NOAA Paleoclimatology Reconstructions Network
IPCC Figure 6-10b, comparing published annual temperature reconstructions. Click image for full figure.
The 92 PCN surface temperature records include global, hemispheric, regional, and local single time series reconstructions, generally with annual time-step resolution. They come with many categories of metadata, including complete citations to original publications, seasonal period reconstructed (when applicable), anomaly period (if reconstructions are anomalies), latitude/longitude coverage, and URLs to the original NOAA Paleoclimate web pages from which the data were drawn. Each record is available as a separate ASCII file with fixed header and data formats, allowing machine reading of the data and time-step information. Accumulation of all the records together is available in the three standard file formats, including the complete metadata within the files themselves. The netCDF format version is provided in two files, the first with each record represented as a separate variable and the second as a time-by-study array in which each record is represented as a component of the study dimension.
Download PCN RECONSTRUCTIONS data from the NOAA/WDC Paleo archive:
Data Description and Format, Paleoclimate Network of 92 temperature reconstructions in Text, Excel, netCDF and netCDF as time-by-study array formats. Sample scripts to open the netCDF versions in the R programming environment are also provided.
92 Individual temperature reconstruction time series files from the 46 published papers listed below are also available in text format. File names consist of lead author's name and year of publication. Another way to view the individual files is via the PCN Study Index. This page lists all the studies with bounding latitude/longitude, time span and investigators.
Individual temperature recalibrations of reconstruction time series files are available. These files contain the PCN reconstructions calibrated to HadCRUT3v 5x5 degree temperature data. There are two seasonal splits available for the temperature recalibrations. One set splits the seasons based on the calendar year. This set contains annual, January-March(winter), April-June(spring), July-September(summer) and October-December(fall) periods. The other set contains the traditional meteorological seasonal splits starting with the December of the previous year. The meteorological seasons set contains annual, December-February(winter), March-May(spring), June-August(summer) and September-November(fall) periods. The annual data cover each calendar year and are the same in both sets of files. The recalibrations are provided in text format via the links above (one file for each record with all five recalibrations) and in netCDF format (one file for annual and for each of the eight different seasonal sets of recalibrations, with the records as separate variables). Sample scripts to open the netCDF versions in the R programming environment are also provided.
[The recalibrations were fitted by ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression using all years that had both reconstruction data and spatially-averaged HadCRU data appropriate to the spatial coverage of the reconstruction. One record (pollack1998) has too low time resolution to enable recalibration. Some records lacked comparable HadCRU data to use in recalibration for one or more of the seasonal time periods, and these cases are represented by NaN values for that season. The meaning of recalibration in cases where a reconstruction has a negative correlation with the corresponding HadCRU data is uncertain (potentially representing a spatial mismatch between original calibration data and the HadCRU data). For records where at least one of the annual or seasonal HadCRU averages and the original reconstruction exhibit this behavior, recalibrations are not provided (24 records for calendar year seasons and 17 records for meteorological seasons).]
Wavelet plots of the reconstruction time series files are available, utilizing the longest uninterrupted period of data nearest the present in the record. These plots were made using the wavelet tool at ion.researchsystems.com.
[The ge2003, overpeck1997, pollack1998, and yang2002 reconstructions do not have wavelet graphs because their time resolution is too low to allow the wavelet analysis.]
Citation for Paleoclimate Network:
Wahl, E.R., D.M. Anderson, B.A. Bauer, R. Buckner, E.P. Gille, W.S. Gross, M. Hartman, and A. Shah. 2010. An archive of high-resolution temperature reconstructions over the past 2+ millennia. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 11, Q01001, doi:10.1029/2009GC002817.
