Global Hazards - August 2011


Please note: Material provided in this report is chosen subjectively and included at the discretion of the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The ability to report on a given event is limited by the amount of information available to NCDC at the time of publication. Inclusion of a particular event does not constitute a greater importance in comparison with an event that has not been incorporated into the discussion. Data included in this report are preliminary unless otherwise stated. Links to supporting information are valid at the time of publication, but they are not maintained or changed after publication.


Updated 2 September 2011


AugustTexas suffers through its worst 12-month drought period on record read more AugustExtreme warm maximum and minimum temperatures grip Texas read more August 14thRecord rainfall inundates the northeastern United States read more August 8th–9thTropical Storm Muifa affects North and South Korea and China read more August 13thHigh winds lead to five deaths in Indiana read more August 14th–16thAntarctic blast brings rare snow and frigid temperatures to New Zealand read more AugustWildfires pose a threat in Texas and Oklahoma read more August 23rd–25thHeatwave impacts parts of Eastern and Southern Europe read more August 20th–29thHurricane Irene impacts the Caribbean and the U.S. eastern seaboard read more August 23rd–31stTyphoon Nanmadol makes three landfalls in the western Pacific read more



Drought conditions

Drought conditions in Texas
U.S. Drought Monitor, Texas
30 August 2011
Image Credit:
U.S. Drought Monitor

At the end of July, the U.S. state of Texas had experienced its driest August–July (12-month) period on record, with no relief in sight. As of August 30th, just about the entire state was experiencing some level of drought and 81.1 percent fell into the exceptional category, the highest drought category as determined by the U.S. Drought Monitor. The agriculture industry was very hard hit by the drought. According to a media report updated on August 17th, from November 2010 to August 1st, 2011, Texas suffered an estimated $5.2 billion U.S. dollars in crop and livestock losses, surpassing the previous annual record loss of $4.1 billion U.S. dollars in 2006. The losses this year were expected to grow as the drought showed no signs of abating.


Aerial efforts to protect homes from a major fire on Possum Kingdom Lake in Texas
Possum Kingdom Lake, Texas
30 August 2011
Image Credit: Star-Telegram

Due to record heat and drought, wildfire danger was also great across the arid region including Texas and Oklahoma. A 30-acre blaze in the central Texas town of Leander was reported on August 15th. The fire destroyed 15 homes but was 50 percent contained by the next day. On the 30th, the Possum Kingdom Lake fire in north Texas destroyed 25 homes and threatened an additional 125. By the end of August, a ban on outdoor burning was in effect for 251 of the 254 Texas counties. Also on August 30th, several homes in Oklahoma City were destroyed along with 1,500 wooded acres. Several hundred homes had to be evacuated.

Please visit NCDC's Drought and Wildfire pages for more detailed information.

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Extreme Temperatures

U.S. temperature departures from average during August 2011
U.S. Temperature Anomaly Map
August 2011
Image Credit:
High Plains Regional Climate Center

Scorching temperatures that affected a large portion of the United States in July continued into August. The southern U.S. was hardest hit and many longstanding records were broken. Fort Smith, Arkansas saw temperatures soar to 115°F (46.1°C) on August 3rd, setting a new all-time high record, surpassing the previous mark of 113°F (45.0°C) set on August 10th, 1936 and recorded again on August 2nd of this year, just one day before the new record was set. By the end of August, Oklahoma City had seen 58 days of 100°F (37.8°C) temperatures during 2011, breaking the old record of 50 set in 1980. Twenty deaths were attributed to the extreme heat in Oklahoma. In north Texas, Dallas/Fort Worth had 40 consecutive days (July 2nd–August 10th) of maximum temperatures reaching 100°F (37.8°C) or greater, second only to the 42-day streak in 1980 (June 23rd–August 3rd). As of August 31st, Dallas had recorded 65 days of triple digit temperatures during this calendar year, second to the 69 days in 1980. Additionally, on August 17th, Dallas/Fort Worth broke the record for the most number of days in a calendar year with minimum temperatures above 80°F (26.7°C), at 40 days, breaking the old record of 39 in 1998. That number rose to 53 by the end of the month. On August 11th, Waco, Texas broke its record for the greatest number of consecutive days of 100°F (37.8°C) or higher temperatures. The previous record was 42, set during June 23rd–August 3rd, 1980. The streak ended on August 12th, with a consecutive total of 44 days. On August 16th, Waco also broke the record for the most number of days in a calendar year to reach the 100°F (37.8°C) mark, at 64, breaking the previous record of 63 in 1980. The streak continued and as of August 31st, the number of days stood at 79. Wichita Falls, Texas had even more 100°F days by the end of August, 95 to-date in 2011, shattering its record of 79 days, also set in 1980. Please visit NCDC's National Overview page for more detailed U.S. temperature statistics.

