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Recent Warming Reverses Long-Term Arctic Cooling

Fig. 1. Locations of the proxy climate records included in the synthesis
Fig. 1. Locations of the proxy climate records included in the synthesis
Recent Warming Reverses Long-Term Arctic Cooling
Vol. 325, No. 5945, pp. 1236-1239, 4 September 2009.

Darrell S. Kaufman1, David P. Schneider2, Nicholas P. McKay3, Caspar M. Ammann2, Raymond S. Bradley4, Keith R. Briffa5, Gifford H. Miller6, Bette L. Otto-Bliesner2, Jonathan T. Overpeck3, Bo M. Vinther7, Arctic Lakes 2k Project Members8
1School of Earth Sciences and Environmental Sustainability, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, USA.
2Climate and Global Dynamics Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80305, USA.
3Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.
4Department of Geosciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.
5Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK.
6Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA.
7Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
8Arctic Lakes 2k project members include the primary contributors to the Journal of Paleolimnology Special Issue, Late Holocene Climate and Environmental Change Inferred from Arctic Lake Sediment 41(1) (2009)
The temperature history of the first millennium C.E. is sparsely documented, especially in the Arctic. We present a synthesis of decadally resolved proxy temperature records from poleward of 60°N covering the past 2000 years, which indicates that a pervasive cooling in progress 2000 years ago continued through the Middle Ages and into the Little Ice Age. A 2000-year transient climate simulation with the Community Climate System Model shows the same temperature sensitivity to changes in insolation as does our proxy reconstruction, supporting the inference that this long-term trend was caused by the steady orbitally driven reduction in summer insolation. The cooling trend was reversed during the 20th century, with four of the five warmest decades of our 2000-year-long reconstruction occurring between 1950 and 2000.
Download data from the WDC Paleo archive:
2,000 Year Decadal Scale Arctic Temperature Synthesis, Text or Excel format.

To read or view the full study, please visit the Science website.
It was published in Science, Vol. 325, No. 5945, pp. 1236-1239, 4 September 2009.
DOI: 10.1126/science.1173983
Additional information and updates to the Arctic 2K Synthesis can be found on the
Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS) website.
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