Citations for Reconstruction Data Sources:
Ammann, C.M. and E.R. Wahl. 2007. The importance of the geophysical context in statistical evaluations of climate reconstruction procedures. Climatic Change 85:71-88. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-007-9276-x. See also companion article by Wahl and Ammann: Climatic Change, 85:33-69 (2007) DOI: 10.1007/s10584-006-9105-7
Biondi, F., D.L. Perkins, D.R. Cayan, and M.K. Hughes. 1999. July Temperature during the second millennium reconstructed from Idaho tree rings. Geophysical Research Letters 26(10):1445-1448.
Blass, A., C. Bigler, M. Grosjean, and M. Sturm. 2007. Decadal-scale autumn temperature reconstruction back to AD 1580 inferred from the varved sediments of Lake Silvaplana (southeastern Swiss Alps). Quaternary Research 68:184-195. DOI: 10.1016/j.yqres.2007.05.004
Briffa, K.R., P.D. Jones, and F.H. Schweingruber. 1988. Summer Temperature Patterns over Europe: A Reconstruction from 1750 A.D. Based on Maximum Latewood Density Indices of Conifers. Quaternary Research 30:36-52. DOI:10.1016/0033-5894(88)90086-5
Briffa, K.R., P.D. Jones, and F.H. Schweingruber. 1992. Tree-Ring Density Reconstructions of Summer Temperature Patterns across Western North America since 1600. Journal of Climate 5(7):735-754. DOI: 10.1175/1520-0442(1992)005<0735:TRDROS>2.0.CO;2
Briffa, K.R., P.D. Jones, F.H. Schweingruber and T.J. Osborn. 1998. Influence of volcanic eruptions on Northern Hemisphere summer temperature over the past 600 years. Nature 393:450-455.
Briffa, K.R., T.J. Osborn, F.H. Schweingruber, I.C. Harris, P.D. Jones, S.G. Shiyatov, and E.A. Vaganov. 2001. Low-frequency Temperature Variations from a Northern Tree Ring Density Network. Journal of Geophysical Research 106:2929-2941.
Chuine, I., P. Yiou, N. Viovy, B. Seguin, V. Daux, and E. Le Roy Ladurie. 2004. Grape ripening as a past climate indicator. Nature 432:289-290. DOI: 10.1038/432289a
Cook, E.R., B.M. Buckley, R.D. D'Arrigo, and M.J. Peterson. 2000. Warm-season temperatures since 1600 BC reconstructed from Tasmanian tree rings and their relationship to large-scale sea surface temperature anomalies. Climate Dynamics 16(2-3):79-91. DOI: 10.1007/s003820050006
Cook, E.R., P.J. Krusic, and P.D. Jones. 2003. Dendroclimatic Signals in Long Tree-Ring Chronologies from the Himalayas of Nepal. International Journal of Climatology, 23(7):707-732. DOI: 10.1002/joc.911.
Crowley, T.J. 2000. Causes of Climate Change Over the Past 1000 Years. Science 289:270-277.
D'Arrigo, R., R. Wilson, and G. Jacoby. 2006. On the long-term context for late twentieth century warming. Journal of Geophysical Research 111:D03103. DOI: 10.1029/2005JD006352.
Davi, N.K., G.C. Jacoby, and G.C. Wiles. 2003. Boreal temperature variability inferred from maximum latewood density and tree-ring width data, Wrangell Mountain region, Alaska. Quaternary Research 60(3):252-262. DOI: 10.1016/j.yqres.2003.07.002
Davi, N., R. D'Arrigo, G.C. Jacoby, B. Buckley, and O. Kobayashi. 2001. Warm-season annual to decadal temperature variability for Hokkaido, Japan, inferred from maximum latewood density (AD 1557-1990) and ring width data (AD 1532-1990). Climatic Change 52(1): 201-217.
Esper, J., E.R. Cook, and F.H. Schweingruber. 2002. Low-Frequency Signals in Long Tree-Ring Chronologies for Reconstructing Past Temperature Variability. Science 295:2250-2253.
Ge, Q., J. Zheng, X. Fang, Z. Man, X. Zhang, P. Zhang, and W.-C. Wang. 2003. Winter half-year temperature reconstruction for the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River and Yangtze River, China, during the past 2000 years. The Holocene 13(6):933-940.
