S.; St. Jacques, J.-M.; Meloth, T.; Thapa, U.K.; Thomas, E.R.; Turney, C.S.M.; Uemura, R.; Viau, A.E.; Vladimirova, D.O.; Wahl, E.R.; White, J.W.C.; Yu, Z.; Zinke, J.","version":"1.0","funding":[],"studyNotes":"PAGES2k database of 692 proxy records for the Common Era.","onlineResourceLink":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/21171","difMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/dif/xml/noaa-recon-21171.xml","isoMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/iso/xml/noaa-recon-21171.xml","originalSource":null,"dataTypeInformation":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/datasets/climate-reconstruction","studyCode":null,"scienceKeywords":null,"reconstruction":"Y","contributionDate":"2017-06-22","entryId":"noaa-recon-21171","earliestYearBP":1950,"mostRecentYearBP":-62,"earliestYearCE":0,"mostRecentYearCE":2012,"publication":[{"author":{"name":"PAGES2k Consortium"},"pubYear":2017,"title":"A global multiproxy database for temperature reconstructions of the Common Era","journal":"Scientific Data","volume":"4","edition":"170088","issue":null,"pages":null,"reportNumber":null,"citation":"PAGES2k Consortium. 2017. A global multiproxy database for temperature reconstructions of the Common Era. Scientific Data, 4, 170088. doi: 10.1038/sdata.2017.88","type":"publication","identifier":{"type":"doi","id":"10.1038/sdata.2017.88","url":"http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2017.88"},"abstract":"Reproducible climate reconstructions of the Common Era (1 CE to present) are key to placing industrial-era warming into the context of natural climatic variability. Here we present a community-sourced database of temperature-sensitive proxy records from the PAGES2k initiative. The database gathers 692 records from 648 locations, including all continental regions and major ocean basins. The records are from trees, ice, sediment, corals, speleothems, documentary evidence, and other archives. They range in length from 50 to 2000 years, with a median of 547 years, while temporal resolution ranges from biweekly to centennial. Nearly half of the proxy time series are significantly correlated with HadCRUT4.2 surface temperature over the period 1850-2014. Global temperature composites show a remarkable degree of coherence between high- and low-resolution archives, with broadly similar patterns across archive types, terrestrial versus marine locations, and screening criteria. The database is suited to investigations of global and regional temperature variability over the Common Era, and is shared in the Linked Paleo Data (LiPD) format, including serializations in Matlab, R and Python.","pubRank":"1"}],"site":[{"NOAASiteId":"22723","siteName":"Global","mappable":"N","locationName":"Geographic Region>Global","geo":{"geoType":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"POLYGON","coordinates":["-90","90","-180","180"]},"properties":{"southernmostLatitude":"-90","northernmostLatitude":"90","westernmostLongitude":"-180","easternmostLongitude":"180","minElevationMeters":null,"maxElevationMeters":null}},"paleoData":[{"dataTableName":"PAGES2k2017","NOAADataTableId":"31884","earliestYear":0,"mostRecentYear":2012,"timeUnit":"AD","earliestYearBP":1950,"mostRecentYearBP":-62,"earliestYearCE":0,"mostRecentYearCE":2012,"coreLengthMeters":null,"dataTableNotes":null,"species":[],"dataFile":[{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/pages2k/pages2k-temperature-v2-2017/","urlDescription":"Data Folder","linkText":"PAGES2k 2017 Data Files","variables":[],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>others"]},{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/pages2k/pages2k-temperature-v2-2017/readme-pages2k2017.txt","urlDescription":"Data Description","linkText":"PAGES2k 2017 Readme File","variables":[],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>others"]}]}]}]},{"xmlId":"12190","NOAAStudyId":"14189","studyName":"Paleo Index 130 Year Global Normalized Proxy Temperature Data","doi":null,"dataPublisher":"NOAA","contactInfo":{"type":"CONTACT INFORMATION","shortName":"DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI","longName":"National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce ","address":"325 Broadway, E/NE31","city":"Boulder","state":"CO","postalCode":"80305-3328","country":"USA","dataCenterUrl":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data","email":"paleo@noaa.gov","phone":"303-497-6280","fax":"303-497-6513","constraints":"Please cite original publication, online resource, dataset and publication DOIs (where available), and date accessed when using downloaded data. If there is no publication information, please cite investigator, title, online resource, and date accessed. The appearance of external links associated with a dataset does not constitute endorsement by the Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of external Web sites or the information, products or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities, the Department of Commerce/NOAA does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. These links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this Department of Commerce/NOAA Web site."},"dataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","investigators":"Anderson, D.M.; Mauk, E.M.; Wahl, E.R.; Morrill, C.; Wagner, A.; Easterling, D.R.; Rutishauser, T.","version":"1.0","funding":[],"studyNotes":"The paleo index is compiled from 173 temperature-sensitive proxy time series \n(corals, ice cores, speleothems, lake and ocean sediments, historical documents). Each series \nwas normalized to produce index values of change relative to a 1901-2000 base period; \nthe index values were then averaged. The 173 individual normalized proxy series, \nand global average paleo index series are provided for AD 1730-1995.","onlineResourceLink":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/14189","difMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/dif/xml/noaa-recon-14189.xml","isoMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/iso/xml/noaa-recon-14189.xml","originalSource":null,"dataTypeInformation":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/datasets/climate-reconstruction","studyCode":null,"scienceKeywords":["Air Temperature Reconstruction"],"reconstruction":"Y","contributionDate":"2013-04-05","entryId":"noaa-recon-14189","earliestYearBP":220,"mostRecentYearBP":-45,"earliestYearCE":1730,"mostRecentYearCE":1995,"publication":[{"author":null,"pubYear":2013,"title":"Global warming in an independent record of the last 130 years","journal":"Geophysical Research Letters","volume":null,"edition":null,"issue":null,"pages":null,"reportNumber":null,"citation":"David Morrill Anderson, Elyse M. Mauk, Eugene R. Wahl, Carrie Morrill, Amy Wagner, David R. Easterling, This Rutishauser. 2013. \r\nGlobal warming in an independent record of the last 130 years. Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, pp. 189-193. \r\nDOI: 10.1029/2012GL054271","type":"publication","identifier":{"type":"doi","id":"10.1029/2012GL054271","url":"http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2012GL054271"},"abstract":"The thermometer-based global surface temperature time series (GST) commands a prominent role in the evidence for global warming, yet this record has considerable uncertainty. An independent record, longer and with better geographic coverage, would be valuable in understanding recent change in the context of natural variability. We compiled the paleo index from 170 temperature-sensitive proxy time series (corals, ice cores, speleothems, lake and ocean sediments, historical documents). Each series was normalized to produce index values of change relative to a 1901-2000 base period; the index values were then averaged. From 1880 to 1995, the index trends significantly upward, similar to the GST. Smaller-scale aspects of the GST including two warming trends and a warm interval during the 1940s are also observed in the paleo index. The paleo index continuously extends back to 1730 with 66 records. The upward trend appears to begin in the early 19th century but the year-to-year variability is large and the 1730-1929 trend is not significant at the p<0.05 level. In addition to its value in vetting the thermometer-based record, our approach shows the potential of the un-calibrated paleo archive in understanding environmental change; this approach can be applied to aspects of environmental change where the instrumental record is even shorter (ocean pH, sea ice, hydrologic extremes). ","pubRank":"1"}],"site":[{"NOAASiteId":"22723","siteName":"Global","mappable":"N","locationName":"Geographic Region>Global","geo":{"geoType":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"POLYGON","coordinates":["-90","90","-180","180"]},"properties":{"southernmostLatitude":"-90","northernmostLatitude":"90","westernmostLongitude":"-180","easternmostLongitude":"180","minElevationMeters":null,"maxElevationMeters":null}},"paleoData":[{"dataTableName":"PaleoIndex2013","NOAADataTableId":"24135","earliestYear":1730,"mostRecentYear":1995,"timeUnit":"AD","earliestYearBP":220,"mostRecentYearBP":-45,"earliestYearCE":1730,"mostRecentYearCE":1995,"coreLengthMeters":null,"dataTableNotes":null,"species":[],"dataFile":[{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/contributions_by_author/anderson2013/paleo-index2013.txt","urlDescription":"Original Data and Full Metadata","linkText":"paleo-index2013.txt","variables":[{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","cvWhat":"age variable>age","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"time unit>age unit>year Common Era","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","cvWhat":"statistical variable>proxy composite","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"mathematical unit>standard deviation unit","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":"composited|normalized","cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":"Each series was normalized to produce index values of change relative to a 1901-2000 base period; the index values were then averaged","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null}],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions>air temperature"]},{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/contributions_by_author/anderson2013/paleo-index2013frozen-grid.txt","urlDescription":"Original Data and Full Metadata","linkText":"paleo-index2013frozen-grid.txt","variables":[{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","cvWhat":"age variable>age","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"time unit>age unit>year Common Era","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","cvWhat":"statistical variable>proxy composite","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"mathematical unit>standard deviation unit","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":"composited|normalized","cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":"frozen grid; Each series was normalized to produce index values of change relative to a 1901-2000 base period; the index values were then averaged","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null}],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions>air temperature"]},{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/contributions_by_author/anderson2013/paleo-index2013matrix.txt","urlDescription":"Original Data and Full Metadata","linkText":"paleo-index2013matrix.txt","variables":[{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","cvWhat":"age variable>age","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"time unit>age unit>year Common Era","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","cvWhat":"statistical variable>proxy composite","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"mathematical unit>standard deviation unit","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":"normalized","cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":"Each series was normalized to produce index values of change relative to a 1901-2000 base period","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null}],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions>air temperature"]}]}]}]},{"xmlId":"64334","NOAAStudyId":"26030","studyName":"Reconstructions of North Pacific atmospheric circulation since 1500 AD based on soil moisture, air temperature, and precipitation in Southwest US and output of paleoclimate simulations","doi":"https://doi.org/10.25921/0gxb-3j28","dataPublisher":"NOAA","contactInfo":{"type":"CONTACT INFORMATION","shortName":"DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI","longName":"National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce ","address":"325 Broadway, E/NE31","city":"Boulder","state":"CO","postalCode":"80305-3328","country":"USA","dataCenterUrl":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data","email":"paleo@noaa.gov","phone":"303-497-6280","fax":"303-497-6513","constraints":"Please cite original publication, online resource, dataset and publication DOIs (where available), and date accessed when using downloaded data. If there is no publication information, please cite investigator, title, online resource, and date accessed. The appearance of external links associated with a dataset does not constitute endorsement by the Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of external Web sites or the information, products or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities, the Department of Commerce/NOAA does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. These links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this Department of Commerce/NOAA Web site."},"dataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","investigators":"Wahl, E.R.; Zorita, E.; Trouet, V.; Taylor, A.H.","version":"1.0","funding":[],"studyNotes":null,"onlineResourceLink":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/26030","difMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/dif/xml/noaa-recon-26030.xml","isoMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/iso/xml/noaa-recon-26030.xml","originalSource":null,"dataTypeInformation":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/datasets/climate-reconstruction","studyCode":null,"scienceKeywords":["Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulation Patterns Reconstruction"],"reconstruction":"Y","contributionDate":"2019-02-07","entryId":"noaa-recon-26030","earliestYearBP":450,"mostRecentYearBP":-30,"earliestYearCE":1500,"mostRecentYearCE":1980,"publication":[{"author":{"name":"Wahl, Eugene R., Eduardo Zorita, Valerie Trouet, and Alan H. Taylor"},"pubYear":2019,"title":"Jet stream dynamics, hydroclimate, and fire in California: 1600 CE to present","journal":"Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences","volume":null,"edition":null,"issue":null,"pages":null,"reportNumber":null,"citation":"Wahl, Eugene R., Eduardo Zorita, Valerie Trouet, and Alan H. Taylor. 