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NOAA Paleoclimatology Reconstructions Network

IPCC Figure 6-10b
IPCC Figure 6-10b, comparing published annual temperature reconstructions. Click image for full figure.

Other Available Reconstruction Compendia:
Frank et al. 2010 1,000 Year Ensemble Reconstructions of Temperature and CO2
NOAA Paleoclimatology has significantly augmented its last 2+ millennium Paleoclimate Network (PCN v. 2.0.0). In addition to the 92 high-resolution temperature records and annual/seasonal recalibrations to a common anomaly period that comprised v. 1.0.1, the PCN now encompasses a large accumulation of high-resolution proxy data (1209 time series) that have been used in several recent reconstructions of hemispheric and global temperatures, gridded global instrumental data covering 1850-2010, and the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis. With the addition of this proxy and instrumental information, researchers and others interested in later-Holocene climate can now find a complete set of data tools needed to calibrate and make temperature reconstructions, and can compare these with the accumulated high-resolution reconstructions in NOAA-Paleoclimatology's archive. Each data type is available in three standard formats (ASCII, Excel, and netCDF) to facilitate working in a variety of computational environments.

The 92 PCN surface temperature records include global, hemispheric, regional, and local single time series reconstructions, generally with annual time-step resolution. They come with many categories of metadata, including complete citations to original publications, seasonal period reconstructed (when applicable), anomaly period (if reconstructions are anomalies), latitude/longitude coverage, and URLs to the original NOAA Paleoclimate web pages from which the data were drawn. Each record is available as a separate ASCII file with fixed header and data formats, allowing machine reading of the data and time-step information. Accumulation of all the records together is available in the three standard file formats, including the complete metadata within the files themselves. The netCDF format version is provided in two files, the first with each record represented as a separate variable and the second as a time-by-study array in which each record is represented as a component of the study dimension.

The proxy data section of the PCN includes the 1209 time series used by Mann et al. in their recent reconstructions of hemispheric and global average temperatures (2008), and their gridded global reconstructions (2009) (see PCN Proxy page for citation details). This accumulation is considered the most complete global proxy data set currently available for last 2+ millennium temperature reconstruction. The 1209 time series come in two versions: the original data as compiled by Mann et al., and each time series infilled as necessary by Mann et al. up to a common stopping year of 1998 using the regularized expectation maximization (RegEM) algorithm. Both the original and infilled versions of the data are provided in the three standard file formats, with overall metadata and header structure in the PCN format from the Mann et al. 2008 article. The metadata file containing information for all the individual time series as published by Mann et al. is also provided (ASCII and EXCEL formats). It should be noted that gridded temperature reconstructions in Europe (Luterbacher et al., 2004) are utilized as proxies in the Mann et al. reconstructions, and are thus included in the PCN proxy set.

The instrumental data section of the PCN provides the following studies:

Merged Land-Ocean Surface Temperature Analysis(MLOST v3b) global gridded (5°x5°) surface temperature anomalies derived from two independent analyses, an extended reconstructed sea surface temperature (ERSSTv3b) analysis and a land surface temperature (LST) analysis using the global historical climatology network (GHCN) temperature database.

HadCRUT3 and HadCRUT3v combined global land and ocean gridded (5°x5°) surface temperature data sets at annual and seasonal time resolution. [The "T3v" version of HadCRU contains variance corrections in relation to the "T3" version.] Both versions extend from 1850-2009. These data sets are often used for calibration and validation of regional and large-scale last 2+ millennium temperature reconstructions, once annualized or seasonalized from their native monthly time step. Along with the gridded data, the corresponding global, Northern Hemisphere, and Southern Hemisphere annual mean time series are provided in three standard file formats.

The reanalysis data section of the PCN provides the NCEP/NCAR 2.5° x 2.5° gridded temperature reanalysis data sets at seasonal and annual time resolution, in netCDF and text format. Seasonal or annual means, or anomalies from the 1961 AD - 1990 AD base period, are provided, including both meteorological and calendar seasonal averages. The files are formatted alternatively with grids beginning at either the prime meridian or 180°W.

The model data section of the PCN provides selected variables from the following long (approximately last millennium) paleoclimate model runs: 1) the ensemble simulations of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Comprehensive COSMOS Earth System Model; 2) the single NCAR CSM1.4 simulation; and 3) the single HZG ERIK2 simulation, all in netCDF format. The selected variables for the entire set of COSMOS simulations are air temperature at 2 m elevation, mean sea level pressure at the surface, and total precipitation, all as monthly mean values; for the low solar runs ( through annual averages of air temperature at 2 m elevation are also provided. The selected variable for CSM1.4 and ERIK2 is air temperature at 2 m elevation, as annual averages.

Citation for Paleoclimate Network:
Wahl, E.R., D.M. Anderson, B.A. Bauer, R. Buckner, E.P. Gille, W.S. Gross, M. Hartman, and A. Shah. 2010. An archive of high-resolution temperature reconstructions over the past 2+ millennia. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 11, Q01001, doi:10.1029/2009GC002817.

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