A heatwave across parts of Europe near the end of August brought temperatures of 95°F (35°C) to northern Italy. At least 10 people reportedly died due to heat-related illnesses on August 23rd–24th. Cape Carbonara in Sardegna reached a record high 117°F (47°C), according to local media reports. The Austrian tourism industry welcomed the heat wave. After cooler-than-normal temperatures and rainy weather during much of June and July, the warm temperatures were expected to provide a boost to that sector. Switzerland, Germany, France, and Spain were also impacted, along with the Balkan countries of Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro, Albania, and Croatia, where heat warnings were issued on August 25th advising residents to stay indoors and drink plenty of water. In nearby Hungary, similar heat warnings were posted. In Greece, 6,200 acres (2,500 hectares) of forest and cropland were destroyed, prompting officials to declare a state of emergency. Numerous other wildfires were also reported across several countries. The heat wave was due to strong high pressure over Central Europe and subtropical air from northern Africa.

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Heavy rainfall and flooding

Heavy rain fell over portions of the northeastern United States on August 14th, bringing record precipitation and flooding to some areas. In New York City, an all-time daily maximum rainfall of 7.80 inches (198 mm) was recorded at Kennedy International Airport, handily breaking the old record of 6.27 inches (159 mm) set on June 30th, 1984 and shattering the daily August 14th record of 0.96 inches (24 mm) set in 2008. LaGuardia International Airport received 6.60 inches (168 mm) of rain on the 14th, the second highest all-time daily rainfall for LaGuardia behind 6.69 inches (170 mm) set on April 15th, 2007. No fatalities were reported.

On August 19th, 2.1 inches (53 mm) of rain fell within an hour in Pittsurgh, Pennsylvania, adding to 1–2 inches (25–50 mm) that had fallen earlier in the day. The heavy rains led to flash flooding and water as high as 9 feet (2.7 meters) in parts of the city. Four people were killed and many others were stranded as cars were submerged due to the floods.

Heavy monsoon rains in northwestern Pakistan triggered flash floods that killed at least 42 people and left at least 20 more missing on August 24th. The floods struck Kundian Valley in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. Each year, monsoon rains begin in July in Pakistan and flooding is common.

Heavy rains during August 26th–29th in the southwestern Nigerian city of Ibadan led to flooding that killed at least 25 people and displaced 3,000. August is in the middle of Nigeria's rainy season, which lasts from April to September. However, according to a media report, rainfall is higher than normal this year and this flood was the worst in the past 12 years.

Rainfall was also heavy in part of East Africa. On August 29th, torrential rains caused a huge landslide in the Bulambuli district of Uganda near the Kenyan border that killed at least 23 people.


Eastern U.S. August 2011 precipitation totals
Eastern U.S. Monthly Precipitation
August 2011
Source:
National Weather Service

Hurricane Irene brought torrential rainfall to parts of New England on August 28th–29th. Vermont, a landlocked state, suffered some of the worst damage from record heavy rains that led to catastrophic flooding in the state. Several towns, including Brattleboro and Bennington, were underwater. According to NOAA's U.S. Records, 26 monitoring stations, including 11 in Vermont, broke their all-time daily maximum precipitation records between the 27th and 29th. In New York, the Passaic River, as measured by the National Weather Service at the Pine Brook gauge, rose above major flood stage on August 28th and reached a new record height of 24.12 ft (7.35 m) on the 30th, surpassing the previous record stage of 23.2 ft (7.1 m). Several towns and areas along the East Coast were cut off as roads and bridges were washed away. Rains from the storm added to the monthly August precipitation amount, bringing New York City, New York, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Newark, New Jersey thier wettest months on record. Newark also set a record for its highest recorded daily rainfall on the 28th, at 8.92 inches (227 mm). Damages from the storm were initially estimated to be around $7 billion U.S. dollars.

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Severe Storms

Line of severe thunderstorms moving across Indianapolis region leading up to and during time of stage collapse.
Severe Thunderstorms in Indiana
13 August 2011

A line of severe thunderstorms moved through central Indiana on August 13th. High winds of at least 60 mph (100 km/hr) ahead of the storm caused the roof of a concert band stage to collapse at the Indiana State Fair, killing seven people and injuring almost 40 others. Severe thunderstorms and associated strong winds are not uncommon in this region of the country during the warm summer months.

In Belgium, high winds from a severe thunderstorm caused a stage collapse at the Pukkelpop music festival on August 19th. The festival was located about 50 miles east of the Belgian capital of Brussels. Five people were killed and about 40 others were injured.

In Canada, an EF-3 tornado struck the town of Goderich, Ontario on August 21st. According to preliminary estimates, the twister had sustained wind speeds of 174 mph (280 km/hr) and the path of destruction was roughly one-third of a mile (0.5 km) wide. One person was killed and 37 others were injured as the tornado tore through the center of the town. The tornado was the most powerful recorded in Ontario in more than a decade. According to Environment Canada, fewer than five percent of tornadoes in Canada are rated EF-3 or higher.

