Dual Modes of the
Carbon Cycle Since the Last Glacial Maximum |
Jesse Smith, Hubertus Fischer, Martin Wahlen, Derek Mastroianni, and Bruce Deck Scripps Institution of Oceanography.
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Published in Nature, 400, 248-250
The most conspicuous feature of the record of past climate contained in polar ice is the rapid warming which occurs after long intervals of gradual cooling. During the last four transitions from glacial to interglacial conditions, over which such abrupt warmings occur, ice records indicate that the CO2 concentration of the atmosphere increased by roughly 80 to 100 parts per million by volume. But the causes of the atmospheric CO2 concentration increases are unclear. Here we present the stable-carbon-isotopic composition (delta13CO2) of CO2 extracted from air trapped in ice at Taylor Dome, Antarctica, from the last Glacial Maximum to the onset of Holocene times. The global carbon cycle is shown to have operated in two distinct primary modes on the timescale of thousands of years, one when climate was changing relatively slowly and another when warming was rapid, each with a characteristic average stable-carbon-isotope composition of the net CO2 exchanged by the atmosphere with the land and oceans. delta13CO2 increased between 16.5 and 9 thousand years ago by slightly more than would be estimated to be caused by the physical effects of a 5 degree C rise in global average sea surface temperature driving a CO2 efflux from the ocean, but our data do not allow specific causes to be constrained.
NOAA Paleoclimatology Program / WDC-A for Paleoclimatology
8 February 2000