Global Analysis - September 2006


Global Highlights:

  • Based on preliminary data, globally averaged combined land and sea surface temperature was fourth warmest on record for September 2006.
  • September temperatures were above average in Alaska, Europe and most of Australia. Cooler-than-average conditions occurred in parts of southeastern China and much of the U.S.
  • Precipitation during September was above average in India, southern Brazil and most of the eastern U.S., with drier than average conditions eastern Asia, parts of eastern Europe and the U.S. Mississippi Valley.
  • ENSO conditions transitioned from neutral to a warm phase (El Niño), during September.

Contents of this Section:

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The data presented in this report are preliminary. Ranks and anomalies may change as more complete data are received and processed. The most current data may be accessed via the Global Surface Temperature Anomalies page.
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Top of PageIntroduction

Temperature anomalies for September 2006 are shown on the dot maps below. The dot map, below left, provide a spatial representation of anomalies calculated from the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) data set of land surface stations using a 1961-1990 base period. The map, below right, is a product of a merged land surface and sea surface temperature anomaly analysis, which is based on data from the GHCN of land temperatures and the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) of Sea-Surface Temperature (SST) data. Temperature anomalies with respect to the 1961-1990 mean for land and ocean are analyzed separately and then merged to form the global analysis. Additional information on this product is available.

During September, there were above average temperatures across Alaska, Europe, Russia, Australia, Iceland, Mexico and South America. Cooler than average temperatures were observed in parts of eastern Asia and the majority of the U.S.

During January-September 2006, there were above average temperatures in the majority of North America, China, western Europe, South America and Africa. Cooler than average temperatures were observed in Alaska, western Australia and Siberia.

In January-September, warmer than average SSTs occurred in the South Pacific, North and South Atlantic and southern Indian Oceans, with cooler than average conditions observed in the North Pacific and off the coast of western Australia. In September, warmer than average SSTs occurred in the North Atlantic and the Niño 3 and 1+2 regions, with cooler than average conditions observed in the North Pacific and southern Indian Oceans. Please see the latest ENSO discussion for further information.

Current month's Land SurfaceTemperature Dot map
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Current month's blended Land and sea surface Temperature Dot map
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The mean position of upper level ridges of high pressure and troughs of low pressure (depicted by positive and negative 500-millibar height anomalies on the September map) are generally reflected by areas of positive and negative temperature anomalies at the surface, respectively. For other Global products see the Climate Monitoring Global Products page.

Images of sea surface temperature conditions are available for all weeks during 2006 at the weekly SST page.

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Top of Page Temperature Rankings and Graphics

Effective with the January, 2006 report, NCDC transitioned from the use of the Operational Global Surface Temperature Index (Quayle et al. 1999) to the blended land and ocean dataset developed by Smith and Reynolds (2005). The differences between the two methods are discussed in Smith et al. 2005.
Current Month / Year-to-date
September Anomaly Rank Warmest Year on Record

Global

Land
Ocean
Land and Ocean

+0.73°C (+1.31°F)
+0.50°C (+0.90°F)
+0.56°C (+1.01°F)

2nd warmest
3rd warmest
4th warmest

2005 (+1.03°C/1.85°F)
1997 (+0.54°C/0.97°F)
2005 (+0.64°C/1.15°F)

Northern Hemisphere

Land
Ocean
Land and Ocean


+0.73°C (+1.31°F)
+0.62°C (+1.12°F)
+0.66°C (+1.19°F)


3rd warmest
2nd warmest
3rd warmest


2005 (+1.18°C/2.12°F)
2003 (+0.67°C/1.21°F)
2005 (+0.83°C/1.49°F)

Southern Hemisphere

Land
Ocean
Land and Ocean


+0.72°C (+1.30°F)
+0.40°C (+0.72°F)
+0.45°C (+0.81°F)


5th warmest
3rd warmest
2nd warmest


1997 (+1.08°C/1.94°F)
1997 (+0.54°C/0.97°F)
1997 (+0.62°C/1.12°F)

Global Land and Ocean Triad plot
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Global Hemisphere Triad plot
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January-September Anomaly Rank Warmest Year on Record

Global

Land
Ocean
Land and Ocean

+0.72°C (+1.30°F)
+0.43°C (+0.77°F)
+0.51°C (+0.92°F)

5th warmest
6th warmest
5th warmest

2002 (+0.96°C/1.73°F)
1998 (+0.52°C/0.94°F)
1998 (+0.63°C/1.13°F)

Northern Hemisphere

Land
Ocean
Land and Ocean


+0.80°C (+1.44°F)
+0.45°C (+0.81°F)
+0.58°C (+1.04°F)


6th warmest
5th warmest
5th warmest


2002 (+1.09°C/1.96°F)
2005 (+0.55°C/0.99°F)
2005 (+0.71°C/1.28°F)

Southern Hemisphere

Land
Ocean
Land and Ocean


+0.48°C (+0.86°F)
+0.43°C (+0.77°F)
+0.43°C (+0.77°F)


8th warmest
5th warmest
5th warmest


2005 (+0.86°C/1.55°F)
1998 (+0.54°C/0.97°F)
1998 (+0.58°C/1.04°F)

Global Land and Ocean Triad plot
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Global Hemisphere Triad plot
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The most current data may be accessed via the Global Surface Temperature Anomalies page.

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Top of Page Precipitation

The maps below represent anomaly values based on the GHCN data set of land surface stations using a base period of 1961-1990. During September, above average precipitation fell over areas that include much of the eastern U.S. and northern Plains, southern Europe, India, along the Gulf of Guinea and parts of southeast Asia. Heavy rain and flooding occurred in Ethiopia and India. Below average precipitation was observed in areas including the U.S. Mississippi Valley, northern Europe, South Africa and much of eastern Asia. Additional details on flooding and drought can also be found on the September Global Hazards page.

Precipitation Dot map in Millimeters for September
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Precipitation Dot map in Percent for September
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Top of Page ENSO SST Analysis




Last week of the month's ENSO condtions Map
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  • Sea Surface Temperatures continued to increased across the equatorial Pacific Ocean during September, transitioning ENSO from a neutral state to a warm phase, El Niño (shown in the adjacent animation of weekly sea surface temperature anomalies). A comprehensive summary of September 2006 ENSO conditions can be found on the ENSO monitoring page. For the latest advisory on ENSO conditions go to NOAA's Climate Prediction Center (CPC) and the CPC ENSO Diagnostic Discussion

  • Images of sea surface temperature conditions are available for all weeks during 2006 at the weekly SST page

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Top of Page References


Peterson, T.C. and R.S. Vose, 1997: An Overview of the Global Historical Climatology Network Database. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 78, 2837-2849.

Quayle, R. G., T. C. Peterson, A. N. Basist, and C. S. Godfrey, 1999: An operational near-real-time global temperature index. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 333-335.

Smith, T. M., and R. W. Reynolds (2005), A global merged land air and sea surface temperature reconstruction based on historical observations (1880-1997), J. Clim., 18, 2021-2036.

Citing This Report

NOAA National Climatic Data Center, State of the Climate: Global Analysis for September 2006, published online October 2006, retrieved on October 21, 2014 from http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/2006/9.