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Tropical Cyclones

Tropical Storm Muifa making landfall over North Korea. Tropical Storm Merbok lies to the east.
Tropical Storm Muifa
8 August 2011
Image Credit:
NOAA Environmental Visualization Laboratory

After impacting the Philippines at the end of July, Tropical Cyclone Muifa continued its northwest track into the East China Sea and Yellow Sea in early August. Although its strength had dissipated from its one-time super typhoon status at the end of July, Muifa led to four fatalities in South Korea on August 8th and an estimated 220,000 South Koreans were impacted by the storm as heavy rains flooded their homes. The storm worked its way northward, making landfall in western North Korea near the Chinese border. At least 10 people were killed in North Korea and more than 100 homes were destroyed. China's National Meteorological Center reported that up to five inches (127 mm) of rain fell and winds gusted up to 52 mph (83 km/hr) in northeast China close to where the storm made landfall. No casualties were reported in China but more than three million Chinese were affected and direct economic losses were estimated to be over $469.5 million U.S. dollars across five coastal provinces, according to Xinhua news media.


Hurricane Irene tracks up the U.S. eastern seaboard on 27 August 2011.
Hurricane Irene
27 August 2011
Image Credit:
NOAA Environmental Visualization Laboratory

Hurricane Irene—the ninth named storm and first hurricane of the 2011 Atlantic season—formed on August 20th east of the Lesser Antilles. The storm moved west-northwestward across Puerto Rico, knocking out power to about one million people. The storm reached hurricane strength before passing over the Turks and Caicos, then rapidly intensified into a Category 3 major hurricane with maximum sustained winds reaching 120 mph (193 km/hr). The hurricane weakened and made landfall near Cape Lookout, North Carolina on August 27th as a Category 1 storm. The storm lost strength as it moved over the state's Outer Banks and was downgraded to tropical storm status as it churned up the eastern seaboard into Canada over the next two days, impacting U.S. states up through New England and parts of eastern Canada. At least 42 people were killed across 12 states and one person was killed in Canada. An estimated five million U.S. residents and 250,000 Canadian residents lost power as the storm roared through the region. Thousands of flights were cancelled and major transportation services were shut down in major cities including New York City.


Typhoon Nanmadol approaching the Philippines on 26 August 2011.
Typhoon Nanmadol
26 August 2011
Image Credit:
NASA Earth Observatory

Super Typhoon Nanmadol (also referred to as Mina) formed on August 23rd in the northwest Pacific and reached its maximum strength of 155 mph (250 km/hr), just below Category 5 status on the Saffir Simpson Hurricane Scale. The storm decreased in strength to 109 mph (176 km/hr) before making its first landfall over Gaonzaga, Cagayan in the northern Philippines. More than 300,000 people were affected by the storm and agricultural damages were estimated to be close to $29 million U.S. dollars. At least 29 people were killed and 12 were missing. The typhoon made a second landfall over Taimali, Taiwan on August 28th with maximum sustained wind speeds of 86 mph (139 km/hr), equivalent to a Category 1 hurricane. Some areas received more than 20 inches (508 mm) of rainfall, including 20.8 inches (528 mm) in Bruwan, Hualien County and 20.4 inches (517 mm) in Hengchun, Pingtung County. One person was killed. The storm once again moved over open water into the Taiwan Strait and made a third and final landfall over Fujian, China as a tropical storm on August 30th, weakening rapidly as it remained over land. Hundreds of home were destroyed and 272,000 residents were impacted, according to a China state media report. Nanmadol was the 11th tropical cyclone to strike China this year.

Please visit NCDC's Hurricanes & Tropical Storms page for more detailed tropical cyclone statistics.

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Severe winter weather

Snowfall over Christchurch, New Zealand
New Zealand Snowstorm
16 August 2011
Image Credit: EPA

An Antarctic polar blast brought frigid temperatures and rare snowfall on August 14th–16th to parts of New Zealand that are not accustomed to this extreme type of weather. On the North Island, the country's largest city of Auckland saw its first snowfall since 1939 and recorded its all-time lowest maximum temperature of 47.8°F (8.2°C) on August 15th, breaking the previous record of 47.7°F (8.7°C) set in July 1996. Wellington recorded its second coldest day since records began at Wellington Airport in 1959, at 44.2°F (6.8°C), just above the current record of 43.7°F (6.5°C) set in June 1976. Thousands of homes in Wellington, Christchurch, and Coromandel Peninsula lost power and schools across the lower South Island were closed. High winds produced swells that reached 5 meters (16 feet), halting ferry services in the Cook Strait between the North and South Island. A New Zealand MetService forecaster described the harsh weather as a "once-in-a-50-year" event for the South Pacific island nation. Of note, the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO)—also called the Southern Annular Mode—is a naturally varying large-scale climate pattern in the Southern Hemisphere in which the measured index values, dependent on atmospheric pressures at the Antarctic and at about 40°S–50°S, fluctuate daily but tend to stay positive or negative for weeks at a time. When it is in its negative phase, the oscillation brings low pressure and hence unsettled weather to New Zealand. During the week of this unusual polar blast, the AAO index values were among the most negative since NOAA's Climate Prediction Center records began in 1979.

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Citing This Report

NOAA National Climatic Data Center, State of the Climate: Global Hazards for August 2011, published online September 2011, retrieved on September 2, 2014 from http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/hazards/2011/8.