PaleoVu User's Guide

Release 1.0, for the Macintosh and Microsoft Windows










Contents

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. OVERVIEW

1.2. PORTABILITY

1.3. GETTING TECHNICAL SUPPORT

2. THE MAIN MENU BAR

2.1. FILE MENU

2.2. EDIT MENU

2.3. WINDOWS MENU

3. GEOREFERENCE DATA WINDOWS

3.1. OVERVIEW

3.2. CREATING A GEOREFERENCE DATA WINDOW

3.3. THE GEOREFERENCE WINDOW

4. QUERYING

4.1. OVERVIEW

5. PLOTTING

5.1. OVERVIEW

5.2. PLOT WINDOW CONTROLS

6. EXPORT

6.1. EXPORTING GEOREFERENCE DATA

6.2. EXPORTING TIME-SLICE IMAGE DATA

APPENDIX A - SCREEN IMAGE CAPTURE INFORMATION

APPENDIX B - QUERY INFORMATION

Disclaimer

While every effort has been made to ensure that the product is accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by inaccuracies in the product or as a result of the failure of the product to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.

The user must be cautious when using this computer program and associated data.

Trademark Acknowledgments

In this documentation for PaleoVu, trademarked commercial products and companies are named. Mention of a commercial company or product does not imply endorsement by NOAA or the Department of Commerce. Use for publicity or advertising purposes of information from this publication concerning proprietary products or the tests or such products is not authorized.

Through the publication, rather than put a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state that we are using the names only in an editorial fashion with no intention of infringement of the trademark.

Conventions

You will find the following typographic conventions throughout this guide:

SMALL CAPS

Dialog box and window titles you will see while running PaleoVu.

Bold

Boldface words are literal and represent titles, fixed file names, keywords, and menu item names. Also, anything that you must type exactly as it appears.

Italic

Special terms used in this guide. Also placeholders for information you must provide. For example, if you are asked to type filename, you would type the actual name for a file instead.

typewriter

Presentation of text file contents.

1 Introduction

1.1. Overview

PaleoVu is a browse and visualization tool for paleoclimate data. Currently two types of data are supported; georeferenced, and mapped time-slice.

1.1.1. Georeferenced Data

PaleoVu supports an ever-growing list of georeference data categories, which are as follows: Calcium Carbonate, Coral, Documentary, Ice Core, Lake Level, Modern Isotope, Paleobiological, Paleoceanographic, Pollen, Sea Level and Tree Ring. Georeferenced data can be point, stratigraphic/time-seried, or documentary in nature. Georeferenced point data describes a single occurrence of a geophysical property such as elevation or the modern environment. Georeferenced stratigraphic data describes a sequence of layers. Stratigraphic data may or may not have a geochronology associated with it, if it does it is also a time-series, for example: an ice core has specific depths associated with each layer but may or may not have a specific date assigned to each layer.

Each Georeference Data Catagory is made up of a group of data sites. Characteristics shared by all georeferenced data sites follow:

They are site specific, meaning each has a latitude and longitude specified as part of the data.

They pertain to a specific category of paleoclimate data: Calcium Carbonate, Documentary, Ice Core, etc.

Data is quantitative or qualitative (e.g.. warmer or colder). Note: There can be more than one data site of the same category at the same geographic location.

Browse capabilities follow:

Visualization capabilities follow:

1.1.2. Mapped Time-Slice Data

Mapped time-slice data or image data is an analysis of data for a particular time interval over a specific geographic region.

Each time-slice data set pertains to a category of mapped time-slice data. Examples of time-slice categories follow:

Browse and Visualization Capabilities:

Time-slice data sets can be viewed, zoomed, unzoomed, and scrolled. Legend information is also available.

1.2. Portability

PaleoVu runs on Macintosh and Microsoft Windows. All data is portable and is stored in the NetCDF format.

1.3. Getting Technical Support

1.3.1. Providing Information To PaleoVu Technical Support

The following information needs to be supplied in order to receive technical support:

  1. Your name, organization name, voice phone number, FAX phone number, email address.
  2. The hardware and windowing system (and version number) on which you are running PaleoVu.
  3. The version number of PaleoVu that you are running.
  4. Are you reporting a bug or a suggestion?
  5. A description of the bug or suggestion.