2019. Jet stream dynamics, hydroclimate, and fire in California: 1600 CE to present. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. . ","type":"publication","identifier":null,"abstract":"Moisture delivery in California is largely regulated by the strength and position of the North Pacific jet stream (NPJ), winter high-altitude winds that influence regional hydroclimate and forest fire during the following warm season. We use climate model simulations and paleoclimate data to reconstruct winter NPJ characteristics back to 1600 CE to identify the influence of NPJ behavior on moisture and forest fire extremes in California before and during the more recent period of fire suppression. Maximum zonal NPJ velocity is lower and northward shifted and has a larger latitudinal spread during presuppression dry and high-fire extremes. Conversely, maximum zonal NPJ is higher and southward shifted, with narrower latitudinal spread during wet and low-fire extremes. These NPJ, precipitation, and fire associations hold across pre–20th-century socioecological fire regimes, including Native American burning, postcontact disruption and native population decline, and intensification of forest use during the later 19th century. Precipitation extremes and NPJ behavior remain closely linked in the 20th and 21st centuries, but fire extremes become uncoupled due to fire suppression after 1900. Simulated future conditions in California include more wet-season moisture as rain (and less as snow), a longer fire season, and higher temperatures, leading to drier fire-season conditions independent of 21st-century precipitation changes. Assuming continuation of current fire management practices, thermodynamic warming is expected to override the dynamical influence of the NPJ on climate–fire relationships controlling fire extremes in California. Recent widespread fires in California in association with wet NPJ extremes may be early evidence of this change.","pubRank":"1"}],"site":[{"NOAASiteId":"57839","siteName":"Pacific Ocean and American continents","mappable":"N","locationName":"Ocean>Pacific Ocean","geo":{"geoType":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"POLYGON","coordinates":["-60","70","120","-60"]},"properties":{"southernmostLatitude":"-60","northernmostLatitude":"70","westernmostLongitude":"120","easternmostLongitude":"-60","minElevationMeters":null,"maxElevationMeters":null}},"paleoData":[{"dataTableName":"Pacific Atmospheric Wahl2019","NOAADataTableId":"38513","earliestYear":1500,"mostRecentYear":1980,"timeUnit":"AD","earliestYearBP":450,"mostRecentYearBP":-30,"earliestYearCE":1500,"mostRecentYearCE":1980,"coreLengthMeters":null,"dataTableNotes":null,"species":[],"dataFile":[{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/reconstructions/wahl2019/","urlDescription":"Data Folder","linkText":"netCDF files of SLP and 200mb U, V and geopotential height","variables":[],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions>atmospheric circulation"]},{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/reconstructions/wahl2019/wahl2019-readme.txt","urlDescription":"NOAA Template File","linkText":"Metadata for Pacific Atmospheric Reconstruction","variables":[{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|PALEOCLIMATIC MODELING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>circulation variable>pressure variable>sea level pressure","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"pressure unit>hectopascal","cvSeasonality":"3-month period>Dec-Feb","cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":"Analog data assimilation in Earth System Model; Earth System Models are: MPI-ESM-P and NCAR-CCSM4 and GISS-ER; gridded","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|PALEOCLIMATIC MODELING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>circulation variable>circulation length variable>geopotential height","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"length unit>meter","cvSeasonality":"3-month period>Dec-Feb","cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":"200mb level; Analog data assimilation in Earth System Model; Earth System Models are: MPI-ESM-P and CCSM4; gridded","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|PALEOCLIMATIC MODELING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>circulation variable>velocity variable>wind speed>eastward wind speed","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"rate unit>length per time unit>meter per second","cvSeasonality":"3-month period>Dec-Feb","cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":"200mb level; Analog data assimilation in Earth System Model; Earth System Models are: MPI-ESM-P and CCSM4; gridded","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|PALEOCLIMATIC MODELING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>circulation variable>velocity variable>wind speed>northward wind speed","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"rate unit>length per time unit>meter per second","cvSeasonality":"3-month period>Dec-Feb","cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":"200mb level; Analog data assimilation in Earth System Model; Earth System Models are: MPI-ESM-P and CCSM4 and GISS-ER; gridded","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|PALEOCLIMATIC MODELING","cvWhat":"age variable>age","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"time unit>age unit>year Common Era","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|PALEOCLIMATIC MODELING","cvWhat":"sampling metadata>latitude","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"angle unit>degree>degree east","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|PALEOCLIMATIC MODELING","cvWhat":"sampling metadata>longitude","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"angle unit>degree>degree north","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null}],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions>atmospheric circulation"]}]}]}]},{"xmlId":"17005","NOAAStudyId":"19319","studyName":"Sierra Nevada, California 500 Year Snowpack Reconstruction","doi":null,"dataPublisher":"NOAA","contactInfo":{"type":"CONTACT INFORMATION","shortName":"DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI","longName":"National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce ","address":"325 Broadway, E/NE31","city":"Boulder","state":"CO","postalCode":"80305-3328","country":"USA","dataCenterUrl":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data","email":"paleo@noaa.gov","phone":"303-497-6280","fax":"303-497-6513","constraints":"Please cite original publication, online resource, dataset and publication DOIs (where available), and date accessed when using downloaded data. If there is no publication information, please cite investigator, title, online resource, and date accessed. The appearance of external links associated with a dataset does not constitute endorsement by the Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of external Web sites or the information, products or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities, the Department of Commerce/NOAA does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. These links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this Department of Commerce/NOAA Web site."},"dataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","investigators":"Belmecheri, S.; Babst, F.; Wahl, E.R.; Stahle, D.W.; Trouet, V.","version":"1.0","funding":[{"fundingAgency":"US National Science Foundation","fundingGrant":"AGS-1349942"},{"fundingAgency":"Swiss National Science Foundation","fundingGrant":"P300P2_154543"},{"fundingAgency":"US Geological Survey","fundingGrant":"G13AC00339"}],"studyNotes":"April 1st Snow Water Equivalent reconstruction using tree-rings and temperature reconstruction (1500-1980)","onlineResourceLink":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/19319","difMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/dif/xml/noaa-recon-19319.xml","isoMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/iso/xml/noaa-recon-19319.xml","originalSource":null,"dataTypeInformation":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/datasets/climate-reconstruction","studyCode":null,"scienceKeywords":["Other Hydroclimate Reconstruction"],"reconstruction":"Y","contributionDate":"2015-10-01","entryId":"noaa-recon-19319","earliestYearBP":450,"mostRecentYearBP":-65,"earliestYearCE":1500,"mostRecentYearCE":2015,"publication":[{"author":{"name":"Soumaya Belmecheri, Flurin Babst, Eugene R. Wahl, David W. Stahle and Valerie Trouet"},"pubYear":2015,"title":"Multi-century evaluation of Sierra Nevada snowpack","journal":"Nature Climate Change","volume":null,"edition":null,"issue":null,"pages":null,"reportNumber":null,"citation":"Soumaya Belmecheri, Flurin Babst, Eugene R. Wahl, David W. Stahle and Valerie Trouet. 2015. Multi-century evaluation of Sierra Nevada snowpack. Nature Climate Change. . doi: 10.1038/nclimate2809","type":"publication","identifier":{"type":"doi","id":"10.1038/nclimate2809","url":"http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2809"},"abstract":"California is currently experiencing a record-setting drought that started in 2012 and recently culminated in the first ever mandatory state-wide water restriction. The snowpack conditions in the Sierra Nevada mountains present an ominous sign of the severity of this drought: the 1 April 2015 snow water equivalent (SWE) was at only 5% of its historical average. In the Mediterranean climate of California, with 80% of the precipitation occurring during winter months, Sierra Nevada snowpack plays a critical role in replenishing the state's water reservoirs and provides 30% of its water supply. As a result, a multi-year and severe snowpack decline can acutely impact human and natural systems, including urban and agricultural water supplies, hydroelectric power and wildfire risk.\r\nThe exceptional character of the 2012-2015 drought has been revealed in millennium-length palaeoclimate records, but no long-term historical context is available for the recent snowpack decline. Here, we present an annually resolved reconstruction of 1 April SWE conditions over the whole Sierra Nevada range for the past 500 years. We combined an extensive compilation of blue oak tree-ring series that reflects large-scale California winter precipitation anomalies with a tree-ring-based California February-March temperature record in a reconstruction that explains 63% of the Sierra Nevada SWE variance over the instrumental period.","pubRank":"1"}],"site":[{"NOAASiteId":"56586","siteName":"Sierra Nevada","mappable":"N","locationName":"Continent>North America>United States Of America>California","geo":{"geoType":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"POLYGON","coordinates":["36.57","41.583","-121.422","118.768"]},"properties":{"southernmostLatitude":"36.57","northernmostLatitude":"41.583","westernmostLongitude":"-121.422","easternmostLongitude":"118.768","minElevationMeters":null,"maxElevationMeters":null}},"paleoData":[{"dataTableName":"Sierra2015SWE","NOAADataTableId":"29838","earliestYear":1500,"mostRecentYear":2015,"timeUnit":"AD","earliestYearBP":450,"mostRecentYearBP":-65,"earliestYearCE":1500,"mostRecentYearCE":2015,"coreLengthMeters":null,"dataTableNotes":null,"species":[],"dataFile":[{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/treering/reconstructions/california/sierra2015swe.txt","urlDescription":"Data File","linkText":"Sierra Nevada 500 Year Snow Water Equivalent Reconstruction","variables":[{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"age variable>age","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"time unit>age unit>year Common Era","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>cryospheric variable>cryospheric quantity>snow water equivalent","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"dimensionless","cvSeasonality":"1-month period>Apr","cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":"first principal component","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>cryospheric variable>cryospheric quantity>snow water equivalent","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":"unspecified error>unspecified error lower bound","cvUnit":"dimensionless","cvSeasonality":"1-month period>Apr","cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":"first principal component","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>cryospheric variable>cryospheric quantity>snow water equivalent","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":"unspecified error>unspecified error upper bound","cvUnit":"dimensionless","cvSeasonality":"1-month period>Apr","cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":"first principal component","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>cryospheric variable>cryospheric quantity>snow water equivalent","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"dimensionless","cvSeasonality":"1-month period>Apr","cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":"first principal component; low elevation Sites <2129.8m","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>cryospheric variable>cryospheric quantity>snow water equivalent","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"dimensionless","cvSeasonality":"1-month period>Apr","cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":"first principal component; high elevation Sites >2669.2m","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"INSTRUMENTAL","cvWhat":"earth system variable>cryospheric variable>cryospheric quantity>snow water equivalent","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"dimensionless","cvSeasonality":"1-month period>Apr","cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":"first principal component; 1930-2015","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"INSTRUMENTAL","cvWhat":"earth system variable>cryospheric variable>cryospheric quantity>snow water equivalent","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"dimensionless","cvSeasonality":"1-month period>Apr","cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":"first principal component; low elevation Sites <2129.8m; 1930-2015","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"INSTRUMENTAL","cvWhat":"earth system variable>cryospheric variable>cryospheric quantity>snow water equivalent","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"dimensionless","cvSeasonality":"1-month period>Apr","cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":"first principal component; high elevation Sites >2669.2m; 1930-2015","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null}],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions>precipitation"]}]}]}]},{"xmlId":"9213","NOAAStudyId":"10549","studyName":"Skinner fire data from Southwest (Blacks Mountain) - IMPD USSW_001","doi":null,"dataPublisher":"NOAA","contactInfo":{"type":"CONTACT INFORMATION","shortName":"DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI","longName":"National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce ","address":"325 Broadway, E/NE31","city":"Boulder","state":"CO","postalCode":"80305-3328","country":"USA","dataCenterUrl":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data","email":"paleo@noaa.gov","phone":"303-497-6280","fax":"303-497-6513","constraints":"Please cite original publication, online resource, dataset and publication DOIs (where available), and date accessed when using downloaded data. If there is no publication information, please cite investigator, title, online resource, and date accessed. The appearance of external links associated with a dataset does not constitute endorsement by the Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of external Web sites or the information, products or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities, the Department of Commerce/NOAA does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. These links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this Department of Commerce/NOAA Web site."