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Multiproxy summer and winter surface air temperature field reconstructions for southern South America covering the past centuries

Fig. 5-1. Average temperature anomalies 1846-1875, the coldest 30 consecutive years of the spatial PCR summer reconstruction Multiproxy summer and winter surface air temperature field reconstructions for southern South America covering the past centuries

Climate Dynamics
Online First March 28, 2010
DOI: 10.1007/s00382-010-0793-3

R. Neukom1, J. Luterbacher2, R. Villalba3, M. Küttel1,4, D. Frank5, P.D. Jones, M. Grosjean1, H. Wanner1, J.-C. Aravena7, D.E. Black8, D.A. Christie9, R. D'Arrigo10, A. Lara9,11, M. Morales3, C. Soliz-Gamboa12, A. Srur3, R. Urrutia9, and L. von Gunten1,13.

Fig. 5-1
Temperature anomalies 1846-1875

We statistically reconstruct austral summer (winter) surface air temperature fields back to ad 900 (1706) using 22 (20) annually resolved predictors from natural and human archives from southern South America (SSA). This represents the first regional-scale climate field reconstruction for parts of the Southern Hemisphere at this high temporal resolution. We apply three different reconstruction techniques: multivariate principal component regression, composite plus scaling, and regularized expectation maximization. There is generally good agreement between the results of the three methods on interannual and decadal timescales. The field reconstructions allow us to describe differences and similarities in the temperature evolution of different sub-regions of SSA. The reconstructed SSA mean summer temperatures between 900 and 1350 are mostly above the 1901-1995 climatology. After 1350, we reconstruct a sharp transition to colder conditions, which last until approximately 1700. The summers in the eighteenth century are relatively warm with a subsequent cold relapse peaking around 1850. In the twentieth century, summer temperatures reach conditions similar to earlier warm periods. The winter temperatures in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were mostly below the twentieth century average. The uncertainties of our reconstructions are generally largest in the eastern lowlands of SSA, where the coverage with proxy data is poorest. Verifications with independent summer temperature proxies and instrumental measurements suggest that the interannual and multi-decadal variations of SSA temperatures are well captured by our reconstructions. This new dataset can be used for data/model comparison and data assimilation as well as for detection and attribution studies at sub-continental scales.
Download data from the WDC Paleo archive:
1100 Year Gridded Southern South America Temperature Reconstructions,
Description and 15MB zip archive file containing netCDF and Text data files.

To read or view the full study, please visit the Springer website.
It was published in Climate Dynamics, Online First March 28, 2010
DOI: 10.1007/s00382-010-0793-3
1 Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR) and Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
2 Department of Geography; Climatology, Climate Dynamics and Climate Change, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany
3 Instituto Argentino de Nivología, Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales (IANIGLA), CONICET, Mendoza, Argentina
4 Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, USA
5 Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland
6 Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
7 Centro de Estudios Cuaternarios de Fuego Patagonia y Antártica (CEQUA), Avenida Bulnes 01890, Punta Arenas, Chile
8 School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, USA
9 Laboratorio de Dendrocronología, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia, Casilla 567, Valdivia, Chile
10 Tree-Ring Laboratory, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Earth Institute at Columbia University, Palisades, NY, USA
11 Núcleo Científico Milenio FORECOS, Fundación FORECOS, Valdivia, Chile
12 Section of Ecology and Biodiversity, Faculty of Science, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80084, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands
13 Department of Geosciences, Climate System Research Center, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA
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