1.3.2. Contacting PaleoVu Technical Support

There are three ways to send electronic/written questions to Technical Support:

  1. FAX (303-497-6513) - Send to the attention of PaleoVu Technical Support
  2. Electronic Mail (paleo@noaa.gov)
  3. Write to:
Ed Gille, PaleoVu Technical Support Manager,
NGDC/NOAA
Broadway, E/GC
Boulder, CO 80303

Phone support is also available. Phone Ed Gille, PaleoVu Technical Support Manager at (303-497-6146). This telephone service is available Monday through Friday, 9:00 to 5:00 MST.

2 The Main Menu Bar

2.1. File Menu

New Georeference Data Window

Most PaleoVu sessions begin with the creation of a Georeference Data Window. The Georeference Data Window is the top level control window for browse and visualization of georeferenced and time-slice data. You can have up to five Georeference Data Windows in your PaleoVu session. See Chapter 4 for details about Georeference Data Window creation and use.

Quit

Exits PaleoVu.

2.2. Edit Menu

Plot Setup

Plotting options can be set ahead of time by using this menu. The plot origin can be put in the upper or lower left and the plotting symbols for each point can be displayed. By default the plotting symbols won't be displayed. These options can also be set in the plot dialog if they are not set here.

2.3. Windows Menu

This menu allows you to rearrange or delete PaleoVu windows.

Tile

You can use this item to rearrange all PaleoVu windows so that all windows are visible, reduced in size so that all windows fit on the screen.

Cascade

You can use this item to rearrange all PaleoVu windows in a cascading fashion, with a portion of all windows visible.

Close All

You can use this item to close all PaleoVu windows.

List of Windows

The Close All menu item is followed by a solid line then a list of all PaleoVu windows. This list allows you to move among the windows currently open in PaleoVu. By selecting a window from this list, it will come to the front.

3 Georeference Data Windows

3.1. Overview

The GEOREFERENCE WINDOW is the top level window for browsing and visualization of paleoclimatic data. Up to five GEOREFERENCE WINDOWS may be open at one time.You can specify the geographic area of interest and data to be displayed in a GEOREFERENCE WINDOW through the DATA SELECTION dialog.

3.2. Creating A Georeference Data Window

To open a GEOREFERENCE WINDOW, choose the Create Georeference Window option from the File menu. When you choose Create Georeference Window, the DATA SELECTION dialog appears. The DATA SELECTION dialog allows you to specify the data you wish to browse and visualize.



The Image Name field shows the time-slice data image to be displayed as the background image in the Georeference Window. Mapped time-slice data is an analysis of data for a particular time interval over a specific geographic region. Each time-slice data set covers a category of mapped time-slice data, e.g., climate reconstructions: precipitation, temperature; paleoclimate data: Foraminifera, pollen; model simulation: temperature, precipitation, sea-level pressure; geography: topography, bathymetry (including paleoreconstructions).

The Change Image ... button brings up the CHANGE GEOREFERENCE IMAGE dialog,which lets you choose among the background images provided by PaleoVu.

The Georeference Data Categories list lets you choose the paleoclimate data categories to be browsed and visualized in the GEOREFERENCE WINDOW to be created. You must choose at least one.

Each Georeference Data Category consists of a group of data sites. Each data site has a latitude and longitude specified as part of the data, and data is quantitative or qualitative, e.g., warmer or colder.

A data site is made up of variables. Variables can be point, stratigraphic/time-series, or documentary in nature. Georeferenced point data describes a single occurrence of a paleoenvironmental property such as modern elevation. Georeferenced stratigraphic data describes a sequence of layers. Time-series data describes a sequence over time, e.g., tree ring data.

Furthermore, a variable can be reconstructed, a "reconstructed variable" is a quantitative or semi-quantitative climatic variable that has been reconstructed using paleoclimatic proxy data, e.g., temperature, or precipitation can be reconstructed from tree ring proxy data.

The Select Sites With Reconstructed Variables Only checkbox, when checked (turned on), tells PaleoVu to browse and visualize only sites containing reconstructed variables. If left unchecked, all data sites can be browsed and visualized.

The Select Vector Overlays button allows you to optionally select vector overlays and or graticules, i.e., lines of latitude and longitude, to be displayed. You can change the overlays to be displayed from the GEOREFERENCE WINDOW.

The Create Georeference Window button creates the GEOREFERENCE WINDOW. The amount of time PaleoVu requires to generate the GEOREFERENCE WINDOW depends on the complexity of the background image and the number of category sites.