},"dataType":"FIRE HISTORY","investigators":"Skinner, C.N.; Taylor, A.H.; Trouet, V.; Wahl, E.R.; Stephens, S.L.","version":"1.0","funding":[{"fundingAgency":"USDA Forest Service","fundingGrant":"04‐JV‐11272162‐407"},{"fundingAgency":"USA Joint Fire Science Program","fundingGrant":null}],"studyNotes":"These fire-scar records were provided via a USDI/USDA Interagency Joint Fire Sciences Program database project (Taylor, A. H., C. N. Skinner, A. M. Carleton, and S. L. Stephens. 2007. Fire climate interactions and predicting fire season severity in the Mediterranean climate areas of California, southern Oregon, and western Nevada. Rep. 03-1-1-22. Joint Fire Sci. Program, Boise, Idaho.). Fire scar-records were selected from individual trees that were recording fire prior to the year 1500. Data from additional sites were also included in the Southwest site, and the original records for these sites are available via the International Multiproxy Paleofire Database (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/impd/paleofire.html):\nSite Name, Latitude (degrees N), Longitude (degrees W), Principal Investigator\nBlack Mountain,33.36,108.21,Baisan and Swetnam\nCanada Bonia,35.91,106.37,Touchan et al.\nCerro Bandera,35,108.1,Grissino-Mayer and Swetnam\nFillmore Canyon,32.33,106.56,Morino et al.\nHitchcock,32.38,110.68,1,Baisan and Morino\nHoya de Cibola Lava Flow,34.89,108.15,Grissino-Mayer and Swetnam\nJosephine Saddle,31.69,110.86,Gungle et al.\nLa Luz trail Sandia Mountains,35.21,106.46,Baisan and Swetnam\nLa Marchanita,34.99,108.06,Grissino-Mayer and Swetnam\nMesita Blanca,34.88,108.07,Grissino-Mayer and Swetnam\nMica Mountain,32.2,110.5,Baisan and Swetnam\nMonument Canyon Natural Area,35.8,106.62,Swetnam et al.\nN Alamo Bog,35.92,106.59,Morino et al.\nOld Pine Bluff,32.34,106.55,Morino et al.\nPeters Flat,32.46,109.56,Grissino-Mayer\nRincon Peak,32.12,110.52,Baisan\nRito de los Frijoles,35.82,106.38,Swetnam et al.\nRock House Spring,32.33,106.55,Morino and Swetnam\nRound Mountain,35.87,105.64,Touchan","onlineResourceLink":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/10549","difMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/dif/xml/noaa-fire-10549.xml","isoMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/iso/xml/noaa-fire-10549.xml","originalSource":null,"dataTypeInformation":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/datasets/fire-history","studyCode":"USSW_001","scienceKeywords":["ponderosa pine","western yellow pine","CADE","PIPO","PSME","Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco","Douglas-fir","Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson","California incense cedar","Calocedrus decurrens (Torr.) Florin = Libocedrus decurrens Torr."],"reconstruction":"N","contributionDate":"2010-03-18","entryId":"noaa-fire-10549","earliestYearBP":720,"mostRecentYearBP":-50,"earliestYearCE":1230,"mostRecentYearCE":2000,"publication":[{"author":null,"pubYear":2010,"title":"Fire-climate interactions in the American West since 1400 CE","journal":"Geophysical Research Letters","volume":null,"edition":null,"issue":null,"pages":null,"reportNumber":null,"citation":"Trouet, V., A. H. Taylor, E. R. Wahl, C. N. Skinner, and S. L. Stephens. 2010. Fire-climate interactions in the American West since 1400 CE, Geophysical Research Letters 37, L04702, doi:10.1029/2009GL041695.\n","type":"publication","identifier":{"type":"doi","id":"10.1029/2009GL041695","url":"http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2009GL041695"},"abstract":"Despite a strong anthropogenic fingerprint on 20th Century wildland fire activity in the American West, climate remains a main driver. A better understanding of the spatiotemporal variability in fire-climate interactions is therefore crucial for fire management. Here, we present annually resolved, tree-ring based fire records for four regions in the American West that extend back to 1400 CE. In all regions, years with high fire activity were characterized by widespread yet regionally distinct summer droughts. Overall fire activity was high in late Medieval times, when much of the American West was affected by mega-droughts. A distinct decline in fire activity in the late 16th Century corresponds with anomalously low temperatures during the Little Ice Age and a decline in Native American fire use. The high spatiotemporal resolution of our fire record discloses a time-frequency dependent climatic influence on wildfire regimes in the American West that needs to be accounted for in fire models.","pubRank":"1"}],"site":[{"NOAASiteId":"37200","siteName":"Southwest (Blacks Mountain)","mappable":"Y","locationName":"Continent>North America>United States Of America>California","geo":{"geoType":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"POINT","coordinates":["33.84","-116.74"]},"properties":{"southernmostLatitude":"33.84","northernmostLatitude":"33.84","westernmostLongitude":"-116.74","easternmostLongitude":"-116.74","minElevationMeters":null,"maxElevationMeters":null}},"paleoData":[{"dataTableName":"USSW_001","NOAADataTableId":"19347","earliestYear":1230,"mostRecentYear":2000,"timeUnit":"AD","earliestYearBP":720,"mostRecentYearBP":-50,"earliestYearCE":1230,"mostRecentYearCE":2000,"coreLengthMeters":null,"dataTableNotes":null,"species":[{"speciesCode":"CADE","scientificName":"Calocedrus decurrens (Torr.) Florin = Libocedrus decurrens Torr.","commonName":["California incense cedar"]},{"speciesCode":"PIPO","scientificName":"Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson","commonName":["ponderosa pine","western yellow pine"]},{"speciesCode":"PSME","scientificName":"Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) 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If there is no publication information, please cite investigator, title, online resource, and date accessed. The appearance of external links associated with a dataset does not constitute endorsement by the Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of external Web sites or the information, products or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities, the Department of Commerce/NOAA does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. These links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this Department of Commerce/NOAA Web site."},"dataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","investigators":"Ohlwein, C.; Wahl, E.R.","version":"1.0","funding":[{"fundingAgency":"US National Science Foundation","fundingGrant":"9801449"}],"studyNotes":"Bayesian Hierarchical model and modern analog reconstructions based on fossil and modern pollen assemblages. Neotoma Data Set IDs: 15593, 15594, 26543, 26694, 26695, 15493, 15494, 26549, 26696, 26697, 26698 were obtained from: https://apps.neotomadb.org/explorer/. Site Locations- Taquitz Meadow: 33.768889 N, -116.662222 W, 2399 m; Hual Cu Cuish 32.968889 N, -116.583611 W, 1433 m\r\n Provided Keywords: Holocene, southern California, air temperature, summer, Bayesian modelling","onlineResourceLink":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/27930","difMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/dif/xml/noaa-recon-27930.xml","isoMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/iso/xml/noaa-recon-27930.xml","originalSource":null,"dataTypeInformation":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/datasets/climate-reconstruction","studyCode":null,"scienceKeywords":["Precipitation Reconstruction","Air Temperature Reconstruction"],"reconstruction":"Y","contributionDate":"2019-10-15","entryId":"noaa-recon-27930","earliestYearBP":11466,"mostRecentYearBP":-26,"earliestYearCE":-9516,"mostRecentYearCE":1976,"publication":[{"author":{"name":"Ohlwein, Christian and Eugene R. Wahl"},"pubYear":2012,"title":"Review of probabilistic pollen-climate transfer methods","journal":"Quaternary Science Reviews","volume":"31","edition":null,"issue":null,"pages":"17-29","reportNumber":null,"citation":"Ohlwein, Christian and Eugene R. Wahl. 2012. Review of probabilistic pollen-climate transfer methods. Quaternary Science Reviews, 31, 17-29. doi: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2011.11.002","type":"publication","identifier":{"type":"doi","id":"10.1016/j.quascirev.2011.11.002","url":"http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2011.11.002"},"abstract":"Pollen-climate transfer methods are reviewed from a Bayesian perspective and with a special focus on the formulation of uncertainties. This approach is motivated by recent developments of spatial multiproxy Bayesian hierarchical models (BHM), which allow synthesizing local reconstructions from different proxies for a spatially complete picture of past climate. In order to enhance the pollen realism in these models we try to bridge the gap between spatial statistics and paleoclimatology and show how far classical pollen-climate transfer concepts such as regression methods, mutual climatic range, modern analogues, plant functional types, and biomes can be understood in novel ways by refining the data models used in BHMs. As a case study, we discuss modeling of uncertainty by introducing a new probabilistic pollen ratio model, which is a simplified variation of the modern analogue technique (MAT) including the concept of response surfaces and designed for later inclusion in a spatial multiproxy BHM. Applications to fossil pollen data from varved sediments in three nearby lakes in west-central Wisconsin, USA and for a Holocene fossil pollen record from southern California, USA provide local climate reconstructions of summer temperature for the past millennium and the Holocene respectively. The performanceof the probabilistic model is generally similar in comparison to MAT-derived reconstructions using the same data. Furthermore, the combination of co-location and precise dating for the three fossil sites in Wisconsin allows us to study the issue of site-specific uncertainty and to test the assumption of ergodicity in a real-world example. A multivariate ensemble kernel dressing approach derived from the post-processing of climate simulations reveals that the overall interpretation based on the individual reconstructions remains essentially unchanged, but the single-site reconstructions underestimate the overall uncertainty.","pubRank":"1"}],"site":[{"NOAASiteId":"58098","siteName":"Taquitz Meadow and Hual Cu Cuish","mappable":"Y","locationName":"Continent>North America>United States Of America>California","geo":{"geoType":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"POLYGON","coordinates":["32.968889","33.768889","-116.662222","-116.583611"]},"properties":{"southernmostLatitude":"32.968889","northernmostLatitude":"33.768889","westernmostLongitude":"-116.662222","easternmostLongitude":"-116.583611","minElevationMeters":null,"maxElevationMeters":null}},"paleoData":[{"dataTableName":"Taquitz Meadow/Hual Cu Cuish Analog Temp Ohlwein2012","NOAADataTableId":"40317","earliestYear":11466,"mostRecentYear":-26,"timeUnit":"cal yr BP","earliestYearBP":11466,"mostRecentYearBP":-26,"earliestYearCE":-9516,"mostRecentYearCE":1976,"coreLengthMeters":null,"dataTableNotes":"Hual Cu Cuish Core has dating disconuity above 2.0 m depth, only oldest material (below 2.0 m) and core top material were used. Core lengths- Taquitz: 2.53 m, Hual Cu Cuish 2.55 m","species":[],"dataFile":[{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/reconstructions/ohlwein2012/ohlwein2012-analog-temp.txt","urlDescription":"NOAA Template File","linkText":"Temperature - Analog Reconstruction","variables":[{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","cvWhat":"sampling metadata>sample identification","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":null,"cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":"site name","cvFormat":"Character","cvShortName":"ID"},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","cvWhat":"depth variable>depth","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"length unit>centimeter","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":"depth_cm"},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","cvWhat":"age variable>age","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"time unit>age unit>calendar year before present","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":"calyrBP"},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|POLLEN","cvWhat":"earth system variable>temperature variable>temperature>air temperature","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"temperature unit>degree Celsius","cvSeasonality":"1-month period>Jul","cvDetail":"anomalized","cvMethod":"computational method>statistical analysis method>analogue method","cvAdditionalInfo":"EV reference period (normative): 1961-1990 CE","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":"EV"},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|POLLEN","cvWhat":"earth system variable>temperature variable>temperature>air temperature","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":"standard deviation>one standard deviation","cvUnit":"temperature unit>degree Celsius","cvSeasonality":"1-month period>Jul","cvDetail":"anomalized","cvMethod":"computational method>statistical analysis method>analogue method","cvAdditionalInfo":"1-sigma reference period (normative): 1961-1990 CE","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":"1-sigma"}],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions>air temperature"]}]},{"dataTableName":"Taquitz Meadow/Hual Cu Cuish Bayesian Temp Ohlwein2012","NOAADataTableId":"40318","earliestYear":11466,"mostRecentYear":-26,"timeUnit":"cal yr BP","earliestYearBP":11466,"mostRecentYearBP":-26,"earliestYearCE":-9516,"mostRecentYearCE":1976,"coreLengthMeters":null,"dataTableNotes":"Hual Cu Cuish Core has dating disconuity above 2.0 m depth, only oldest material (below 2.0 m) and core top material were used. 