Global Analysis - June 2014


Maps and Time Series

Temperature and Precipitation Maps
Temperature Anomalies Time Series

Contents of this Section:


Global Highlights

  • The combined average temperature over global land and ocean surfaces for June 2014 was the highest on record for the month, at 0.72°C (1.30°F) above the 20th century average of 15.5°C (59.9°F).
  • The global land surface temperature was 0.95°C (1.71°F) above the 20th century average of 13.3°C (55.9°F), the seventh highest for June on record.
  • For the ocean, the June global sea surface temperature was 0.64°C (1.15°F) above the 20th century average of 16.4°C (61.5°F), the highest for June on record and the highest departure from average for any month.
  • The combined global land and ocean average surface temperature for the January–June period (year-to-date) was 0.67°C (1.21°F) above the 20th century average of 13.5°C (56.3°F), tying with 2002 as the third warmest such period on record.

Supplemental Information

Introduction

Temperature anomalies and percentiles are shown on the gridded maps below. The anomaly map on the left is a product of a merged land surface temperature (Global Historical Climatology Network, GHCN) and sea surface temperature (ERSST.v3b) anomaly analysis developed by Smith et al. (2008). Temperature anomalies for land and ocean are analyzed separately and then merged to form the global analysis. For more information, please visit NCDC's Global Surface Temperature Anomalies page. The percentile maps on the right provide additional information by placing the temperature anomaly observed for a specific place and time period into historical perspective, showing how the most current month, season or year compares with the past.

The most current data may be accessed via the Global Surface Temperature Anomalies page.

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Temperatures

In the atmosphere, 500-millibar height pressure anomalies correlate well with temperatures at the Earth's surface. The average position of the upper-level ridges of high pressure and troughs of low pressure—depicted by positive and negative 500-millibar height anomalies on the June 2014 height and anomaly mapJune 2014 map—is generally reflected by areas of positive and negative temperature anomalies at the surface, respectively.

June

The combined average temperature across global land and ocean surfaces for June 2014 was record high for the month, at 0.72°C (1.30°F) above the 20th century average. This surpasses the previous record, set in June 1998, by 0.03°C (0.05°F). Nine of the ten warmest Junes on record have occurred during the 21st century, including each of the past five years. June 2014 also marks the second consecutive month with record high global temperatures. With the exception of February (21st warmest), every month to date in 2014 has ranked among the four warmest for its respective month. Additionally, June 2014 marked the 38th consecutive June and 352nd consecutive month with a global temperature above the 20th century average. The last below-average global temperature for June was June 1976 and the last below-average global temperature for any month was February 1985.

The June global land temperature was the seventh highest for June on record at 0.95°C (1.71°F) above the 20th century average of 13.3°C (55.9°F). The seven warmest June global land surface temperatures have all occurred within the past decade. The warmth was fairly evenly distributed between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, with the Northern Hemisphere land-surface temperature sixth highest on record and the Southern Hemisphere land-surface temperature fifth highest. As indicated by the Land & Ocean Percentiles Map above, record warmth was present across part of southern Greenland, parts of northern South America, areas in eastern and central Africa, and sections of southern and southeastern Asia. A few areas in North America, Far East Russia, and small parts of central and eastern Europe were cooler or much cooler than average.

Select national information is highlighted below. (Please note that different countries report anomalies with respect to different base periods. The information provided here is based directly upon these data):

  • New Zealand observed its warmest June since national records began in 1909. The warmth was notable for both its intensity and coverage, according to NIWA, with above-average temperatures from the northernmost of the North Island to the southernmost of the South Island.
  • The average monthly temperature for Australia during June 2014 was above average, with variations across the country. Most of the states were warmer than average, with Victoria and Tasmania observing their seventh and tenth warmest June, respectively. However, both Western Australia and the Northern Territory had below-average monthly temperatures, marking the first below-average statewide temperatures for any state since February.
  • The June temperature for the United Kingdom tied with 2010 as the ninth warmest June since records began in 1910, at 1.2°C (2.2°F) above the 1981–2010 average. In Scotland, the June minimum temperature was record high for the month.
  • June in Latvia was 0.9°C (1.6°F) cooler than average, marking the second coolest June of the 21st century, behind 2004.
  • Austria observed a June temperature that was 1.0°C (1.8°F) higher than the 1981–2010 average. The warmth was driven by a heat wave during June 7–13, when many regions broke daily maximum temperature records.
  • France observed its fifth warmest June in the country's 115-year period of record, at 1.3°C (2.3°F) above the 1981–2010 average. The week-long heat wave that impacted Austria also extended to France from the 7th to the 14th, contributing to the overall warmth for the month.
  • Spain had a June temperature that was 1.3°C (2.3°F) higher than the 1971–2000 average. However, this June ranks as the fifth coolest (11th warmest) in the past 15 years, according to AEMet, Spain's national meteorological agency.
  • Parts of Greenland were record warm during June. According to the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), Kangerlussuaq in southwestern Greenland recorded its record highest maximum June temperature of 23.2°C (73.8°F) on June 15, surpassing the previous record of 23.1°C (73.6°F) set in 1988 and tied in 2002. Records at this station date back to 1958.
  • It was also warmer-than-average in Iceland. Stykkishòlmur in western Iceland recorded its warmest June since local records began in 1845, while the capital of Reykjavìk had its fourth warmest June since records began there in 1871. Every station, as reported by the Icelandic Met Office, had a June temperature among their seven highest for their respective periods of records (the periods of record vary by station).