3.3. The Georeference Window

3.3.1. The Site List

Each GEOREFERENCE WINDOW maintains a Site List which is a list of georeferenced data sites that meet current query parameters. Current query parameters are defined in terms of three concepts:

  1. Query Region: A geographic region specified in terms of latitude and longitude.
  2. Query Expressions: Each georeferenced data category has a Query Expression. A Query Expression is an expression that results in a subset of data sites for a particular georeferenced data category (such as tree ring or ice core).
  3. Reconstructed Variables Only: If you selected this checkbox in the DATA SELECTION dialog, only sites with reconstructed variables are included in the Site List.

By choosing a set of georeferenced data categories, a background image, and the reconstructed variable status from the DATA SELECTION dialog, you begin to tailor the Site List. Then you further tailor the Site list by choosing the Query button or the Lat/Lon Region Button (description of these buttons follows).

When the GEOREFERENCE WINDOW is first displayed, the Site List contains all the data sites for each selected category that is within the geographic region of the background image, and has the appropriated reconstructed variable status. The Query Expression for each category is blank (NONE). A blank expression returns true for all data sites of its respective category.

3.3.2. Title

The title for the GEOREFERENCE WINDOW begins with "Georeference Window", followed by the name of the background image that you selected from the DATA SELECTION dialog. Next, if Reconstructed Variables Only is on, the word Recon will be displayed. At the very end is number. Any window, created through actions occurring in the GEOREFERENCE WINDOW, will have this number as the final characters of its title.

3.3.3. Display Area

The display area displays the site markers of all the data sites in the Site List. Underlying the site markers is the background image that you selected.

3.3.4. Control Panel

The Control Panel lets you perform browse and visualization actions and change the appearance of the display area.

List Sites

When selected, this button creates a Site Listing Window that lists characteristics about all data sites in the Site List. See section 3.3.6. for details about the SITE LISTING window.

Query

This button allows you to define a query expression for each data category, thus modifying the Sites List. (See Chapter 4 for details about queries).

Lat/Lon Region

Allows you to select a Query Region using a cursor-controlled rubber band box. Click inside the box and drag in order to move the box. Click outside of the box in order to start over. Double click inside the box when the Query Region you desire is contained within the box.

This control is a toggle, once depressed it stays active. To turn off this control, select it again or select another toggle (Zoom In).

Plot Setup

This button allows you to set defaults for plotting data.

Legend

Displays information about site markers and the background image.

Overlays

This button allows you to select image overlays and graticules to be displayed in the Display Area over the background image.

ZOOM CONTROLS

Z (Zoom-In)

Allows you to select a region to zoom in on using a cursor-controlled rubber bandbox. Click inside the box and drag in order to move the box. Click outside of the box in order to start over. Double click inside the box when you wish to invoke the zoom in operation.

This control is a toggle, once depressed it stays active. To turn off this control, select it again or select another toggle (Lat/Lon Region).

z (Zoom-Out)

Un-does the last zoom-in.

Fit-To-Window

Fills the Display Area to the maximum extent possible by zooming in or out.

Export Background Image

This button allows you to export the background image in ASCII Special format or netCDF format to the file of your choice.

Background Image Memo

This button allows you to display the memo information about the background image.

3.3.4. Status Panel

The Status Panel at the bottom of the GEOREFERENCE WINDOW contain status information.

Region Shown

Displays the upper left coordinate and lower right coordinate of the geographic region.

Query Region

Displays the upper left and lower right coordinate of the specified Query Region.

Status Line

Displays the current state of the mouse and information about mouse interaction.

Lat and Lon

These fields display the coordinates of the current mouse when the mouse is down or being dragged.

3.3.6. The Site Listing Window

Through a SITE LISTING window you can plot, export, search and sort on information about data sites, and view metadata about data sites.

3.3.6.1. Bringing Up the Site Listing Window

There are two ways to bring up a SITE LISTING window, you can select the List Sites button or double click on a site marker.

If you select the List Sites button, a SITE LISTING window is displayed. You can perform various operations (plot, export, and so on) on all data sites in the Site List (see section 3.3.1. for definition of Site List). The title of the SITE LISTING window is Map Listing.

When you double click the mouse on a site marker in the georeference window Display Area, a SITE LISTING window is displayed and you can perform operations on data sites within a four pixel search radius of the mouse. The title in this case is Marker Listing.