Hantemirov, R.M. and S.G. Shiyatov. 2002. A continuous multimillennial ring-width chronology in Yamal, northwestern Siberia. Holocene 12(6):717-726.
Huang, S. 2004. Merging Information from Different Resources for New Insights into Climate Change in the Past and Future. Geophysical Research Letters 31:L13205. DOI: 10.1029/2004GL019781.
Hughen, K.A., J.T. Overpeck and R.F. Anderson. 2000. Recent Warming in a 500-Year Paleotemperature Record from Varved Sediments: Upper Soper Lake, Baffin Island, Canada. The Holocene 10(1):9-19. DOI: 10.1191/095968300676746202
Jacoby, G.C., N.V. Lovelius, O.I. Shumilov, O.M. Raspopov, J.M. Karbainov, and D.C. Frank. 2000. Long-term temperature trends and tree growth in the Taymir region of northern Siberia. Quaternary Research 53(3): 312-318.
Jones, P.D., K.R. Briffa, T.P. Barnett, and S.F.B. Tett. 1998. High-resolution Palaeoclimatic Records for the last Millennium: Interpretation, Integration and Comparison with General Circulation Model Control-run Temperatures. The Holocene 8:455-471.
Kirchhefer, A.J. 2001. Reconstruction of summer temperatures from tree-rings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in coastal northern Norway. The Holocene 11(1):41-52.
Loso, M.G. 2008. Summer temperatures during the Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age inferred from varved proglacial lake sediments in southern Alaska. Journal of Paleolimnology 41(1):117-128. DOI: 10.1007/s10933-008-9264-9
Luckman, B.H. and R.J.S. Wilson. 2005. Summer temperatures in the Canadian Rockies during the last millennium: a revised record. Climate Dynamics 24:131-144. DOI: 10.1007/s00382-004-0511-0
Mann, M.E. and P.D. Jones. 2003. Global Surface Temperatures over the Past Two Millennia. Geophysical Research Letters 30:1820. DOI: 10.1029/2003GL017814.
Mann, M.E., R.S. Bradley, and M.K. Hughes. 1999. Northern Hemisphere Temperatures During the Past Millennium: Inferences, Uncertainties, and Limitations. Geophysical Research Letters 26:759-762.
Mann, M.E., Z. Zhang, M.K. Hughes, R.S. Bradley, S.K. Miller, S. Rutherford, and F. Ni. 2008. Proxy-based reconstructions of hemispheric and global surface temperature variations over the past two millennia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105:13252-13257. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0805721105.
Meier, N., T. Rutishauser, C. Pfister, H. Wanner, and J. Luterbacher. 2007. Grape harvest dates as a proxy for Swiss April to August temperature reconstructions back to AD 1480. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34:L20705. DOI: 10.1029/2007GL031381
Moberg, A., D.M. Sonechkin, K. Holmgren, N.M. Datsenko and W. Karlén. 2005. Highly variable Northern Hemisphere temperatures reconstructed from low- and high-resolution proxy data. Nature 433:613-617.
Moore, J.J., K.A. Hughen, G.H. Miller, and J.T. Overpeck. 2001. Little Ice Age Recorded in Summer Temperatures from Varved Sediments of Donard Lake, Baffin Island, Canada. Journal of Paleolimnology 25(4):503-517. DOI: 10.1023/A:1011181301514
Oerlemans, J. 2005. Extracting a Climate Signal from 169 Glacier Records. Science 308, No:675-677.
Overpeck, J., K. Hughen, D. Hardy, R. Bradley, R. Case, M. Douglas, B. Finney, K. Gajewski, G. Jacoby, A. Jennings, S. Lamoureux, A. Lasca, G. MacDonald, J. Moore, M. Retelle, S. Smith, A. Wolfe, and G. Zielinski. 1997. Arctic Environmental Change of the Last Four Centuries. Science 278(5341):1251-1256.
