Global Analysis - November 2008


Global Highlights:

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The data presented in this report are preliminary. Ranks and anomalies may change as more complete data are received and processed. The most current data may be accessed via the Global Surface Temperature Anomalies page.

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Introduction

Temperature anomalies for September-November 2008 and November 2008 are shown on the dot maps below. The maps, below left, provide a spatial representation of anomalies calculated from the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) data set of land surface stations using a 1961-1990 base period. The maps, below right, are a product of a merged land surface and sea surface temperature anomaly analysis developed by Smith and Reynolds (2005). Temperature anomalies with respect to the 1961-1990 mean for land and ocean are analyzed separately and then merged to form the global analysis. Additional information on this product is available.

During November, above-average temperatures were observed across the western half of the contiguous U.S., northern and eastern Australia, and most of Canada, South America, Europe and Asia. Meanwhile, cooler-than-average conditions were present across Spain, Portugal, Mexico, the eastern continental U.S., southern and western Alaska, and western Australia.

November sea surface temperatures (SSTs) were warmer than average in the Atlantic, Indian, and parts of the northwestern and eastern equatorial Pacific oceans. Cooler-than-average conditions were present in parts of the southern oceans, the central equatorial Pacific, and parts of the northeastern Pacific oceans.

During the boreal fall, temperatures were above average in Asia, the western and north-central contiguous U.S., eastern Brazil, most of Australia, Europe, and southern South America. Cooler-than-average conditions occurred across eastern Europe, southern Alaska, the south-central and southeastern continental U.S., and parts of Mexico.

Anomalously warm temperatures covered much of the global land during the first eleven months of the year. January-November 2008 warmer-than-average temperatures occurred in most land areas of the world, with the exception of cooler-than-average conditions across Colombia, parts of Alaska, central Canada, and the Midwestern continental U.S. The sea surface temperatures (SSTs) were warmer than average across the Atlantic, western North Pacific, and most of the Indian oceans. Cooler-than-average SSTs were present across the central equatorial Pacific Ocean and along the western coast of North America and most of the southern oceans.

The mean position of the upper-level ridges of high pressure and troughs of low pressure (depicted by positive and negative 500-millibar height anomalies on the September-November 2008 map and the November map) are generally reflected by areas of positive and negative temperature anomalies at the surface, respectively. For other Global products see the Climate Monitoring Global Products page.

Images of sea surface temperature conditions are available for all weeks during 2008 at the weekly SST page.

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Temperature Rankings and Graphics

Current Month / Seasonal / Year-to-date

Effective with the February 2006 report, NCDC transitioned from the use of the Operational Global Surface Temperature Index (Quayle et al. 1999) to the blended land and ocean dataset developed by Smith and Reynolds (2005). The differences between the two methods are discussed in Smith et al. (2005).

The January-November year-to-date period ranked as the ninth warmest January-November since records began in 1880 for combined global land and ocean surface temperatures, while the global land surface temperature ranked fifth warmest on record. Meanwhile, the combined global land and ocean surface temperature for boreal fall (September-November) was fifth warmest on record, and the land surface temperature was tied with 2007 as the second warmest on record, behind 2005. As for the month of November, the combined land and ocean surface temperature ranked fourth warmest in the 129-year record.

November Anomaly Rank
(out of 129 years)
Warmest (or Next
Warmest) Year on Record

Global

Land
Ocean
Land and Ocean

+1.17°C (+2.11°F)
+0.38°C (+0.68°F)
+0.59°C (+1.06°F)

4th warmest
9th warmest
4th warmest

2004 (+1.40°C/2.52°F)
1997 (+0.54°C/0.97°F)
2004 (+0.72°C/1.30°F)

Northern Hemisphere

Land
Ocean
Land and Ocean


+1.30°C (+2.34°F)
+0.43°C (+0.77°F)
+0.75°C (+1.35°F)


4th warmest
7th warmest
4th warmest


2001 (+1.74°C/3.13°F)
2006 (+0.66°C/1.19°F)
2004 (+0.97°C/1.75°F)

Southern Hemisphere

Land
Ocean
Land and Ocean


+0.77°C (+1.39°F)
+0.35°C (+0.63°F)
+0.41°C (+0.74°F)


6th warmest
11th warmest
9th warmest


1990 (+0.93°C/1.67°F)
1997 (+0.55°C/0.99°F)
1997 (+0.58°C/1.04°F)

September-November Anomaly Rank
(out of 129 years)
Warmest (or Next
Warmest) Year on Record

Global

Land
Ocean
Land and Ocean

+0.96°C (+1.73°F)
+0.42°C (+0.76°F)
+0.56°C (+1.01°F)