Note: In order to bring up the SITE LISTING window by this method, you cannot be currently zooming in or selecting a query region, as these operations put the mouse in special modes.

3.3.6.2. The Site Listing Window

Each row of the list corresponds to one data site.

Export

To export data sites to files on your hard disk, highlight the rows of the sites that you wish to export in any one of the columns that contain text. Then select the Export button. For a complete explanation of exporting data sites see Chapter 6.

Search and Sort

These buttons allow you to search or sort through the list for specific site names, latitudes longitudes, and so on.

Select All

Highlights all rows, so all rows are selected for export.

Unselect All

Unhighlights all rows, so no rows are selected for export.

Site List Columns

A description of each column in the Site List follows.

Plot

To plot data for a site, click on the icon under the Plot column in its respective row. See Chapter 5 for details about plotting.

List

To list all data records for a site, click on the icon under the List column in its respective row.

Memos

To list memo information for a site, click on the icon under the Memos column in its respective row.

Category

Georeference data category to which the data site belongs.

Name

Descriptive name for the site. Select the down arrow to the left of the name to display all variables in the data site.

Latitude

Latitude of the data site.

Longitude

Longitude of the data site.

File Name

File name of the data site on your harddisk.

Elevation

Elevation of the data site.

Contribution

Organization or person that contributed the data site.

3.3.7. Resizing and Moving Columns

You can resize and move columns in the SITE LIST Window or any other multicolumn dialog or window in PaleoVu.

To move a column:

Select the desired column heading. The column is now "picked up" and the cursor changes to a hand. While holding the mouse button down, drag the hand cursor so that it is between the two columns where you wish to drop the "picked up" column.

To resize a column:

Select the left or right edge of the heading of the column that you wish to resize. The cursor changes to a cross. While holding the mouse button down, drag the cursor until the column is the size that you want it to be, then release the mouse button.

3.3.8. Scrolling Columns

You can scroll columns in the SITE LIST Window or any other multicolumn dialog or window in PaleoVu. Use the scroll bars to move through the columns horizontally and vertically.

4 Querying

4.1. Overview

As described in Chapter 3, each GEOREFERENCE WINDOW maintains a Site List. The Site List is a list of georeferenced data sites that meet the current query parameters. Current query parameters are defined in terms of three concepts:

  1. Query Region: A geographic region specified in terms of latitude and longitude.
  2. Query Expressions: Each georeferenced data category has a Query Expression. A Query Expression is an expression that results in a subset of data sites for a particular georeferenced data category (such as tree ring or ice core).
  3. Reconstructed Variables Only: If you selected this checkbox in the DATA SELECTION dialog, only sites with reconstructed variables are included in the Site List.

You can change the query expression for a given category of data to control what data is displayed through the GEOREFERENCE QUERY dialog. To display the GEOREFERENCE QUERY dialog, select the Query Button from the Georeference Window.

When you open the query dialog, at the top of the dialog is a list of the categories of data that were selected for this georeference window. Selecting one of the categories will result in a list of variables associated with this category being displayed in the center of the dialog. For querying, numeric variables are not a single value. A variable for a site is a package of two values - a minimum and a maximum value. These values are the minimum and maximum values of that variable for a particular site. By default, all variables are displayed (non-reconstructed and reconstructed). The checkbox below the variable list can be used to change the display to only reconstructed variables.

Clicking on a variable in the variable list causes the variable name to be placed in the expression box at the bottom of the dialog. The variable is surrounded by brackets ( [] ). The brackets distinguish between the variable names and other symbols in the expression. It is possible to type directly into the expression box, especially to backspace over mistakes.

To the right of the variable list is a group of buttons with operation symbols. These buttons are used to place operations in the expression box. There are 13 operations. These are:

  1. + (plus)
  2. - (minus)
  3. * (multiplication)
  4. / (divide)
  5. < (less than)
  6. <= (less than equal to)
  7. > (greater than)
  8. >= (greater than equal to)
  9. = (equal to)
  10. <> (not equal to)
  11. AND
  12. OR
  13. NOT

Variables and operations can always be typed directly into the expression box. The click to insert functions from the variable list and operation buttons is only for convenience for the user. Clicking to insert does not guarantee that the expression is correct. An expression can be built completely from clicking to insert and still produce syntax errors.

