U.S. Climate Extremes Index (CEI): References


  • Gleason, K.L., J.H. Lawrimore, D.H. Levinson, T.R. Karl, and D.J. Karoly 2008: A Revised U.S. Climate Extremes Index. J. Climate, 21, 2124-2137.
  • IPCC, 2001: Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovermental Panel on Climate Change, World Meteorological Organization/United Nations Environment Programme, J.T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D.J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P.J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C.A. Johnson, Eds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 881pp.
  • Karl, T.R., 1986: The sensitivity of the Palmer drought severity index and Palmer's Z-index to their calibration coefficients including potential evapotranspiration. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 25, 77-86.
  • ----, and W.J. Koss, 1984: "Regional and National Monthly, Seasonal, and Annual Temperature Weighted by Area, 1895-1983." Historical Climatology Series 4-3, National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC, 38 pp.
  • ----, and C.N. Williams, 1987: An approach to adjusting climatological time series for discontinous inhomogeneities. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 26, 1744-1763.
  • ----, C.N. Williams Jr., and P.J. Young, 1986: A model to estimate the time of observation bias associated with monthly mean maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures for the United States J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 25, 145-160.
  • ----, H. Diaz, and G. Kukla, 1988: Urbanization: Its detection in the U.S. climate record. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 1, 1099-1123.
  • ----, C.N. Williams Jr., F.T. Quinlan, and T.A. Boden, 1990: United States historical climatology network (HCN) serial temperature and precipitation. Dept. of Energy, Oak Ridge National Lab. ORNL/CDIAC-30, NDP-019/R1, 83 pp. plus appendixes.
  • ----, R.W. Knight, D.R. Easterling, R.G. Quayle, 1996: Indices of Climate Change for the United States. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 279-292.
  • NRC, 1992: Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. National Academy Press, 918 pp.
  • ----, 2001: Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions. National Academy Press, 42 pp.
  • Vose, R.S., Applequist, S., Squires, M., Durre, I., Menne, M.J., Williams, C.N., Fenimore, C., Gleason, K., and Arndt, D., 2014: Gridded 5km GHCN-Daily Temperature and Precipitation Dataset (nCLIMGRID), Version 1. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. DOI:10.7289/V5SX6B56
  • Quayle, R.G., D.R. Easterling, T.R. Karl, and P.Y. Hughes, 1991: Effects of recent thermometer changes in the cooperative station network. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 72, 1718-1723.