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If there is no publication information, please cite investigator, title, online resource, and date accessed. The appearance of external links associated with a dataset does not constitute endorsement by the Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of external Web sites or the information, products or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities, the Department of Commerce/NOAA does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. These links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this Department of Commerce/NOAA Web site."},"dataType":"FIRE HISTORY","investigators":"Taylor, A.H.; Skinner, C.N.; Trouet, V.; Wahl, E.R.; Stephens, S.L.","version":"1.0","funding":[{"fundingAgency":"USDA Forest Service","fundingGrant":"04‐JV‐11272162‐407"},{"fundingAgency":"USA Joint Fire Science Program","fundingGrant":null}],"studyNotes":"These fire-scar records were provided via a USDI/USDA \nInteragency Joint Fire Sciences Program database project (Taylor, \nA. H., C. N. Skinner, A. M. Carleton, and S. L. Stephens. 2007.\nFire climate interactions and predicting fire season severity in the\nMediterranean climate areas of California, southern Oregon, and western\nNevada. Rep. 03-1-1-22. Joint Fire Sci. Program, Boise, Idaho.). Fire \nscar-records were selected from individual trees that were recording \nfire prior to the year 1500. These records were compiled from data \nfrom the following original sites:\nSite Name, Latitude (degrees N), Longitude (degrees W), Principal Investigator\nAdin Pass,41.34,120.99,Skinner\nBluff Lake,41.34,122.55,Skinner\nCedar Basin,41.22,122.49,Skinner\nCoggins Saddle,42.15,122.69,Skinner\nCrater Creek,41.38,122.58,Skinner\nDog Valley,39.59,120.03,Taylor\nEl Capitan,37.73,119.76,Taylor\nGoosenest,41.53,121.85,Skinner\nGrayback,42.14,123.45,Skinner\nHayfork,40.5,123.2,Taylor\nLake Tahoe Basin,39.05,119.93,Taylor\nProspect Peak,42.56,121.69,Taylor\nStampede Reservoir,39.45,120.13,Taylor","onlineResourceLink":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/10548","difMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/dif/xml/noaa-fire-10548.xml","isoMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/iso/xml/noaa-fire-10548.xml","originalSource":null,"dataTypeInformation":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/datasets/fire-history","studyCode":"USNC_001","scienceKeywords":["CADE","ponderosa pine","western yellow pine","PSME","Douglas-fir","PIPO","Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson","Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco","Calocedrus decurrens (Torr.) Florin = Libocedrus decurrens Torr.","California incense cedar"],"reconstruction":"N","contributionDate":"2010-03-18","entryId":"noaa-fire-10548","earliestYearBP":790,"mostRecentYearBP":-50,"earliestYearCE":1160,"mostRecentYearCE":2000,"publication":[{"author":null,"pubYear":2010,"title":"Fire-climate interactions in the American West since 1400 CE","journal":"Geophysical Research Letters","volume":null,"edition":null,"issue":null,"pages":null,"reportNumber":null,"citation":"Trouet, V., A. H. Taylor, E. R. Wahl, C. N. Skinner, and S. L. Stephens. 2010. Fire-climate interactions in the American West since 1400 CE, Geophysical Research Letters 37, L04702, doi:10.1029/2009GL041695.\n","type":"publication","identifier":{"type":"doi","id":"10.1029/2009GL041695","url":"http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2009GL041695"},"abstract":"Despite a strong anthropogenic fingerprint on 20th Century wildland fire activity in the American West, climate remains a main driver. A better understanding of the spatiotemporal variability in fire-climate interactions is therefore crucial for fire management. Here, we present annually resolved, tree-ring based fire records for four regions in the American West that extend back to 1400 CE. In all regions, years with high fire activity were characterized by widespread yet regionally distinct summer droughts. Overall fire activity was high in late Medieval times, when much of the American West was affected by mega-droughts. A distinct decline in fire activity in the late 16th Century corresponds with anomalously low temperatures during the Little Ice Age and a decline in Native American fire use. The high spatiotemporal resolution of our fire record discloses a time-frequency dependent climatic influence on wildfire regimes in the American West that needs to be accounted for in fire models.","pubRank":"1"}],"site":[{"NOAASiteId":"37199","siteName":"Northern California","mappable":"Y","locationName":"Continent>North America>United States Of America>California","geo":{"geoType":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"POINT","coordinates":["41","-122.5"]},"properties":{"southernmostLatitude":"41","northernmostLatitude":"41","westernmostLongitude":"-122.5","easternmostLongitude":"-122.5","minElevationMeters":null,"maxElevationMeters":null}},"paleoData":[{"dataTableName":"USNC_001","NOAADataTableId":"19346","earliestYear":1160,"mostRecentYear":2000,"timeUnit":"AD","earliestYearBP":790,"mostRecentYearBP":-50,"earliestYearCE":1160,"mostRecentYearCE":2000,"coreLengthMeters":null,"dataTableNotes":null,"species":[{"speciesCode":"CADE","scientificName":"Calocedrus decurrens (Torr.) Florin = Libocedrus decurrens Torr.","commonName":["California incense cedar"]},{"speciesCode":"PIPO","scientificName":"Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson","commonName":["ponderosa pine","western yellow pine"]},{"speciesCode":"PSME","scientificName":"Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco","commonName":["Douglas-fir"]}],"dataFile":[{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/firehistory/firescar/northamerica/fire-hist-graphs/usnc_001-fire-hist-graph.pdf","urlDescription":"Fire History Graph","linkText":"usnc_001-fire-hist-graph.pdf","variables":[],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>fire history>fire scar dates"]},{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/firehistory/firescar/northamerica/fire-hist-graphs/usnc_001-fire-hist-graph.png","urlDescription":"Fire History Graph","linkText":"usnc_001-fire-hist-graph.png","variables":[],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>fire history>fire scar dates"]},{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/firehistory/firescar/northamerica/usnc_001.fhx","urlDescription":"Fire Scar Data","linkText":"usnc_001.fhx","variables":[{"cvDataType":"FIRE HISTORY|TREE RING","cvWhat":"formation property>event layer>tree demographic and injury and fire event code","cvMaterial":"biological material>tissue>wood","cvError":null,"cvUnit":null,"cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":"FHX2 data format; refer to IMPD documentation for description of codes","cvFormat":"Character","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"FIRE HISTORY|TREE RING","cvWhat":"age variable>age","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":null,"cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null}],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>fire history>fire scar dates"]},{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/firehistory/firescar/northamerica/usnc_001.txt","urlDescription":"More Information","linkText":"usnc_001.txt","variables":[{"cvDataType":"FIRE HISTORY|TREE RING","cvWhat":"formation property>event layer>tree demographic and injury and fire event code","cvMaterial":"biological material>tissue>wood","cvError":null,"cvUnit":null,"cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":"FHX2 data format; refer to IMPD documentation for description of codes","cvFormat":"Character","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"FIRE HISTORY|TREE RING","cvWhat":"age variable>age","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":null,"cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null}],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>fire history>fire scar dates"]},{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/firehistory/firescar/contributions_by_author/trouet2010/trouet2010.txt","urlDescription":"Original Data and Full Metadata","linkText":"trouet2010.txt","variables":[{"cvDataType":"FIRE HISTORY|TREE RING","cvWhat":"age variable>age","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":null,"cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"FIRE HISTORY|TREE RING","cvWhat":"formation property>event layer>tree demographic and fire event code","cvMaterial":"biological material>tissue>wood","cvError":null,"cvUnit":"dimensionless","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":"Fire-scars are labelled '2'; years where the tree was recording are labelled '1'; years when it was not recording are labelled '0'","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null}],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>fire history>fire scar dates"]}]}]}]},{"xmlId":"14808","NOAAStudyId":"17157","studyName":"Temperate Western North America 1500-1980 AD February-March 2m Air Temperature","doi":null,"dataPublisher":"NOAA","contactInfo":{"type":"CONTACT INFORMATION","shortName":"DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI","longName":"National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce ","address":"325 Broadway, E/NE31","city":"Boulder","state":"CO","postalCode":"80305-3328","country":"USA","dataCenterUrl":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data","email":"paleo@noaa.gov","phone":"303-497-6280","fax":"303-497-6513","constraints":"Please cite original publication, online resource, dataset and publication DOIs (where available), and date accessed when using downloaded data. If there is no publication information, please cite investigator, title, online resource, and date accessed. The appearance of external links associated with a dataset does not constitute endorsement by the Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of external Web sites or the information, products or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities, the Department of Commerce/NOAA does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. These links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this Department of Commerce/NOAA Web site."},"dataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","investigators":"Wahl, E.R.; Diaz, H.F.; Smerdon, J.E.; Ammann, C.M.","version":"1.0","funding":[{"fundingAgency":"National Center for Atmospheric Research -Weather and Climate Impacts Assessment","fundingGrant":null}],"studyNotes":null,"onlineResourceLink":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/17157","difMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/dif/xml/noaa-recon-17157.xml","isoMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/iso/xml/noaa-recon-17157.xml","originalSource":null,"dataTypeInformation":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/datasets/climate-reconstruction","studyCode":null,"scienceKeywords":["Air Temperature Reconstruction"],"reconstruction":"Y","contributionDate":"2014-09-02","entryId":"noaa-recon-17157","earliestYearBP":450,"mostRecentYearBP":-30,"earliestYearCE":1500,"mostRecentYearCE":1980,"publication":[{"author":{"name":"Wahl, E.R., H.F. Diaz, J.E. Smerdon, and C.M. Ammann"},"pubYear":2014,"title":"Late Winter Temperature Response to Large Tropical Volcanic Eruptions in Temperate Western North America: Relationship to ENSO Phases","journal":"Global and Planetary Change","volume":"122","edition":null,"issue":null,"pages":"238-250","reportNumber":null,"citation":"Wahl, E.R., H.F. Diaz, J.E. Smerdon, and C.M. Ammann. 