Parenthesizes can be used to group parts of the expression to circumvent operator precedence. (See Appendix B for default operator precedence). Operators AND, OR, and NOT are preceded and followed by periods in the expression to distinguish these operators from strings and variable names.

Numbers and operators work just like the common calculator. Variables, on the other hand, have special rules about how they interact with operations and other types of operands. A variable is a package, a min/max pair. When a numeric value (integer or float value) is added to a variable, the value is added to both the min and max value of the variable. For example, a variable Age can have a minimum value of 10 and a maximum value of 100. The expression "[Age] + 5" would result in a variable with a minimum value of 15 and a maximum value of 105. All of the numeric operators (+, -, *, /) work similarly. Relational operators are the most useful operators. The rules for applying the relational operators to variables follows:

Variable < value returns if value > Variable.min
Variable > value returns if value < Variable.max
value < Variable returns if value < Variable.max
value > Variable returns if value > Variable.min
Variable1 > Variable2 returns if Variable1.max > Variable2.min
Variable1 < Variable2 returns if Variable1.min < Variable2.max

After the expression is completed, the button APPLY EXPRESSION is used to apply the current expression to the selected category. When an expression is applied to a category, the expression is actually applied to each site of the category. If the site has a variable of the type specified in the query, the expression is evaluated with that variable's values. If the result of the evaluation is True, the site is included in the current display. If the result of the evaluation is False, the site is dropped from the current display. If the site does not have a variable of the types listed in the expression, the evaluation results in False and the site is dropped from the current display.

The goal of a query is to obtain a boolean (True/False) answer to whether a site fulfills a query. The query "2 + 5" is a valid query and all the sites fulfill the query, but it is not really a useful query. Including a variable in the expression uses values from the data sites to determine the expression value. If evaluating the expression for a site results in True, the data site is displayed on the GEOREFERENCE WINDOW.

Example:

Say you want to query for all Calcium Carbonate data sites that have a percentage of CaC03 greater than 90%. The process to query is as follows:

  1. Select the Calcium Carbonate data category from the top list by clicking on the left most column.
  2. Construct the query expression; Enter variables into the expression by selecting from the Category Variable Names list, enter operators by selecting from the operator buttons, type directly into the expression using the backspace key to delete. Variable names are preceded and followed by brackets ( [,] ). For example, if the variable CaCO3 Percent is selected, the variable name in the expression appears like [CaCO3 Percent].
  3. Click the APPLY EXPRESSION button.
  4. Click the Done button.

The site markers plotted in the GEOREFERENCE WINDOW for calcium carbonate will now reflect only the sites meeting the query expression.

5 Plotting

5.1. Overview

Each GEOREFERENCE WINDOW can have one PLOT MANAGER WINDOW associated with it.

Information about a data site can be plotted through the SITE LISTING window (see Chapter 4, section 4.3.6 for details about creating and using the SITE LISTING window). When the plot icon of the SITE LISTING window is clicked, you are presented with a VARIABLE SELECTION dialog. Any combination of variables may be plotted. A plot is opened in the PLOT MANAGER WINDOW after variables are selected.

Up to seven plots may be opened and tiled within the PLOT MANAGER WINDOW to facilitate visual comparison of time-series data. Comparisons can be made easier by setting the independent variable (depth, age) ranges equal using the Ranges button in the PLOT

MANAGER WINDOW. Plots may be resized with the Zoom Controls, and data values may be read from plots with the Point Value Tool. When plots are resized too small for the resolution of the monitor being used, the plot will go blank. The plot must be stretched to a larger size, or some plots must be closed.

5.2. PLOT Window Controls

Delete Plot

This button deletes the plot with the focus from the PLOT MANAGER WINDOW.

Copy Tool

This button duplicates the plot with the focus and positions it within the PLOT

MANAGER WINDOW.

Tile Tool

This button arranges all plots within the PLOT MANAGER WINDOW so that they are simultaneously visible.

Cascade Tool

This button arranges all plots within the PLOT MANAGER WINDOW in a cascading fashion so that a portion of each is visible.

Ranges

This button allows you to set ranges of values to be plotted.

Graph Edit

This button allows you to select an interpolation method, and/or choose between plotting symbols or line graph only.

Aux

This button allows you to generate a smoothed curve overlay on top of the data values plotted.

Transpose

This button flips the X and Y axes.

