Upper Air - September 2013


Troposphere

Lower Troposphere

September Lower Troposphere
September Anomaly Rank
(out of 35 years)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH +0.37 +0.67 Coolest 32nd 1984 -0.61 -1.10 +0.19 +0.34
Warmest 3rd 2010 +0.45 +0.81
Ties: 2012
RSS +0.15 +0.27 Coolest 25th 1984 -0.57 -1.03 +0.17 +0.30
Warmest 11th 2010 +0.39 +0.70
Year-to-Date Lower Troposphere
January–
September
Anomaly Rank
(out of 35 years)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH +0.23 +0.41 Coolest 30th 1984 -0.32 -0.58 +0.13 +0.24
Warmest 5th 1998 +0.50 +0.90
Ties: 2002
RSS +0.14 +0.25 Coolest 29th 1985 -0.38 -0.68 +0.13 +0.23
Warmest 7th 1998 +0.53 +0.95

Mid-troposphere

September Mid-troposphere
September Anomaly Rank
(out of 35 years)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH +0.29 +0.52 Coolest 33rd 1984 -0.56 -1.01 +0.12 +0.22
Warmest 3rd 2010 +0.40 +0.72
RSS +0.22 +0.40 Coolest 30th 1984 -0.56 -1.01 +0.13 +0.24
Warmest 6th 1998 +0.40 +0.72
UW-UAH +0.37 +0.67 Coolest 32nd 1984 -0.67 -1.21 +0.19 +0.35
Warmest 3rd 2010, 1998 +0.50 +0.90
Ties: 2009
UW-RSS +0.27 +0.49 Coolest 30th 1984 -0.63 -1.13 +0.19 +0.34
Warmest 5th 1998 +0.50 +0.90
Ties: 2012
Year-to-Date Mid-troposphere
January–
September
Anomaly Rank
(out of 35 years*)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH +0.16 +0.29 Coolest 31st 1993, 1989 -0.25 -0.45 +0.05 +0.09
Warmest 5th 1998 +0.51 +0.92
RSS +0.15 +0.27 Coolest 29th 1985 -0.28 -0.50 +0.08 +0.15
Warmest 6th 1998 +0.52 +0.94
Ties: 2007
UW-UAH +0.22 +0.40 Coolest 33rd 1984 -0.32 -0.58 +0.11 +0.19
Warmest 3rd 1998 +0.61 +1.10
UW-RSS +0.20 +0.36 Coolest 29th 1984 -0.33 -0.59 +0.13 +0.24
Warmest 5th 1998 +0.60 +1.08
Ties: 2007, 2003
RATPAC* +0.32 +0.58 Coolest 53rd 1965 -0.85 -1.53 +0.15 +0.27
Warmest 4th 2010 +0.57 +1.03

*RATPAC rank is based on 56 years of data

Stratosphere

September Stratosphere
September Anomaly Rank
(out of 35 years)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH -0.35 -0.63 Coolest 12th 1996 -0.61 -1.10 -0.39 -0.71
Warmest 24th 1991 +1.64 +2.95
RSS -0.24 -0.43 Coolest 12th 1996 -0.53 -0.95 -0.28 -0.50
Warmest 24th 1991 +1.51 +2.72
Year-to-Date Stratosphere
January–
September
Anomaly Rank
(out of 35 years)
Record Years Decadal Trend
°C °F Year °C °F °C °F
UAH -0.29 -0.52 Coolest 12th 2012 -0.51 -0.92 -0.35 -0.63
Warmest 23rd 1992, 1983 +1.01 +1.82
Ties: 1997
RSS -0.24 -0.43 Coolest 11th 2012 -0.43 -0.77 -0.27 -0.49
Warmest 24th 1992 +0.99 +1.78
Ties: 2000

Background Information

Temperatures above the Earth's surface are measured within the lower troposphere, middle troposphere, and stratosphere using in-situ balloon-borne instruments (radiosondes) and polar-orbiting satellites (NOAA's TIROS-N). The radiosonde and satellite records have been adjusted to remove time-dependent biases (artificialities caused by changes in radiosonde instruments and measurement practices as well as changes in satellite instruments and orbital features through time). Global averages from radiosonde data are available from 1958 to present, while satellite measurements date back to 1979.

The mid-troposphere temperatures are centered in the in the atmospheric layer approximately 3–10 km [2–6 miles] above the Earth's surface, which also includes a portion of the lower stratosphere. (The Microwave Sounding Unit [MSU] channel used to measure mid-tropospheric temperatures receives about 25 percent of its signal above 10 km [6 miles].) Because the stratosphere has cooled due to increasing greenhouse gases in the troposphere and losses of ozone in the stratosphere, the stratospheric contribution to the tropospheric average, as measured from satellites, creates an artificial component of cooling to the mid-troposphere temperatures. The University of Washington (UW) versions of the UAH and RSS analyses attempt to remove the stratospheric influence from the mid-troposphere measurements, and as a result the UW versions tend to have a larger warming trend than either the UAH or RSS versions. For additional information, please see NCDC's Microwave Sounding Unit page.

The radiosonde data used in this global analysis were developed using the Lanzante, Klein, Seidel (2003) ("LKS") bias-adjusted dataset and the First Difference Method (Free et al. 2004) (RATPAC). Additional details are available. Satellite data have been adjusted by the Global Hydrology and Climate Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). An independent analysis is also performed by Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) and a third analysis has been performed by Dr. Qiang Fu of the University of Washington (UW) (Fu et al. 2004)** to remove the influence of the stratosphere on the mid-troposphere value. Global averages from radiosonde data are available from 1958 to present, while satellite measurements began in 1979.

References

Citing This Report

NOAA National Climatic Data Center, State of the Climate: Upper Air for September 2013, published online October 2013, retrieved on September 2, 2014 from http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/upper-air/2013/9.