For the ocean, the June global sea surface temperature was record warm, at 0.64°C (1.15°F) above the 20th century average of 16.4°C (61.5°F). This marks the first time that the monthly global ocean temperature anomaly was higher than 0.60°C (1.08°F) and surpasses the previous all-time record for any month by 0.05°C (0.09°F); the previous record of +0.59°C (1.06°F) was first set in June 1998 and tied in October 2003, July 2009, and just last month in May 2014. Similar to May, scattered sections across every major ocean basin were record warm. Notably, large parts of the western equatorial and northeastern Pacific Ocean and nearly all of the Indian Ocean were record warm or much warmer than average for the month. Although neither El Niño nor La Niña conditions were present across the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean during June 2014, the ocean waters in that region continued to trend above average. NOAA's Climate Prediction Center estimates that there is about a 70 percent chance that El Niño conditions will develop during Northern Hemisphere summer 2014 and 80 percent chance it will develop during the fall and winter.

June Anomaly Rank
(out of 135 years)
Records
°C °F Year(s) °C °F
Global
Land +0.95 ± 0.14 +1.71 ± 0.25 Warmest 7th 2012 +1.17 +2.11
Coolest 129th 1907 -0.63 -1.13
Ocean +0.64 ± 0.04 +1.15 ± 0.07 Warmest 1st 2014 +0.64 +1.15
Coolest 135th 1909, 1911 -0.50 -0.90
Land and Ocean +0.72 ± 0.09 +1.30 ± 0.16 Warmest 1st 2014 +0.72 +1.30
Coolest 135th 1911 -0.46 -0.83
Northern Hemisphere
Land +0.98 ± 0.13 +1.76 ± 0.23 Warmest 6th 2012 +1.39 +2.50
Coolest 130th 1907 -0.71 -1.28
Ocean +0.71 ± 0.05 +1.28 ± 0.09 Warmest 1st 2014 +0.71 +1.28
Coolest 135th 1910 -0.53 -0.95
Land and Ocean +0.81 ± 0.12 +1.46 ± 0.22 Warmest 1st 2010, 2012, 2014 +0.81 +1.46
Coolest 135th 1913 -0.51 -0.92
Ties: 2010, 2012
Southern Hemisphere
Land +0.88 ± 0.13 +1.58 ± 0.23 Warmest 5th 2005 +1.16 +2.09
Coolest 131st 1911 -0.93 -1.67
Ocean +0.58 ± 0.04 +1.04 ± 0.07 Warmest 2nd 1998 +0.61 +1.10
Coolest 134th 1911 -0.55 -0.99
Land and Ocean +0.63 ± 0.06 +1.13 ± 0.11 Warmest 2nd 1998 +0.64 +1.15
Coolest 134th 1911 -0.61 -1.10

The most current data may be accessed via the Global Surface Temperature Anomalies page.

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Year-to-date (January–June)

The first half of 2014 (January–June) tied with 2002 as the third warmest such period on record across the world's land and ocean surfaces, at 0.67°C (1.21°F) above the 20th century average. The average global sea surface temperature was the third highest for January–June in the 135-year period of record, behind 1998 (highest) and 2010 (second highest), while the average land surface temperature tied with 1998 and 2005 as the fourth highest. Record warmth was observed over areas that included part of the western United States, a large swath of eastern Australia, much of the northeastern and western equatorial Pacific, sections of the eastern North Atlantic and eastern South Atlantic, and parts of the Greenland, Norwegian, and Barents Seas. Parts of eastern North America and the Southern Ocean off the tip of South America were much cooler than average, with a small region of each observing record cold for the six-month period.

