Global Analysis - October 2004


Global Highlights:

  • Based on preliminary data for October 2004, global average combined land and sea surface temperature was second warmest on record
  • October temperatures were above average throughout Alaska, Australia, eastern Europe and the majority of the U.S., with below average temperatures in far northwestern Canada, eastern Russia and Ireland
  • Precipitation during October was above average across the the United Kingdom, Japan, the Mississippi Valley and lower Great Plains of the U.S., with drier than average conditions in the southeastern U.S., Scandinavia and southeastern Asia
  • Above normal SSTs across the central equatorial Pacific basin suggest ENSO is in a weak warm phase
 

Contents of this Section:

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The data presented in this report are preliminary. Ranks and anomalies may change as more complete data are received and processed. The most current data may be accessed via the Global Surface Temperature Anomalies page.
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Top of Page Introduction

The two maps below utilize different base periods and may reflect different anomaly values of land surface temperatures. The dot map on the left uses anomalies that were calculated from the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) data set of land surface stations using a 1961-1990 base period. The map on the right is a blended product which uses satellite and surface anomaly values of measured land and ocean temperatures as well as SSTs with the base period of 1988-2004. Both maps reflect conditions during October 2004, indicating above average temperatures in northwestern Canada, east Africa, Australia, the southeastern U.S., Alaska and portions of Mongolia, with cooler than average temperatures in the northeastern U.S., the Caribbean, Argentina and eastern Russia.

The mean position of upper level ridges of high pressure and troughs of low pressure (depicted by positive and negative 500 millibar height anomalies on the October 2004 map) are generally reflected by areas of positive and negative temperature anomalies at the surface, respectively. For other Global products see the Climate Monitoring Global Products page.
Click here for current month's Temperature Dot map
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Click here for current month's Blended Temperature map
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Top of PageTemperature Rankings and Graphics

Current Month / Year-to-date
October Anomaly Rank Warmest Year on Record
Global
Land
Ocean
Land and Ocean
+1.05°C (+1.89°F)
+0.47°C (+0.85°F)
+0.64°C (+1.15°F)
warmest
3rd warmest
2nd warmest

2003 (+0.53°C/0.95°F)
2003 (+0.65°C/1.17°F)
Northern Hemisphere
Land
Ocean
Land and Ocean
+1.01°C (+1.82°F)
+0.56°C (+1.01°F)
+0.74°C (+1.33°F)
2nd warmest
2nd warmest
2nd warmest
2003 (+1.04°C/1.87°F)
2003 (+0.62°C/1.12°F)
2003 (+0.79°C/1.42°F)
Southern Hemisphere
Land
Ocean
Land and Ocean
+1.16°C (+2.10°F)
+0.40°C (+0.72°F)
+0.55°C (+1.00°F)
warmest
7th warmest
2nd warmest

1997 (+0.52°C/0.94°F)
1997 (+0.57°C/1.03°F)

Click here for Global Land and Ocean Triad plot
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Click here for Global Hemisphere Triad plot
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January-October Anomaly Rank Warmest Year on Record
Global
Land
Ocean
Land and Ocean
+0.82°C (+1.48°F)
+0.40°C (+0.72°F)
+0.53°C (+0.95°F)
4th warmest
4th warmest
4th warmest
1998 (+1.04°C/1.87°F)
1998 (+0.49°C/0.88°F)
1998 (+0.65°C/1.17°F)
Northern Hemisphere
Land
Ocean
Land and Ocean
+0.89°C (+1.60°F)
+0.48°C (+0.86°F)
+0.65°C (+1.17°F)
3rd warmest
2nd warmest
2nd warmest
1998 (+1.08°C/1.94°F)
1998 (+0.51°C/0.92°F)
1998 (+0.74°C/1.33°F)
Southern Hemisphere
Land
Ocean
Land and Ocean
+0.53°C (+0.95°F)
+0.36°C (+0.65°F)
+0.39°C (+0.70°F)
5th warmest
7th warmest
5th warmest
1998 (+0.85°C/1.53°F)
1998 (+0.49°C/0.88°F)
1998 (+0.56°C/1.01°F)

Click here for Global Land and Ocean Triad plot
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Click here for Global Hemisphere Triad plot
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The most current data may be accessed via the Global Surface Temperature Anomalies page.

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Top of Page Precipitation

The maps below represent anomaly values based on the GHCN data set of land surface stations using a base period of 1961-1990. The map to the left is precipitation anomalies measured in millimeters, the map to the right is the percentage of average (1961-1990) precipitation. During October 2004, much above average precipitation fell across western Europe, Japan, Alaska, parts of Brazil and the central regions of the U.S. Below average precipitation was observed in the eastern U.S., Australia, Norway, the Korean Peninsula, Mexico and the Caribbean.
Click here for Precipitation Dot map in Millimeters
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Click here for Percent Precipitation Dot map
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The satellite images below were acquired from SSM/I satellite data using a base period of 1988-2004. The map on the left reflects surface liquid wetness conditions, while the map on the right reflects snow cover conditions for the month. Snow covered areas that are normally snow-free during this month will appear drier than average on the wetness image since a wetness value cannot be determined for regions that are snow covered. Data in these areas that are normally snow covered are displayed as missing. This is due to the snow crystalline structure which produces a considerable amount of scatter and makes it difficult for the SSM/I to accurately detect the surface conditions. The SSM/I products are experimental and are under continuing review and development. Additional data and information can be found on the SSM/I Browser.
Click here for SSM/I Wetness map
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Click here for SSM/I snowcover map
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Top of Page ENSO SST Analysis




Click Here for the last week of the month's ENSO condtions Map
Click here for animated loop


A consensus of indices suggests above normal SSTs in the central equatorial Pacific basins which suggests ENSO continued to be in a weak warm phase (El Niño) during October 2004 (as shown in the adjacent animation of weekly sea surface temperature anomalies). A comprehensive summary of October 2004 ENSO conditions can be found on the ENSO monitoring page. For the latest advisory on ENSO conditions go to NOAA's Climate Prediction Center (CPC) and the CPC ENSO Diagnostic Discussion
Images of sea surface temperature conditions are available for all months to date during 2004
at the weekly SST page This is a break in the document

References:

Peterson, T.C. and R.S. Vose, 1997: An Overview of the Global Historical Climatology Network Database. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 78, 2837-2849.

Citing This Report

NOAA National Climatic Data Center, State of the Climate: Global Analysis for October 2004, published online November 2004, retrieved on November 29, 2014 from http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/2004/10.