2014. Late Winter Temperature Response to Large Tropical Volcanic Eruptions in Temperate Western North America: Relationship to ENSO Phases. Global and Planetary Change, 122, 238-250. doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2014.08.005","type":"publication","identifier":{"type":"doi","id":"10.1016/j.gloplacha.2014.08.005","url":"http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2014.08.005"},"abstract":"February-March temperature reconstructions in western North America from 1500-1980 in the Common Era (CE) are used to evaluate, from a regional perspective, the hypothesis that radiative forcing by large tropical volcanic eruptions induces a tendency in the climate system towards an early post-event El Niño (EN) response followed by a delayed La Niña (LN) response. Post-event spatial composites using superposed epoch analysis (SEA) detect indications for an EN-like pattern in post-event Years 1-2; this result, however, is sensitive to the set of eruptions evaluated. Highly significant LN-like patterns are also observed for two eruptions during Year 1. In contrast, a clear and unique LN-like response is found in both evaluated eruption sets during Years 3-5; Year 3 in particular represents the time of strongest post-event response. No significant EN-like patterns occur during these years. The relative homogeneity of the SEA response for each post-event year is evaluated in terms of the ratio of the amplitude of the SEA composite to its standard deviation across the eruption events. In relation to the same metric determined from random-event-year SEAs, these signal-to-noise ratios are most highly significant in the portions of the domain with the strongest anomalies in Years 1-5, especially Year 3. The signal-to-noise ratios tend towards uniformly low and insignificant values beyond the first half-decade after the eruption, indicating generally reduced coherence across events. In relation to the larger-scale circulation, post-eruption 500 mb February-March geopotential height composites from the 20th Century Reanalysis show ENSO-type features that are largely consistent with the SEA results from the primary eruption set during Year 1, but are inconsistent with the EN-like pattern exhibited by the second eruption set during Years 1-2. In Year 3, the pressure composite over North America and the adjacent Pacific and Atlantic is strongly LN-like, consistent with all SEA results; similarly, weakening coherence across events as time progresses beyond Year 3 is also consistent with more variable pressure composites noted after that time. The relatively robust character of the delayed LN-like response is evaluated in terms of the dynamic rebound of the climate system towards its initial energy balance as the radiative impact of immediate post-eruption aerosol cooling dissipates. The LN-like SEA temperature response in Years 3-5 exhibits a slight shift of its southern warm anomaly to the north and west relative to pure composite LN conditions, which is detected as a specifically post-eruption feature in the region.","pubRank":"1"}],"site":[{"NOAASiteId":"56270","siteName":"Temperate Western North America","mappable":"N","locationName":"Continent>North America","geo":{"geoType":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"POLYGON","coordinates":["30","55","-130","-95"]},"properties":{"southernmostLatitude":"30","northernmostLatitude":"55","westernmostLongitude":"-130","easternmostLongitude":"-95","minElevationMeters":null,"maxElevationMeters":null}},"paleoData":[{"dataTableName":"Temperate WNAm 2mT W14","NOAADataTableId":"27357","earliestYear":1500,"mostRecentYear":1980,"timeUnit":"AD","earliestYearBP":450,"mostRecentYearBP":-30,"earliestYearCE":1500,"mostRecentYearCE":1980,"coreLengthMeters":null,"dataTableNotes":"Reconstruction using truncated EOF-principal components spatial regression (TEOF-PCSR)","species":[],"dataFile":[{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/reconstructions/wahl2014/W-temperate-NAm-FM-2mT-gridded-recon-w-uncertainty-ensemble.nc","urlDescription":"netCDF File","linkText":"Gridded 2m Temperature with uncertainty ensemble","variables":[{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"age variable>age","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"time unit>age unit>year Common Era","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>temperature variable>temperature>air temperature>surface air temperature","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"temperature unit>degree Celsius","cvSeasonality":"2-month period>Feb-Mar","cvDetail":"anomalized","cvMethod":"computational method>statistical analysis method>regression analysis","cvAdditionalInfo":"anomalies wrt 1904-1980; truncated EOF-principal components spatial regression (TEOF-PCSR); 2m air temperature","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null}],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions>air temperature"]},{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/reconstructions/wahl2014/wahl2014-wnam.txt","urlDescription":"Formatted Text File","linkText":"Metadata","variables":[],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions>air temperature"]}]}]}]},{"xmlId":"16785","NOAAStudyId":"19119","studyName":"The \"Living Blended Drought Atlas (LBDA)\" North American Drought Reconstruction for the last 2000 years","doi":null,"dataPublisher":"NOAA","contactInfo":{"type":"CONTACT INFORMATION","shortName":"DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI","longName":"National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce ","address":"325 Broadway, E/NE31","city":"Boulder","state":"CO","postalCode":"80305-3328","country":"USA","dataCenterUrl":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data","email":"paleo@noaa.gov","phone":"303-497-6280","fax":"303-497-6513","constraints":"Please cite original publication, online resource, dataset and publication DOIs (where available), and date accessed when using downloaded data. If there is no publication information, please cite investigator, title, online resource, and date accessed. The appearance of external links associated with a dataset does not constitute endorsement by the Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of external Web sites or the information, products or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities, the Department of Commerce/NOAA does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. These links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this Department of Commerce/NOAA Web site."},"dataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","investigators":"Cook, E.R.; Seager, R.; Heim, R.R.; Vose, R.S.; Herweijer, C.; Woodhouse, C.A.","version":"1.0","funding":[{"fundingAgency":"NOAA Cooperative Institute for Climate Applications Research (CICAR)","fundingGrant":"NA03OAR4320179, NA08OAR4320754"}],"studyNotes":"A high-resolution North American drought atlas reconstructed from tree rings. \r\nProvided Keywords: North American drought, tree rings, megadroughts, pluvials, PDSI.","onlineResourceLink":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/19119","difMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/dif/xml/noaa-recon-19119.xml","isoMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/iso/xml/noaa-recon-19119.xml","originalSource":null,"dataTypeInformation":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/datasets/climate-reconstruction","studyCode":null,"scienceKeywords":["Palmer Drought Index Reconstruction"],"reconstruction":"Y","contributionDate":"2015-07-29","entryId":"noaa-recon-19119","earliestYearBP":1950,"mostRecentYearBP":-55,"earliestYearCE":0,"mostRecentYearCE":2005,"publication":[{"author":{"name":"Cook, E.R., Seager, R., Heim, R.R., Vose, R.S., Herweijer, C., and Woodhouse, C."},"pubYear":2010,"title":"Megadroughts in North America: Placing IPCC projections of hydroclimatic change in a long-term paleoclimate context","journal":"Journal of Quaternary Science","volume":"25","edition":null,"issue":"1","pages":"48-61","reportNumber":null,"citation":"Cook, E.R., Seager, R., Heim, R.R., Vose, R.S., Herweijer, C., and Woodhouse, C. 2010. Megadroughts in North America: Placing IPCC projections of hydroclimatic change in a long-term paleoclimate context. Journal of Quaternary Science, 25(1), 48-61. doi: 10.1002/jqs.1303","type":"publication","identifier":{"type":"doi","id":"10.1002/jqs.1303","url":"http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jqs.1303"},"abstract":"IPCC Assessment Report 4 model projections suggest that the subtropical dry zones of the world will both dry and expand poleward in the future due to greenhouse warming. The US Southwest is particularly vulnerable in this regard and model projections indicate a progressive drying there out to the end of the 21st century. At the same time, the USA has been in a state of drought over much of the West for about 10 years now. While severe, this turn of the century drought has not yet clearly exceeded the severity of two exceptional droughts in the 20th century. So while the coincidence between the turn of the century drought and projected drying in the Southwest is cause for concern, it is premature to claim that the model projections are correct. At the same time, great new insights into past drought variability over North America have been made through the development of the North American Drought Atlas from tree rings. Analyses of this drought atlas have revealed past megadroughts of unprecedented duration in the West, largely in the Medieval period about 1000 years ago. A vastly improved Living Blended Drought Atlas (LBDA) for North America now under develop- ment reveals these megadroughts in far greater detail. The LBDA indicates the occurrence of the same Medieval megadroughts in the West and similar-scale megadroughts in the agriculturally and commercially important Mississippi Valley. Possible causes of these megadroughts and their implications for the future are discussed.","pubRank":"1"}],"site":[{"NOAASiteId":"56559","siteName":"North America and northern Central America","mappable":"N","locationName":"Continent>North America","geo":{"geoType":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"POLYGON","coordinates":["9","72","-170","-50"]},"properties":{"southernmostLatitude":"9","northernmostLatitude":"72","westernmostLongitude":"-170","easternmostLongitude":"-50","minElevationMeters":null,"maxElevationMeters":null}},"paleoData":[{"dataTableName":"North American Drought Atlas 2010","NOAADataTableId":"29558","earliestYear":0,"mostRecentYear":2005,"timeUnit":"AD","earliestYearBP":1950,"mostRecentYearBP":-55,"earliestYearCE":0,"mostRecentYearCE":2005,"coreLengthMeters":null,"dataTableNotes":null,"species":[],"dataFile":[{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/drought/LBDA2010/LBDA_PMDI_Instrumental_data.txt","urlDescription":"Text File","linkText":"Instrumental PMDI data used for calibration/verification","variables":[{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"age variable>age","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"time unit>age unit>year Common Era","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"INSTRUMENTAL","cvWhat":"earth system variable>hydroclimatic variable>hydroclimate index>Palmer Modified Drought Index","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"dimensionless","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null}],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions>precipitation"]},{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/drought/LBDA2010/LBDA_PMDI_Instrumental_metadata.txt","urlDescription":"Text File","linkText":"Instrumental PMDI metadata - 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If there is no publication information, please cite investigator, title, online resource, and date accessed. The appearance of external links associated with a dataset does not constitute endorsement by the Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of external Web sites or the information, products or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities, the Department of Commerce/NOAA does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. These links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this Department of Commerce/NOAA Web site."},"dataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","investigators":"Wahl, E.R.; Diaz, H.F.; Ohlwein, C.","version":"1.0","funding":[{"fundingAgency":"US National Science Foundation","fundingGrant":"0724619"}],"studyNotes":"Fossil pollen from three lakes in Wisconsin USA are used (Dark Lake, Ruby Lake, Little Pine Lake) along with modern pollen-climate relationships from the North American Pollen Data Base","onlineResourceLink":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/17133","difMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/dif/xml/noaa-recon-17133.xml","isoMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/iso/xml/noaa-recon-17133.xml","originalSource":null,"dataTypeInformation":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/datasets/climate-reconstruction","studyCode":null,"scienceKeywords":["Air Temperature Reconstruction","North Atlantic Oscillation","Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA)"],"reconstruction":"Y","contributionDate":"2014-09-02","entryId":"noaa-recon-17133","earliestYearBP":905,"mostRecentYearBP":-15,"earliestYearCE":1045,"mostRecentYearCE":1965,"publication":[{"author":{"name":"Wahl, E., H. Diaz, and C. Ohlwein"},"pubYear":2012,"title":"A pollen-based reconstruction of summer temperature in central North America and implications for circulation patterns during medieval times","journal":"Global and Planetary Change","volume":"84-85","edition":null,"issue":null,"pages":"66-74","reportNumber":null,"citation":"Wahl, E., H. Diaz, and C. Ohlwein. 2012. A pollen-based reconstruction of summer temperature in central North America and implications for circulation patterns during medieval times. Global and Planetary Change, 84-85, 66-74. doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.10.005","type":"publication","identifier":{"type":"doi","id":"10.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.10.005","url":"http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.10.005"},"abstract":"We present a reconstruction of mean summer temperature for the northern Midwest of theUSA based on lacustrine pollen records from three different lakes in Wisconsin. The results suggest a relatively warm period during the earlier part of the record (~1200–1500 CE) followed by a cooler Little Ice Age (~1500–1900) and a subsequent warming to modern conditions. The reconstructed modern summer mean temperature is in good agreement with observations, and the decades of the 1930s to 1950s appear to be the warmest such period in the proxy record (through 1974). Analyses of circulation features associated with the warmest summers in the recent climate record suggest a prevalence of continental ridging accompanied by generally dry conditions during these warm summers in the Midwest. Drought reconstruction using the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and tree-ring records as predictors also yield relatively dry conditions in medieval times for the central US. As reported in a number of recent studies, possible forcing mechanisms include La Niña-like conditions in the equatorial Pacific and warmer than average waters in the tropical Indo-western Pacific Ocean possibly coupled to a positive mode of the AMO/ NAO North Atlantic circulation pattern.","pubRank":"1"}],"site":[{"NOAASiteId":"21342","siteName":"Dark Lake (DARKLAKE)","mappable":"Y","locationName":"Continent>North America>United States Of America>Wisconsin","geo":{"geoType":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"POINT","coordinates":["45.275","-91.475"]},"properties":{"southernmostLatitude":"45.275","northernmostLatitude":"45.275","westernmostLongitude":"-91.475","easternmostLongitude":"-91.475","minElevationMeters":"334","maxElevationMeters":"334"}},"paleoData":[{"dataTableName":"Dark Lake Temp W12","NOAADataTableId":"27337","earliestYear":1045,"mostRecentYear":1965,"timeUnit":"AD","earliestYearBP":905,"mostRecentYearBP":-15,"earliestYearCE":1045,"mostRecentYearCE":1965,"coreLengthMeters":null,"dataTableNotes":"Reconstruction using inversion of a climate-to-pollen forward model (the binomial-logistic Generalized Linear Model applied to pollen count ratios)","species":[],"dataFile":[{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/pollen/recons/liadata.txt","urlDescription":"Original Source URL","linkText":"Pollen Data","variables":[],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions>air temperature"]},{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/reconstructions/wahl2012/wahl2012-darklake.txt","urlDescription":"Formatted Text File","linkText":"Dark Lake Reconstruction","variables":[{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|POLLEN","cvWhat":"age variable>age","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"time unit>age unit>year Common Era","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|POLLEN","cvWhat":"earth system variable>temperature variable>temperature>air temperature>surface air temperature","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":"percentile","cvUnit":"temperature unit>degree Celsius","cvSeasonality":"non-calendric period>summer","cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":"computational method>statistical analysis method>regression analysis","cvAdditionalInfo":"1st percentile; 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If there is no publication information, please cite investigator, title, online resource, and date accessed. The appearance of external links associated with a dataset does not constitute endorsement by the Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of external Web sites or the information, products or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities, the Department of Commerce/NOAA does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. These links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this Department of Commerce/NOAA Web site."