Pollack, H.N., S. Huang and P.-Y. Shen. 1998. Climate change record in subsurface temperatures: a global perspective. Science 282:279-281.
Salzer, M.W. and K.F. Kipfmueller. 2005. Reconstructed Temperature and Precipitation on a Millennial Timescale from Tree-Rings in the Southern Colorado Plateau, U.S.A. Climatic Change 70(3):465-487. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-005-5922-3
Schneider, D.P., E.J. Steig, T.D. van Ommen, D.A. Dixon, P.A. Mayewski, J.M. Jones, and C.M. Bitz. 2006. Antarctic temperatures over the past two centuries from ice cores. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33:L16707. DOI: 10.1029/2006GL027057.
Smith, C.L., A. Baker, I.J. Fairchild, S. Frisia, and A. Borsato. 2006. Reconstructing hemispheric-scale climates from multiple stalagmite records. International Journal of Climatology 26(10):1417-1424.
Szeicz, J.M. and G.M. MacDonald. 1995. Dendroclimatic reconstruction of Summer Temperatures in northwestern Canada Since AD 1638 Based on Age-Dependent Modeling. Quaternary Research 44(2):257-266. DOI: 10.1006/qres.1995.1070
Tan, M., T.S. Liu, J. Hou, X. Qin, H. Zhang, and T. Li. 2003. Cyclic rapid warming on centennial-scale revealed by a 2650-year stalagmite record of warm season temperature. Geophysical Research Letters 30(12):1617. DOI: 10.1029/2003GL017352.
Thomas, E.K. and J.P. Briner. 2008. Climate of the past millennium inferred from varved proglacial lake sediments on northeast Baffin Island, Arctic Canada. Journal of Paleolimnology 41(1):209-224. DOI: 10.1007/s10933-008-9258-7
Villalba, R., A. Lara, J.A. Boninsegna, M. Masiokas, S. Delgado, J. Aravena, F.A. Roig, A. Schmelter, A. Wolodarsky, and A. Ripalta. 2003. Large-Scale Temperature Changes Across the Southern Andes: 20th-Century Variations in the Context of the Past 400 Years. Climatic Change 59:177-232. DOI: 10.1023/A:1024452701153
Wiles, G.C., R.D. D'Arrigo and G.C. Jacoby. 1996. Temperature changes along the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Northwest coast modeled from coastal tree-rings. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26(3):474-48. DOI: 10.1139/x26-053
Wiles, G.C., R.D. D'Arrigo and G.C. Jacoby. 1998. Gulf of Alaska atmosphere-ocean variability over recent centuries inferred from coastal tree-ring records. Climatic Change 38:289-306. DOI: 10.1023/A:1005396027562
Wilson, R., R. D'Arrigo, B. Buckley, U. Büntgen, J. Esper, D. Frank, B. Luckman, S. Payette, R. Vose, and D. Youngblut. 2007. A matter of divergence: Tracking recent warming at hemispheric scales using tree ring data. J. Geophys. Res. 112:D17103. DOI: 10.1029/2006JD008318.
Xiong, L., J.G. Palmer. 2000. Reconstruction of New Zealand Temperatures Back to AD 1720 Using Libocedrus bidwillii Tree-Rings. Climatic Change 45(2):339-359. DOI: 10.1023/A:1005525903714
Xoplaki, E., J. Luterbacher, H. Paeth, D. Dietrich, N. Steiner, M. Grosjean, and H. Wanner. 2005. European spring and autumn temperature variability and change of extremes over the last half millennium. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32:L15713. DOI:10.1029/2005GL023424
Yang, B., A. Braeuning, K.R. Johnson, and S. Yafeng. 2002. General characteristics of temperature variation in China during the last two millennia. Geophysical Research Letters, 29(9):1324. DOI: 10.1029/2001GL014485.
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