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CM2 Global Coupled Climate Models (CM2.X)

A plot of CM2.X data displaying maximum surface air temperatures for Dallas, Texas

A plot of CM2.X data displaying maximum surface air temperatures for Dallas, Texas. These data are from the "20C3M" 20th century experiment to understand temperatures during the 20th century. One hundred years of maximum daily temperatures (in degrees Fahrenheit) are plotted in black. The intense zigzag pattern in the plot shows the annual relative highs and lows for each of the 100 years. Plotted in red is a running 365-day average to help make any tend in the data more visible. This graphic was generated with NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory's ferret visualization tool.

The CM2 Global Coupled Climate Models (CM2.X) provide datasets showing general climate conditions during the 20th century and projections into the 21st century based on various climate scenarios. These models were developed by scientists working for NOAA’s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). The “2.X” refers to the fact that two separate climate models (versions 2.0 and 2.1) were configured with two very different sets of parameters. These two climate models were designed to model the changes in climate over the past century and beyond.

The two models were run under different conditions set by the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to study the general pattern of warming in the 20th century. Atmospheric gases and solar irradiance values from 1861 to 2000 helped produce a suite of atmospheric, ocean, land, and sea ice gridded data.


Through collaboration with the NOAA National Operational Model Archive and Distribution System (NOMADS), CM2 model output and documentation are available at NCEI and through GFDL's NOMADS Data Portal. Documentation on these two models can be found on the GFDL pages. GFDL has also processed and made available 100-year-long time series of daily mean precipitation and maximum and minimum daily air temperature. The GFDL Data Portal also provides access to the latest (and previous) IPCC output from several Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Global Climate Models (GCMs).

Product Types

Model Grid/Scale Period of Record Output Timestep Data Access Links
CM2.1 - GFDL IPCC AR4 Climate Models Global ​01Jan1901 - 21Apr2300 Daily FTP TDS

Data Usage Notes


Publication References



CM2.X Home Page