},"dataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","investigators":"Lehner, F.; Wahl, E.R.; Wood, A.W.; Blatchford, D.B.; Llewellyn, D.","version":"1.0","funding":[{"fundingAgency":"US National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)","fundingGrant":null},{"fundingAgency":"US NOAA","fundingGrant":"Postdoc Applying Climate Expertise (PACE)"}],"studyNotes":"Tree-ring based ensemble reconstructions of upper Rio Grande streamflow, precipitation, and runoff efficiency at Otowi Bridge, New Mexico, since 1571 CE. ","onlineResourceLink":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/22070","difMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/dif/xml/noaa-recon-22070.xml","isoMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/iso/xml/noaa-recon-22070.xml","originalSource":null,"dataTypeInformation":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/datasets/climate-reconstruction","studyCode":null,"scienceKeywords":["Precipitation Reconstruction","Streamflow Reconstruction"],"reconstruction":"Y","contributionDate":"2017-05-09","entryId":"noaa-recon-22070","earliestYearBP":379,"mostRecentYearBP":-65,"earliestYearCE":1571,"mostRecentYearCE":2015,"publication":[{"author":{"name":"Flavio Lehner, Eugene R. Wahl, Andrew W. Wood, Douglas B. Blatchford, Dagmar Llewellyn"},"pubYear":2017,"title":"Assessing recent declines in Upper Rio Grande runoff efficiency from a paleoclimate perspective","journal":"Geophysical Research Letters","volume":null,"edition":null,"issue":null,"pages":null,"reportNumber":null,"citation":"Flavio Lehner, Eugene R. Wahl, Andrew W. Wood, Douglas B. Blatchford, Dagmar Llewellyn. 2017. Assessing recent declines in Upper Rio Grande runoff efficiency from a paleoclimate perspective. Geophysical Research Letters. . doi: 10.1002/2017GL073253","type":"publication","identifier":{"type":"doi","id":"10.1002/2017GL073253","url":"http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2017GL073253"},"abstract":"Recent decades have seen strong trends in hydroclimate over the American Southwest, with major river basins such as the Rio Grande exhibiting intermittent drought and declining runoff efficiencies. The extent to which these observed trends are exceptional has implications for current water management and seasonal streamflow forecasting practices. We present a new reconstruction of runoff ratio for the Upper Rio Grande basin back to 1571 CE, which provides evidence that the declining trend in runoff ratio from the 1980s to present-day is unprecedented in context of the last 445 years. Though runoff ratio is found to vary primarily in proportion to precipitation, the reconstructions suggest a secondary influence of temperature. In years of low precipitation, very low runoff ratios are made 2.5-3 times more likely by high temperatures. This temperature sensitivity appears to have strengthened in recent decades, implying future water management vulnerability should recent warming trends in the region continue.","pubRank":"1"}],"site":[{"NOAASiteId":"57193","siteName":"Otowi Bridge","mappable":"Y","locationName":"Continent>North America>United States Of America>New Mexico","geo":{"geoType":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"POINT","coordinates":["35.8747","-106.1414"]},"properties":{"southernmostLatitude":"35.8747","northernmostLatitude":"35.8747","westernmostLongitude":"-106.1414","easternmostLongitude":"-106.1414","minElevationMeters":null,"maxElevationMeters":null}},"paleoData":[{"dataTableName":"Lehner2017SFE","NOAADataTableId":"33196","earliestYear":1571,"mostRecentYear":2015,"timeUnit":"AD","earliestYearBP":379,"mostRecentYearBP":-65,"earliestYearCE":1571,"mostRecentYearCE":2015,"coreLengthMeters":null,"dataTableNotes":null,"species":[],"dataFile":[{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/treering/reconstructions/newmexico/lehner2017riogrande-readme.txt","urlDescription":"Data Description","linkText":"Lehner et al. 2017 Readme File","variables":[],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions>streamflow","earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions>precipitation"]},{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/treering/reconstructions/newmexico/lehner2017riogrande-flow.txt","urlDescription":"Comma-delimited Text Data File","linkText":"1000 Member Ensemble of Streamflow Reconstructions","variables":[{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"age variable>age","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"time unit>age unit>year Common Era","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>hydroclimatic variable>hydroclimate rate>streamflow","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":"ensemble member","cvUnit":"volume unit>acre foot","cvSeasonality":"annual","cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":"units are 1000s of acre feet","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null}],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions>streamflow"]},{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/treering/reconstructions/newmexico/lehner2017riogrande-precip.txt","urlDescription":"Comma-delimited Text Data File","linkText":"1000 Member Ensemble of Precipitation Reconstructions","variables":[{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"age variable>age","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"time unit>age unit>year Common Era","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>hydroclimatic variable>hydroclimate rate>precipitation","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":"ensemble member","cvUnit":"volume unit>acre foot","cvSeasonality":"annual","cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":"units are 1000s of acre feet","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null}],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions>precipitation"]},{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/treering/reconstructions/newmexico/lehner2017riogrande-runoff.txt","urlDescription":"Comma-delimited Text Data File","linkText":"1000 Member Ensemble of Runoff Ratio Reconstructions","variables":[{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"age variable>age","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"time unit>age unit>year Common Era","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>hydroclimatic variable>hydroclimate ratio>runoff coefficient","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":"ensemble member","cvUnit":"dimensionless","cvSeasonality":"annual","cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null}],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions>streamflow"]}]}]}]},{"xmlId":"19750","NOAAStudyId":"21793","studyName":"Wahl, et al., 2017, precipitation reconstruction for California","doi":"https://doi.org/10.25921/rswk-a370","dataPublisher":"NOAA","contactInfo":{"type":"CONTACT INFORMATION","shortName":"DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI","longName":"National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce ","address":"325 Broadway, E/NE31","city":"Boulder","state":"CO","postalCode":"80305-3328","country":"USA","dataCenterUrl":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data","email":"paleo@noaa.gov","phone":"303-497-6280","fax":"303-497-6513","constraints":"Please cite original publication, online resource, dataset and publication DOIs (where available), and date accessed when using downloaded data. If there is no publication information, please cite investigator, title, online resource, and date accessed. The appearance of external links associated with a dataset does not constitute endorsement by the Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of external Web sites or the information, products or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities, the Department of Commerce/NOAA does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. These links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this Department of Commerce/NOAA Web site."},"dataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","investigators":"Wahl, E.R.; Diaz, H.F.; Vose, R.S.; Gross, W.S.","version":"1.0","funding":[],"studyNotes":"The reconstructions are derived from streamflow reconstructions in western \r\nUnited States, which are based on tree rings. See article for details. \r\nNote: The data products set was updated on September 13, 2018, to include the \r\n\"wahl-2017-ca-all-uncert-climate-div-means-text.zip\" archive, described below.\r\n\r\nDataset Product Contents:\r\n Section 1: Dataset product folder contents overview\r\n Section 2: Details of the content the six ZIP archive files\r\n\r\n\r\nSection 1: Dataset product folder contents overview\r\n\r\n URL of folder: \r\n https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/reconstructions/wahl2017\r\n Item 1. readme-wahl-2017.txt - this file\r\n Item 2. Six ZIP archive files which contain the actual data:\r\n I. wahl-2017-ca-all-uncert-nc3.zip\r\n II. wahl-2017-ca-all-uncert-medians-nc3.zip\r\n III. wahl-2017-ca-all-uncert-medians-annual-maps.zip\r\n IV. wahl-2017-ca-climate-divs-all-uncert-nc3.zip\r\n V. wahl-2017-ca-climate-divs-all-uncert-medians-nc3.zip\r\n VI. wahl-2017-ca-all-uncert-climate-div-means-text.zip\r\n\r\n The first five ZIP archive files, listed above (I...IV), have the same \r\n structure.\r\n Each contains a folder, with the same filename as the ZIP \r\n file from which it was extracted (excluding the \".zip\" extension), \r\n which contains:\r\n A. One folder: data\r\n which contains the actual data\r\n B. One file: manifest-md5.txt\r\n which contains the md5 checksum values of the file(s) \r\n in the \"data\" directory \r\n The sixth ZIP archive file, \r\n \"wahl-2017-ca-all-uncert-climate-div-means-text.zip\" \r\n contains a folder named \r\n \"wahl-2017-ca-all-uncert-climate-div-means-text\" \r\n which contains:\r\n A. One folder: data\r\n which contains the actual data. The data \r\n being seven text-based data sets (one for each climate \r\n division) which have the form of flat matrices, with 407 rows \r\n (years) and 1001 columns (first column has the year values, \r\n columns 2-1001 have the ensemble member precipitation values). \r\n The files are named \r\n \"wahl-2017-ca-all-uncert-text-div1-means.txt\" ... \r\n \"wahl-2017-ca-all-uncert-text-div7-means.txt\"\r\n B. One file: manifest-md5.txt\r\n which contains the md5 checksum values of the file(s)\r\n in the \"data\" directory.\r\n Note: this ZIP archive was added to this dataset on September 13, 2018\r\n\r\n\r\nSection 2: Details of the content of the ZIP archive files I. through VI.\r\n\r\nI. wahl-2017-ca-all-uncert-nc3.zip\r\nThis ZIP archive contains one folder:\r\n wahl-2017-ca-all-uncert-nc3, which contains:\r\n A. One folder: data\r\n which contains:\r\n One file: wahl-2017-ca-all-uncert-nc3.nc\r\n which is a NetCDF file, which contains 1000 ensemble members,\r\n each containing 407 years from 1571-1977 AD.\r\n Each year contains:\r\n a grid of 19 latitude X 21 longitude 0.5 x 0.5 degree grid cells\r\n 32.5 to 42.0 decimal degrees latitude North\r\n -124.5 to -114.5 decimal degrees latitude East\r\n EACH GRID CELL VALUE REPRESENTS THE PRECIPITATION AS MILLIMETERS.\r\n Format: NetCDF version 3\r\n NetCDF Header Information:\r\n dimensions:\r\n Ensemble = 1000 ;\r\n Year = 407 ;\r\n Latitude = 19 ;\r\n Longitude = 21 ;\r\n variables:\r\n int Ensemble(Ensemble) ;\r\n Ensemble:units = \"count\" ;\r\n int Year(Year) ;\r\n Year:units = \"calendar_years\" ;\r\n double Latitude(Latitude) ;\r\n Latitude:units = \"degreesN\" ;\r\n double Longitude(Longitude) ;\r\n Longitude:units = \"degreesE\" ;\r\n double precipitation_amount(Longitude, Latitude, Year, Ensemble);\r\n precipitation_amount:units = \"Ensemble,Year,Latitude,\r\n Longitude\";\r\n precipitation_amount:missing_value = -999. ;\r\n B. One file: manifest-md5.txt\r\n which contains the md5 checksum values and names of the\r\n NetCDF file in the \"data\" folder, described above in A.\r\n\r\n\r\nII. wahl-2017-ca-all-uncert-medians-nc3.zip\r\nThis ZIP archive contains one folder:\r\n wahl-2017-ca-all-uncert-medians-nc3, which contains:\r\n A. One folder: data\r\n which contains:\r\n One file: wahl-2017-ca-all-uncert-medians-nc3.nc\r\n which is a NetCDF file, which contains the medians\r\n across the 1000 ensemble members, each containing 407 years\r\n from 1571-1977 AD.\r\n Each year contains:\r\n 407 years from 1571-1977 AD.\r\n Each year contains:\r\n a grid of 19 latitude X 21 longitude 0.5 x 0.5 degree grid cells\r\n 32.5 to 42.0 decimal degrees latitude North\r\n -124.5 to -114.5 decimal degrees latitude East\r\n EACH GRID CELL VALUE REPRESENTS THE PRECIPITATION AS MILLIMETERS.\r\n Format: NetCDF version 3\r\n NetCDF Header Information:\r\n dimensions:\r\n Year = 407 ;\r\n Latitude = 19 ;\r\n Longitude = 21 ;\r\n variables:\r\n int Year(Year) ;\r\n Year:units = \"calendar_years\" ;\r\n double Latitude(Latitude) ;\r\n Latitude:units = \"degreesN\" ;\r\n double Longitude(Longitude) ;\r\n Longitude:units = \"degreesE\" ;\r\n double precipitation_amount(Longitude, Latitude, Year);\r\n precipitation_amount:units = \"Year,Latitude,Longitude\";\r\n precipitation_amount:missing_value = -999. ;\r\n B. One file: manifest-md5.txt\r\n which contains the md5 checksum values and names of the\r\n NetCDF file in the \"data\" folder, described above in A.