Axis

This button allows you to flip orientation of axes (to display depth or time ascending or descending order).

Labels

This button allows you to modify Axis labels (default is variable names).

Point Value Tool

This button allows you to double click at point of interest in plot to display underlying data values.

Move Tool

Allows a plot to be moved by dragging it within the PLOT MANAGER WINDOW. This control is a toggle, once depressed it stays active and puts the mouse in move mode. In order to turn off this control, depress the control again or select another toggle control (Resize, or Zoom In).

Plot Resize Tool

Allows a plot to be resized by cursor-controlled rubber band box. Click on this button, drag corners of box to desired size. Click inside the box and drag in order to move the box. Click outside of the box in order to start over. Double click inside the box when the box is at the desired location and size.

This control is a toggle, once depressed it stays active and puts the mouse in resize mode. In order to turn off this control, depress the control again or select another toggle control (Move, or Zoom In).

ZOOM CONTROLS

Z (Zoom In)

Allows a region to be selected by cursor-controlled rubber band box. Click inside the box and drag in order to move the box. Click outside of the box in order to start over. Double click inside the box when you wish to invoke the zoom in operation.

This control is a toggle, once depressed it stays active and puts the mouse in zoom in mode. In order to turn off this control, depress the control again or select another toggle control (Resize, or Move).

z (Zoom Out)

Will un-do the last zoom-in.

Restore Plot

Restores plot to original size following any Zoom or Unzoom operations.

6 Export

Data from selected sites can be output to files on your harddisk for further analysis outside of PaleoVu. For georeferenced data, PaleoVu can output a columnar ASCII format with spaces, commas or tabs separating the columns. Time-slice image data can be exported in NetCDF and ASCII Special.

6.1. Exporting Georeference Data

Any set of data sites can be exported through the Export button of the SITE LISTING window. When the Export button of the SITE LISTING window is clicked, you are presented with the EXPORT DATA SET dialog.

The ASCII files created will carry the same eight character file names as the PaleoVu data site file name with the extension ".out" or an extension of your choice added. The EXPORT DATA SET dialog allows you to set the output directory. It also allows you to specify whether or not header information will be output. Furthermore, any combination of variables may be exported.

An example of exporting Ice Core Data Sites follows:



Output Directory Text Box

Enter the target directory for the exported data here. In the above example all the export files will be put into the D:\GEODAT directory.

Column Delimiter List Box

Click on the arrow on the right side of this box to see a drop-down menu with your column delimiter options. Select from tabs, spaces or commas.

Output File Extension Text Box

Enter the file extension for the file(s) you are exporting. By default the files will be given their filename with a .out suffix. This text box is also used for naming the export file if you are exporting multiple sites into one file. A file containing multiple sites will be named allsites.out by default.

MULTIPLE files or all sites in ONE file selection box

If you are exporting the data from more than one site, you have the option of having one file containing all the data sets or a separate file for each data set.

Define Header Variables To Be Exported

Click this button when you are ready to decide which of the header variables, such as latitude, longitude and elevation, you would like to have exported at the top of the file along with the georeference data from the site. The variable lists at the bottom of the dialog box will be used for this selection process.

Define Vector Variables To Be Exported

Click this button to begin selecting which columns of data to export from the sites selected. The variable lists below will be used for this process.

Variables To Export List and Variables NOT To Export List

The Variables to Export list displays all variables that will be exported. The Variables NOT to Export list displays all the variables that you choose not to export. The variable list titles also indicate whether you are working with Header variables or Vector variables. For instance the example dialog box above is set for the selection of vector variables.

The button displaying a right pointing arrow (right arrow button), the button displaying a left pointing arrow (left arrow button), and the two ALL buttons allow you to move variables between the two lists.

To move a group of variables (or one variable) from one list to the other, select the variables that you wish to move, and click on the arrow button that points in the direction of the target list. To move an entire list select the ALL button with the appropriately directed arrow for the direction of your move. For example, the <ALL button would move every variable from the Export list to the NOT To Export list.

As another example, suppose you want to export all of the header variables except for Category and Contribution. The process is as follows:



When you are satisfied with your header variable and vector variable selections use the Export button to execute the export operation. Click Cancel to exit this dialog without exporting any files.

6.2. Exporting Time-Slice Image Data

Any image being used in a georeference window as the background can be exported to your machine. There is a choice of either NetCDF or ASCII Special for the output format. To begin simply click the Export Background Image button in the Georeference window that contains the image of interest. The Export Background Image dialog will allow you to set your export options.