2nd warmest
7th warmest
5th warmest

2005 (+1.16°C/2.09°F)
1997 (+0.54°C/0.97°F)
2005 (+0.64°C/1.15°F)

Northern Hemisphere

Land
Ocean
Land and Ocean


+1.01°C (+1.82°F)
+0.48°C (+0.86°F)
+0.68°C (+1.22°F)


3rd warmest
6th warmest
5th warmest


2005 (+1.29°C/2.32°F)
2006 (+0.64°C/1.15°F)
2005 (+0.83°C/1.49°F)

Southern Hemisphere

Land
Ocean
Land and Ocean


+0.79°C (+1.42°F)
+0.37°C (+0.67°F)
+0.43°C (+0.77°F)


3rd warmest
9th warmest
6th warmest


1997 (+0.88°C/1.58°F)
1997 (+0.55°C/0.99°F)
1997 (+0.60°C/1.08°F)

January-November Anomaly Rank
(out of 129 years)
Warmest (or Next
Warmest) Year on Record

Global

Land
Ocean
Land and Ocean

+0.80°C (+1.44°F)
+0.37°C (+0.67°F)
+0.48°C (+0.86°F)

5th warmest
10th warmest
9th warmest

2007 (+1.03°C/1.85°F)
1998 (+0.50°C/0.90°F)
2005 (+0.61°C/1.10°F)

Northern Hemisphere

Land
Ocean
Land and Ocean


+0.89°C (+1.60°F)
+0.40°C (+0.72°F)
+0.59°C (+1.06°F)


4th warmest
8th warmest
8th warmest


2007 (+1.19°C/2.14°F)
2005 (+0.55°C/0.99°F)
2005 (+0.73°C/1.31°F)

Southern Hemisphere

Land
Ocean
Land and Ocean


+0.53°C (+0.95°F)
+0.34°C (+0.61°F)
+0.37°C (+0.67°F)


6th warmest
12th warmest
11th warmest


2005 (+0.85°C/1.53°F)
1998 (+0.51°C/0.92°F)
1998 (+0.55°C/0.99°F)

The most current data may be accessed via the Global Surface Temperature Anomalies page.

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Precipitation

The maps below represent anomaly values based on the GHCN data set of land surface stations using a base period of 1961-1990. During the boreal fall (September-November), above-average precipitation fell over areas that included Iceland, central Russia, southern India, and parts of the central and northeastern continental U.S., Europe, eastern Asia, and eastern and central Australia. Drier-than-average conditions were observed in the Hawaiian Islands, western Alaska, the northwestern, south-central, and southeastern contiguous U.S., southeastern Australia, and parts of the western Pacific Islands, the southern countries of South America, Europe, and East Asia.

During November 2008, above-average precipitation fell over areas of northwestern South America, southeastern Africa, southern India, and southeastern Asia. Drier-than-average conditions were observed across parts of the central and eastern continental U.S., southern Alaska, northeastern and southern parts of South America, and parts of Europe, and eastern Asia.

Torrential rains caused widespread flooding in parts of Vietnam, Ethiopia, northern Venezuela, Brazil, Panama, and the northern Philippines during November. Several million people were displaced and nearly 200 fatalities were reported. Additional details on flooding and drought can also be found on the November Global Hazards page.

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ENSO SST Analysis

Sea surface temperatures (SST) were near average across the equatorial Pacific Ocean during November, with the exception of the central equatorial Pacific where SSTs were 1°C (1.8°F) below average. These conditions are indicative of a neutral ENSO phase (as shown in the adjacent animation of weekly SST anomalies). A comprehensive summary of November 2008 ENSO conditions can be found on the ENSO monitoring page. For the latest advisory on ENSO conditions go to NOAA's Climate Prediction Center (CPC) and the CPC ENSO Diagnostic Discussion.

Images of sea surface temperature conditions are available for all weeks since 2003 at the weekly SST page.

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References

Peterson, T.C. and R.S. Vose, 1997: An Overview of the Global Historical Climatology Network Database. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 78, 2837-2849.

Quayle, R.G., T.C. Peterson, A.N. Basist, and C. S. Godfrey, 1999: An operational near-real-time global temperature index. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 333-335.

Smith, T.M., and R.W. Reynolds (2005), A global merged land air and sea surface temperature reconstruction based on historical observations (1880-1997), J. Clim., 18, 2021-2036.

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Citing This Report

NOAA National Climatic Data Center, State of the Climate: Global Analysis for November 2008, published online December 2008, retrieved on September 22, 2014 from http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/2008/11.