\r\n\r\n\r\nIII. wahl-2017-ca-all-uncert-medians-annual-maps.zip\r\nZIP archive wahl-2017-ca-all-uncert-medians-annual-maps.zip contains\r\nOne folder:\r\nwahl-2017-ca-all-uncert-medians-annual-maps, which contains:\r\n A. One folder: data\r\n Description of the information in folder \"data\":\r\n 1221 Files, in three folders representing\r\n 407 Annual Maps for years 1571-1977 AD. anomalies. EACH MAP DEPICTS \r\n THE MEDIAN PRECIPITATION FOR CALIFORNIA AS STANDARDIZED ANOMALIES\r\n (calculated wrt the full reconstruction period).\r\n As detailed below, each map is stored in PDF and PNG formats in the\r\n \"pdf\" and \"png\" folders respectively. The data corresponding to \r\n each map is stored in a tab separated file in the \"tsv\" folder.\r\n\r\n Contents of folder \"data\":\r\n One ZIP archive: wahl-2017-annual-maps-pdf-png-tsv.zip, which contains:\r\n One folder: wahl-2017-annual-maps-pdf-png-tsv\r\n which contains three folders:\r\n 1. folder: tsv - contains the data corresponding to each map,\r\n in 407 tab separated value (TSV) format files\r\n Each TSV file contains:\r\n 21 columns, each spanning 0.5 degrees of longitude.\r\n The center longitude coordinate for the\r\n column 1, east-most, cells through the\r\n column 21, west-most, cells, are listed here:\r\n -124.25,-123.75,-123.25,-122.75,-122.25,\r\n -121.75,-121.25,-120.75,-120.25,-119.75,\r\n -119.25,-118.75,-118.25,-117.75,-117.25,\r\n -116.75,-116.25,-115.75,-115.25,-114.75,\r\n -114.25\r\n 19 rows, each spanning 0.5 degrees of latitude.\r\n The center latitude coordinate for the\r\n row 1, south-most cells, through the\r\n row 19 north-most cells, are listed here:\r\n 32.5,33.25,33.75,34.25,34.75,\r\n 35.25,35.75,36.25,36.75,37.25,\r\n 37.75,38.25,38.75,39.25,39.75,\r\n 40.25,40.75,41.25,41.75\r\n 2. folder: pdf - contains the 407 annual maps in PDF format\r\n 3. folder: png - contains the 407 annual maps in PNG format\r\n B. One file: manifest-md5.txt\r\n which contains the md5 checksum value for the\r\n wahl-2017-annual-maps-pdf-png-tsv.zip ZIP archive\r\n described above in A.\r\n\r\n\r\nIV. wahl-2017-ca-climate-divs-all-uncert-nc3.zip\r\nThis ZIP archive contains one folder:\r\n wahl-2017-ca-climate-divs-all-uncert-nc3, which contains:\r\n A. One folder: data\r\n which contains:\r\n seven files: wahl-2017-ca-div1-all-uncert-nc3.nc ...\r\n wahl-2017-ca-div7-all-uncert-nc3.nc\r\n which are NetCDF files each representing one of the\r\n seven California climate divisions,\r\n 401 ... 407 respectively.\r\n Each NetCDF file contains 1000 ensemble members, each containing\r\n 407 years from 1571-1977 AD.\r\n Each year contains:\r\n a grid of 19 latitude X 21 longitude 0.5 x 0.5 degree grid cells\r\n 32.5 to 42.0 decimal degrees latitude North\r\n -124.5 to -114.5 decimal degrees latitude East\r\n EACH GRID CELL VALUE REPRESENTS THE PRECIPITATION AS MILLIMETERS.\r\n Format: NetCDF version 3\r\n NetCDF Header Information for each file:\r\n dimensions:\r\n Ensemble = 1000 ;\r\n Year = 407 ;\r\n Latitude = 19 ;\r\n Longitude = 21 ;\r\n variables:\r\n int Ensemble(Ensemble) ;\r\n Ensemble:units = \"count\" ;\r\n int Year(Year) ;\r\n Year:units = \"calendar_years\" ;\r\n double Latitude(Latitude) ;\r\n Latitude:units = \"degreesN\" ;\r\n double Longitude(Longitude) ;\r\n Longitude:units = \"degreesE\" ;\r\n double precipitation_amount(Longitude, Latitude, Year, Ensemble);\r\n precipitation_amount:units = \"Ensemble,Year,Latitude,\r\n Longitude\";\r\n precipitation_amount:missing_value = -999. ;\r\n B. One file: manifest-md5.txt\r\n which contains the md5 checksum values and names of the\r\n sevem NetCDF files in the \"data\" folder, described above in A.\r\n\r\n\r\nV. wahl-2017-ca-climate-divs-all-uncert-nc3-medians.zip\r\nThis ZIP archive contains one folder:\r\n wahl-2017-ca-climate-divs-all-uncert-medians-nc3, which contains:\r\n A. One folder: data\r\n which contains:\r\n seven files: wahl-2017-ca-div1-all-uncert-medians-nc3.nc ...\r\n wahl-2017-ca-div7-all-uncert-medians-nc3.nc\r\n which are NetCDF files, each representing one of the\r\n seven California climate divisions,\r\n 401 ... 407 respectively. Each file contains the medians\r\n across the 1000 ensemble members, each containing 407 years\r\n from 1571-1977 AD.\r\n Each year contains:\r\n a grid of 19 latitude X 21 longitude 0.5 x 0.5 degree grid cells\r\n 32.5 to 42.0 decimal degrees latitude North\r\n -124.5 to -114.5 decimal degrees latitude East\r\n EACH GRID CELL VALUE REPRESENTS THE PRECIPITATION AS MILLIMETERS.\r\n Format: NetCDF version 3\r\n NetCDF Header Information for each file:\r\n dimensions:\r\n Year = 407 ;\r\n Latitude = 19 ;\r\n Longitude = 21 ;\r\n variables:\r\n int Year(Year) ;\r\n Year:units = \"calendar_years\" ;\r\n double Latitude(Latitude) ;\r\n Latitude:units = \"degreesN\" ;\r\n double Longitude(Longitude) ;\r\n Longitude:units = \"degreesE\" ;\r\n double precipitation_amount(Longitude, Latitude, Year);\r\n precipitation_amount:units = \"Year,Latitude,Longitude\";\r\n precipitation_amount:missing_value = -999. ;\r\n B. One file: manifest-md5.txt\r\n which contains the md5 checksum values and names of the\r\n NetCDF files in the \"data\" folder, described above in A.\r\n\r\nVI. wahl-2017-ca-all-uncert-climate-div-means-text.zip\r\nThis ZIP archive contains one folder:\r\n wahl-2017-ca-all-uncert-climate-div-means-text, which contains:\r\n A. One folder: data\r\n which contains:\r\n seven files: wahl-2017-ca-all-uncert-text-div1-means.txt ... \r\n wahl-2017-ca-all-uncert-text-div7-means.txt, which are seven \r\n text-based data sets (providing the annual mean value for each \r\n climate division for each of the 1000 ensemble members) which have \r\n the form of flat matrices, with 407 rows (years) and 1001 columns \r\n (first column has the year values, columns 2-1001 have the ensemble \r\n member precipitation values).\r\n B. One file: manifest-md5.txt\r\n which contains the md5 checksum values and names of the\r\n .txt files in the \"data\" folder, described above in A.","onlineResourceLink":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/21793","difMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/dif/xml/noaa-recon-21793.xml","isoMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/iso/xml/noaa-recon-21793.xml","originalSource":null,"dataTypeInformation":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/datasets/climate-reconstruction","studyCode":null,"scienceKeywords":["Precipitation Reconstruction"],"reconstruction":"Y","contributionDate":"2017-04-10","entryId":"noaa-recon-21793","earliestYearBP":379,"mostRecentYearBP":-27,"earliestYearCE":1571,"mostRecentYearCE":1977,"publication":[{"author":{"name":"Eugene. R. Wahl, Henry F. Diaz, Russell S. Vose, Wendy S. Gross"},"pubYear":2017,"title":"Multicentury Evaluation of Recovery from Strong Precipitation Deficits","journal":"Journal of Climate","volume":"39","edition":null,"issue":"15","pages":"6053-6063","reportNumber":null,"citation":"Eugene. R. Wahl, Henry F. Diaz, Russell S. Vose, Wendy S. Gross. 2017. Multicentury Evaluation of Recovery from Strong Precipitation Deficits. Journal of Climate, 39(15), 6053-6063. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0423.1","type":"publication","identifier":{"type":"doi","id":"10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0423.1","url":"http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0423.1"},"abstract":"The recent dryness in California was unprecedented in the instrumental record. This article employs spatially explicit precipitation reconstructions for California in combination with instrumental data to provide perspective on this event since 1571. The period 2012–15 stands out as particularly extreme in the southern Central Valley and South Coast regions. which likely experienced unprecedented precipitation deficits over this time, apart from considerations of increasing temperatures and drought metrics that combine temperature and moisture information. Some areas lost more than two years’ average moisture delivery during these four years, and full recovery to long-term average moisture delivery could typically take up to several decades in the hardest-hit areas. These results highlight the value of the additional centuries of information provided by the paleo record, which indicates the shorter instrumental record may underestimate the statewide recovery time by over 30%. The extreme El Niño that occurred in 2015–16 ameliorated recovery in much of the northern half of the state, and since 1571 very-strong-to-extreme El Niño’s during the first year after a 2012–15-type event reduce statewide recovery times by approximately half. The southern part of California did not experience the high precipitation anticipated, and the multicentury analysis suggests the north-wet–south-dry pattern for such an El Niño was a low-likelihood anomaly. Recent wetness in California motivated evaluation of recovery times when the first two years are relatively wet, suggesting the state is benefiting from a one-infive (or lower) likelihood situation: the likelihood of full recovery within two years is ~1% in the instrumental data and even lower in the reconstruction data.","pubRank":"1"}],"site":[{"NOAASiteId":"57119","siteName":"CA 0.5x0.5 degree grid","mappable":"N","locationName":"Continent>North America>United States Of America>California","geo":{"geoType":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"POLYGON","coordinates":["32.5","42","-124.5","-114"]},"properties":{"southernmostLatitude":"32.5","northernmostLatitude":"42","westernmostLongitude":"-124.5","easternmostLongitude":"-114","minElevationMeters":null,"maxElevationMeters":null}},"paleoData":[{"dataTableName":"wahl2017-ca-precip-recon","NOAADataTableId":"32809","earliestYear":1571,"mostRecentYear":1977,"timeUnit":"AD","earliestYearBP":379,"mostRecentYearBP":-27,"earliestYearCE":1571,"mostRecentYearCE":1977,"coreLengthMeters":null,"dataTableNotes":null,"species":[],"dataFile":[{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/reconstructions/wahl2017/","urlDescription":"Data Folder","linkText":"California precipitation reconstruction 0.5x0.5 grid from 1571 - 1977 AD","variables":[{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"age variable>age","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"time unit>age unit>year Common Era","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"sampling metadata>latitude","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"angle unit>degree>degree north","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"sampling metadata>longitude","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"angle unit>degree>degree east","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>hydroclimatic variable>hydroclimate rate>precipitation","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"length unit>millimeter","cvSeasonality":"annual>Oct-Sep","cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":"computational method>statistical analysis method>principal component analysis|computational method>statistical analysis method>regression analysis","cvAdditionalInfo":"medians of the ensemble; 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If there is no publication information, please cite investigator, title, online resource, and date accessed. The appearance of external links associated with a dataset does not constitute endorsement by the Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of external Web sites or the information, products or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities, the Department of Commerce/NOAA does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. These links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this Department of Commerce/NOAA Web site."},"dataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","investigators":"Wahl, E.R.; Smerdon, J.E.","version":"1.0","funding":[{"fundingAgency":"US National Science Foundation","fundingGrant":"ATM0902436"},{"fundingAgency":"US NOAA","fundingGrant":"NA07OAR4310060 and NA10OAR4320137"},{"fundingAgency":"US National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)","fundingGrant":"Weather and Climate Impacts Assessment"}],"studyNotes":"This article presents a tree ring-based reconstruction of western \nNorth America annual temperature over 1500-1980, with 5x5 degree \ngrid cell coverage for the region bounded by 30°-55°N and 95°-130°W. \nA 1000-member probabilistic ensemble derived by bootstrap methods \nis employed for characterization of uncertainty. A key result \nbased on the ensemble methodology is that the most recent decades \nare, at the level of the bi-decadal average, very likely the warmest \nacross the region during the past 500 years. The reconstruction \nis used in a side-by-side comparison with a parallel reconstruction \ndriven by non-informative predictors that have the same temporal \nautoregressive structure as the tree ring data. The proxy-based \nreconstruction clearly outperforms the non-informative predictor-based \nreconstruction across a suite of calibration and validation skill measures.","onlineResourceLink":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/12890","difMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/dif/xml/noaa-recon-12890.xml","isoMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/iso/xml/noaa-recon-12890.xml","originalSource":null,"dataTypeInformation":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/datasets/climate-reconstruction","studyCode":null,"scienceKeywords":["Air Temperature Reconstruction"],"reconstruction":"Y","contributionDate":"2012-04-09","entryId":"noaa-recon-12890","earliestYearBP":450,"mostRecentYearBP":-30,"earliestYearCE":1500,"mostRecentYearCE":1980,"publication":[{"author":null,"pubYear":2012,"title":"Comparative performance of paleoclimate field and index reconstructions derived from climate proxies and noise-only predictors","journal":"Geophysical Research Letters","volume":null,"edition":null,"issue":null,"pages":null,"reportNumber":null,"citation":"Wahl, E.R. and J.E. Smerdon. 