Output Directory text box

Enter the target directory for the exported file here. In the above example the file will be exported to D:\GEODAT.

Output File Name text box

Enter the desired file name for the exported image here. The default is the image filename with the extension ".out" added.

Export File Format button

Select the desired format for the image export file.

Use the Export button to execute the export operation or the Cancel button to exit this dialog without exporting the file.

Appendix A - Screen Image Capture Information

Microsoft Windows

Any screen image displayed by PaleoVu can be captured to the Microsoft Windows clipboard, and then pasted into a graphics manipulation program (such as Paint Brush) to be manipulated or printed. Depress the Print Screen Key (F13 on some keyboards) to save a screen image to the Clipboard, or depress the Print Screen Key and the Alt key simultaneously to save the window with focus to the clipboard.

Macintosh

Any screen image dispalyed by PaleoVu can be captured to a Macintosh PICT file. The PICT file can then be imported into a graphic manipulation program to be manipulated or printed. Depress the command, shift and "3" keys simultaneously to save a screen to a PICT file. The first screen image captured will be saved to PICT1, the second to PICT2 and so on.

Appendix B - Query Information

B.1. Operator Precedence

OperatorOrder
(left
NOTright
Highest * /left
to + -left
Lowest < <= > >= left
= != <>left
ANDleft
ORleft

In the operator precedence table, operators at the same level have the same precedence. Operators at the top of the table have the highest precedence. In other words, in expressions with no parenthesizes, these operations would be performed first before a operator with lower precedence. Order determines whether an operation is performed left to right or right to left.

B.2. Operand Types

There are 4 types of operands in PaleoVu - Float, Long, Variable, and Boolean. Mixing these types and certain operations can produce valid results or errors. Following is a list of tables indicating operator, operand types and resulting value types.

Operators +, -, *

Left Operand Right Operand
Long Float VariableBoolean
LongLongFloat VariableBoolean/False a
FloatFloatFloat VariableBoolean/False
VariableVariable VariableVariableBoolean/False
BooleanBoolean/False Boolean/FalseBoolean/False Boolean/False

a. Where Boolean return types have a value, it does not matter what the operand values are, this is the value that is returned.

Operators / a

Left Operand RightOperand
Long Float VariableBoolean
LongLongFloat ErrorBoolean/False b
FloatFloatFloat ErrorBoolean/False
VariableVariable VariableErrorBoolean/False
BooleanBoolean/False Boolean/FalseBoolean/False Boolean/False

a. Divide by 0 errors are returned as an error.

b. Where Boolean return types have a value, it does not matter what the operand values are, this is the value that is returned.

Operators OR, AND

Left Operand RightOperand
Long Float VariableBoolean
LongBoolean/True a Boolean/TrueBoolean/True Boolean/Right b
FloatBoolean/True Boolean/TrueBoolean/True Boolean/Right
VariableBoolean/True Boolean/TrueBoolean/True Boolean/Right
BooleanBoolean/Left Boolean/LeftBoolean/Left Boolean

a. Where Boolean return types have a value , it does not matter what the operand values are, this is the value that is returned.

b. When Left of Right are indicated for a Boolean value, the value of the left or right operand is returned regardless of the other operand value.

Operator =, <>

Left Operand RightOperand
Long Float VariableBoolean
LongBooleanBoolean BooleanBoolean/False a
FloatBoolean BooleanBooleanBoolean/False
VariableBoolean BooleanErrorBoolean/False
BooleanBoolean/False Boolean/FalseBoolean/False Boolean

a. Where Boolean return types have a value, it does not matter what the operand values are, this is the value that is returned.

Operators <, <=, >, >=

Left Operand Right Operand
Long Float VariableBoolean
LongBooleanBoolean BooleanBoolean/False a
FloatBoolean BooleanBooleanBoolean/False
VariableBoolean BooleanBooleanBoolean/False
BooleanBoolean/False Boolean/FalseBoolean/False Boolean/False

a. Where Boolean return types have a value, it does not matter what the operand values are, this is the value that is returned.

Operator - (unary)

Left Operand Return Type
LongLong
FloatFloat
VariableVariable
BooleanBoolean/False

a. Where Boolean return types have a value, it does not matter what the operand values are, this is the value that is returned.