Select national information is highlighted below. (Please note that different countries report anomalies with respect to different base periods. The information provided here is based directly upon these data):

  • The first six months of 2014 was the second warmest such period for France since records began in 1900, behind only 2007, with a departure of 1.4°C (2.5°C) from the 1981–2010 average. With the exception of May (-0.3°C / -0.6°F), every month in 2014 to date had above-average temperatures.
January–June Anomaly Rank
(out of 135 years)
Records
°C °F Year(s) °C °F
Global
Land +1.04 ± 0.23 +1.87 ± 0.41 Warmest 4th 2007 +1.25 +2.25
Coolest 132nd 1893 -0.82 -1.48
Ties: 1998, 2005
Ocean +0.53 ± 0.05 +0.95 ± 0.09 Warmest 3rd 1998 +0.57 +1.03
Coolest 133rd 1911 -0.51 -0.92
Land and Ocean +0.67 ± 0.10 +1.21 ± 0.18 Warmest 3rd 2010 +0.72 +1.30
Coolest 133rd 1911 -0.52 -0.94
Ties: 2002
Northern Hemisphere
Land +1.10 ± 0.28 +1.98 ± 0.50 Warmest 5th 2007 +1.41 +2.54
Coolest 131st 1893 -0.95 -1.71
Ocean +0.55 ± 0.07 +0.99 ± 0.13 Warmest 2nd 2010 +0.56 +1.01
Coolest 134th 1910 -0.48 -0.86
Land and Ocean +0.76 ± 0.15 +1.37 ± 0.27 Warmest 4th 2007 +0.82 +1.48
Coolest 132nd 1893 -0.59 -1.06
Southern Hemisphere
Land +0.90 ± 0.16 +1.62 ± 0.29 Warmest 5th 2005 +1.03 +1.85
Coolest 131st 1917 -0.88 -1.58
Ocean +0.52 ± 0.05 +0.94 ± 0.09 Warmest 5th 1998 +0.61 +1.10
Coolest 131st 1911 -0.53 -0.95
Land and Ocean +0.58 ± 0.07 +1.04 ± 0.13 Warmest 4th 1998 +0.66 +1.19
Coolest 132nd 1911 -0.55 -0.99

The most current data may be accessed via the Global Surface Temperature Anomalies page.

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Precipitation

June

The maps below represent precipitation percent of normal (left) and precipitation percentiles (right) based on the GHCN dataset of land surface stations using a base period of 1961–1990. As is typical, precipitation anomalies during June 2014 varied significantly around the world, with many areas seeing either much below-average or much above-average precipitation. Extreme wetness was observed during June over regions that included central North America and parts of eastern and northern Europe. Extreme dryness was scattered across different parts of the globe, including much of South Asia and Australia.

Some national precipitation information is highlighted below

  • Australia received 68 percent of average rainfall during June. Western Australia received just 28 percent of its average rainfall for the month, the seventh lowest for June for the state.
  • The onset of the Southwest Asian Monsoon officially occurs when the monsoon crosses Kerala in southern India, according to the India Meteorological Department (IMD). The monsoon typically reaches Kerala around June 1. This year the onset was nearly a week late, arriving on June 6. Through the month of June, the cumulative rainfall was just 57 percent of average for the country as a whole. Every region experienced rainfall deficits during this period, ranging from 39 percent of average in Central India to 74 percent of average in East and Northeast India. The monsoon season lasts from early June through late September.

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References

Peterson, T.C. and R.S. Vose, 1997: An Overview of the Global Historical Climatology Network Database. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 78, 2837-2849.

Quayle, R.G., T.C. Peterson, A.N. Basist, and C. S. Godfrey, 1999: An operational near-real-time global temperature index. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 333-335.

Smith, T.M. and R.W. Reynolds, 2005: A global merged land air and sea surface temperature reconstruction based on historical observations (1880-1997), J. Clim., 18, 2021-2036.

Smith et al., 2008, Improvements to NOAA's Historical Merged Land-Ocean Surface Temperature Analysis (1880-2006), J. Climate., 21, 2283-2293.

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Citing This Report

NOAA National Climatic Data Center, State of the Climate: Global Analysis for June 2014, published online July 2014, retrieved on December 21, 2014 from http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/2014/6.