2012. \r\nComparative performance of paleoclimate field and index reconstructions\r\nderived from climate proxies and noise-only predictors. \r\nGeophys. Res. Lett., 39, L06703, doi:10.1029/2012GL051086","type":"publication","identifier":{"type":"doi","id":"10.1029/2012GL051086","url":"http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2012GL051086"},"abstract":"The performance of climate field reconstruction (CFR)\r\nand index reconstruction methods is evaluated using proxy\r\nand non-informative predictor experiments. The skill of both\r\nreconstruction methods is determined using proxy data targeting\r\nthe western region of North America. The results\r\nare compared to those targeting the same region, but derived\r\nfrom non-informative predictors comprising red-noise time\r\nseries reflecting the full temporal autoregressive structure\r\nof the proxy network. All experiments are performed as\r\nprobabilistic ensembles, providing estimated Monte Carlo\r\ndistributions of reconstruction skill. Results demonstrate that\r\nthe CFR skill distributions from proxy data are statistically\r\ndistinct from and outperform the corresponding skill distributions\r\ngenerated from non-informative predictors; similar\r\nrelative performance is demonstrated for the index reconstructions.\r\nIn comparison to the CFR results using proxy\r\ninformation, the index reconstructions exhibit similar skill\r\nin calibration, but somewhat less skill in validation and a\r\ntendency to underestimate the amplitude of the validation\r\nperiod mean.","pubRank":"1"}],"site":[{"NOAASiteId":"53024","siteName":"West Central North America","mappable":"N","locationName":"Continent>North America","geo":{"geoType":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"POLYGON","coordinates":["30","55","-130","-95"]},"properties":{"southernmostLatitude":"30","northernmostLatitude":"55","westernmostLongitude":"-130","easternmostLongitude":"-95","minElevationMeters":null,"maxElevationMeters":null}},"paleoData":[{"dataTableName":"WS2012","NOAADataTableId":"21226","earliestYear":1500,"mostRecentYear":1980,"timeUnit":"AD","earliestYearBP":450,"mostRecentYearBP":-30,"earliestYearCE":1500,"mostRecentYearCE":1980,"coreLengthMeters":null,"dataTableNotes":null,"species":[],"dataFile":[{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/contributions_by_author/wahl2012/readme-wahl2012.txt","urlDescription":"Readme","linkText":"readme-wahl2012.txt","variables":[],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions>air temperature"]},{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/contributions_by_author/wahl2012/SW_NAm_Recon_Grid_1500-1980.nc","urlDescription":"Original Data and Full 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The appearance of external links associated with a dataset does not constitute endorsement by the Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of external Web sites or the information, products or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities, the Department of Commerce/NOAA does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. These links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this Department of Commerce/NOAA Web site."},"dataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","investigators":"Wilson, R.J.S.; D'Arrigo, R.D.; Buckley, B.M.; Buentgen, U.; Esper, J.; Frank, D.C.; Luckman, B.H.; Payette, S.; Vose, R.S.; Youngblut, D.","version":"1.0","funding":[],"studyNotes":null,"onlineResourceLink":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/6344","difMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/dif/xml/noaa-recon-6344.xml","isoMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/iso/xml/noaa-recon-6344.xml","originalSource":null,"dataTypeInformation":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/datasets/climate-reconstruction","studyCode":null,"scienceKeywords":["Air Temperature Reconstruction"],"reconstruction":"Y","contributionDate":"2007-07-01","entryId":"noaa-recon-6344","earliestYearBP":200,"mostRecentYearBP":-50,"earliestYearCE":1750,"mostRecentYearCE":2000,"publication":[],"site":[{"NOAASiteId":"34252","siteName":"Northern Hemisphere","mappable":"N","locationName":"Geographic Region>Northern Hemisphere","geo":{"geoType":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"POLYGON","coordinates":["0","90","-180","180"]},"properties":{"southernmostLatitude":"0","northernmostLatitude":"90","westernmostLongitude":"-180","easternmostLongitude":"180","minElevationMeters":null,"maxElevationMeters":null}},"paleoData":[{"dataTableName":"Wilson2007","NOAADataTableId":"38631","earliestYear":1750,"mostRecentYear":2000,"timeUnit":"AD","earliestYearBP":200,"mostRecentYearBP":-50,"earliestYearCE":1750,"mostRecentYearCE":2000,"coreLengthMeters":null,"dataTableNotes":null,"species":[],"dataFile":[{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/treering/reconstructions/n_hem_temp/nhtemp-wilson2007.txt","urlDescription":"Data","linkText":"nhtemp-wilson2007.txt","variables":[],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions"]},{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/treering/reconstructions/n_hem_temp/nhtemp-wilson2007.xls","urlDescription":"Data","linkText":"nhtemp-wilson2007.xls","variables":[],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions"]}]}]}]},{"xmlId":"65799","NOAAStudyId":"26810","studyName":"Winter North Atlantic Oscillation Index Reconstruction from Tree-Rings since 910 C.E.","doi":null,"dataPublisher":"NOAA","contactInfo":{"type":"CONTACT INFORMATION","shortName":"DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI","longName":"National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce ","address":"325 Broadway, E/NE31","city":"Boulder","state":"CO","postalCode":"80305-3328","country":"USA","dataCenterUrl":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data","email":"paleo@noaa.gov","phone":"303-497-6280","fax":"303-497-6513","constraints":"Please cite original publication, online resource, dataset and publication DOIs (where available), and date accessed when using downloaded data. If there is no publication information, please cite investigator, title, online resource, and date accessed. The appearance of external links associated with a dataset does not constitute endorsement by the Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of external Web sites or the information, products or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities, the Department of Commerce/NOAA does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. These links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this Department of Commerce/NOAA Web site."},"dataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS","investigators":"Cook, E.R.; Kushnir, Y.; Smerdon, J.E.; Williams, A.P.; Anchukaitis, K.J.; Wahl, E.R.","version":"1.0","funding":[{"fundingAgency":"US National Science Foundation","fundingGrant":"AGS-1734760, AGS-1502224"}],"studyNotes":"In the NAO reconstruction data table, -05%CL is an amount to be subtracted from the median and +95%CL is an amount to be added to the median.","onlineResourceLink":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/26810","difMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/dif/xml/noaa-recon-26810.xml","isoMetadataLink":"http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/metadata/published/paleo/iso/xml/noaa-recon-26810.xml","originalSource":null,"dataTypeInformation":"https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/datasets/climate-reconstruction","studyCode":null,"scienceKeywords":["Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulation Patterns Reconstruction"],"reconstruction":"Y","contributionDate":"2019-05-14","entryId":"noaa-recon-26810","earliestYearBP":1040,"mostRecentYearBP":-68,"earliestYearCE":910,"mostRecentYearCE":2018,"publication":[{"author":{"name":"Jones, P. , Davies, T. , Lister, D. , Slonosky, V. , Jónsson, T., Bärring, L., Jönsson, P. , Maheras, P. , Kolyva-Machera, F. , Barriendos, M. , Martin-Vide, J. , Rodriguez, R. , Alcoforado, M. , Wanner, H. , Pfister, C. , Luterbacher, J. , Rickli, R. , Schuepbach, E. , Kaas, E. , Schmith, T. , Jacobeit, J. and Beck, C."},"pubYear":1999,"title":"Monthly mean pressure reconstructions for Europe for the 1780-1995 period","journal":"International Journal of Climatology","volume":null,"edition":null,"issue":null,"pages":null,"reportNumber":null,"citation":"Jones, P. , Davies, T. , Lister, D. , Slonosky, V. , Jónsson, T., Bärring, L., Jönsson, P. , Maheras, P. , Kolyva-Machera, F. , Barriendos, M. , Martin-Vide, J. , Rodriguez, R. , Alcoforado, M. , Wanner, H. , Pfister, C. , Luterbacher, J. , Rickli, R. , Schuepbach, E. , Kaas, E. , Schmith, T. , Jacobeit, J. and Beck, C. 1999. Monthly mean pressure reconstructions for Europe for the 1780-1995 period. International Journal of Climatology. . doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0088(19990330)19:4<347::AID-JOC363>3.0.CO","type":"publication","identifier":{"type":"doi","id":"10.1002/(SICI)1097-0088(19990330)19:4<347::AID-JOC363>3.0.CO","url":"http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0088(19990330)19:4<347::AID-JOC363>3.0.CO"},"abstract":null,"pubRank":"2"},{"author":{"name":"Cook, Edward R., Yochanan Kushnir, Jason E. Smerdon, A. Park Williams, Kevin J. Anchukaitis, and Eugene R. Wahl"},"pubYear":2019,"title":"A Euro-Mediterranean tree-ring reconstruction of the winter NAO index since 910 C.E.","journal":"Climate Dynamics","volume":null,"edition":null,"issue":null,"pages":null,"reportNumber":null,"citation":"Cook, Edward R., Yochanan Kushnir, Jason E. Smerdon, A. Park Williams, Kevin J. Anchukaitis, and Eugene R. Wahl. 2019. A Euro-Mediterranean tree-ring reconstruction of the winter NAO index since 910 C.E. Climate Dynamics. . doi: 10.1007/s00382-019-04696-2","type":"publication","identifier":{"type":"doi","id":"10.1007/s00382-019-04696-2","url":"http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00382-019-04696-2"},"abstract":"We develop a new reconstruction of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index using a network of 97 Euro-Mediterranean tree-ring series. The reconstruction covers the period 910-2018 C.E., making it the longest annually resolved estimate of winter NAO variability available. We use nested correlation-weighted principal components regression and the Maximum Entropy Bootstrap method to generate a 2400-member ensemble of reconstructions for estimating the final reconstruction and its quantile uncertainties. Extensive validation testing of the new reconstruction against data withheld from the calibration exercise demonstrates its skill. The skill level of the new reconstruction is also an improvement over two NAO reconstructions published earlier. Spectral analyses indicate that the new reconstruction behaves like a \"white noise\" process with intermittent band-limited power, suggesting that the winter NAO is stochastically forced. The \"white noise\" properties of our reconstruction are also shown to be consistent with the spectral properties of long instrumental NAO indices extending back to 1781 and NAO indices extracted from a large number of forced climate model runs covering the last millennium. In contrast, an annually resolved multi-proxy NAO reconstruction of comparable length, based in part on speleothem data, behaves more like externally forced \"red noise\" process, which is inconsistent with our reconstruction, long observations, and forced model runs.","pubRank":"1"}],"site":[{"NOAASiteId":"56360","siteName":"North Atlantic Oscillation","mappable":"N","locationName":"Ocean>Atlantic Ocean>North Atlantic Ocean","geo":{"geoType":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"POLYGON","coordinates":["38","65","-50","-10"]},"properties":{"southernmostLatitude":"38","northernmostLatitude":"65","westernmostLongitude":"-50","easternmostLongitude":"-10","minElevationMeters":null,"maxElevationMeters":null}},"paleoData":[{"dataTableName":"NAO recon Cook2019","NOAADataTableId":"39157","earliestYear":910,"mostRecentYear":2018,"timeUnit":"AD","earliestYearBP":1040,"mostRecentYearBP":-68,"earliestYearCE":910,"mostRecentYearCE":2018,"coreLengthMeters":null,"dataTableNotes":null,"species":[],"dataFile":[{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/reconstructions/cook2019/cook2019-nao.txt","urlDescription":"NOAA Template File","linkText":"NAO Reconstruction Data","variables":[{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"age variable>age","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"time unit>age unit>year Common Era","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>circulation variable>circulation index>North Atlantic Oscillation Index","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"dimensionless","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":"median of 2400 ensemble members","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>circulation variable>circulation index>North Atlantic Oscillation Index","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":"confidence interval>95% confidence interval lower bound","cvUnit":"dimensionless","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":"-05%CL","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>circulation variable>circulation index>North Atlantic Oscillation Index","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":"confidence interval>95% confidence interval upper bound","cvUnit":"dimensionless","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":"+95%CL","cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null}],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions>atmospheric circulation"]}]},{"dataTableName":"NAO ensemble Cook2019","NOAADataTableId":"39158","earliestYear":910,"mostRecentYear":2018,"timeUnit":"AD","earliestYearBP":1040,"mostRecentYearBP":-68,"earliestYearCE":910,"mostRecentYearCE":2018,"coreLengthMeters":null,"dataTableNotes":null,"species":[],"dataFile":[{"fileUrl":"https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/reconstructions/cook2019/cook2019-ensemble.txt","urlDescription":"NOAA Template File","linkText":"NAO Reconstruction Ensemble Members","variables":[{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"age variable>age","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":null,"cvUnit":"time unit>age unit>year Common Era","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null},{"cvDataType":"CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS|TREE RING","cvWhat":"earth system variable>circulation variable>circulation index>North Atlantic Oscillation Index","cvMaterial":null,"cvError":"ensemble member","cvUnit":"dimensionless","cvSeasonality":null,"cvDetail":null,"cvMethod":null,"cvAdditionalInfo":null,"cvFormat":"Numeric","cvShortName":null}],"NOAAKeywords":["earth science>paleoclimate>reconstructions>atmospheric circulation"]}]}]}]}]}