International Coral Reef Initiative Executive Secretariat
Background Paper


State of the Reefs

Regional and Global Perspectives


by

Stephen C. Jameson
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

John W. McManus
International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management

Mark D. Spalding
World Conservation Monitoring Centre

May 1995

 

Web authoring by C. Mark Eakin, NOAA Office of Global Programs
Adaptation of graphics for Web presentation by Lori Curtis, NOAA Office of Global Programs

 

Table of Contents

 

Executive Summary

3

Introduction

5

Regional Perspectives: Tropical Americas

6

Human consequences

7

Some existing management and research programs

7

Preliminary recommendations for regional action

8

Regional Perspectives: Seas of the Middle East

10

Human consequences

12

Some existing management and research programs

12

Preliminary recommendations for regional action

12

Regional Perspectives: Indian Ocean

13

Human consequences

14

Some existing management and research programs

14

Preliminary recommendations for regional action

14

Regional Perspectives: East Asian Seas

16

Human consequences

17

Some existing management and research programs

17

Preliminary recommendations for regional action

18

Regional Perspectives: Pacific

20

Human consequences

22

Some existing management and research programs

22

Preliminary recommendations for regional action

23

Global Perspective

24

Human consequences

26

Preliminary recommendations for action

26

References

31

(note: page numbers refer to pages in original printed text)

 

Maps

1: Tropical Americas

9

2: Seas of the Middle East

11

3: Indian Ocean

15

4: East Asian Seas

19

5: Pacific Ocean

21

6: Acanthaster outbreaks

28

7: Coral bleaching

28

8: Sedimentation damage

29

9: Pollution damage

29

10: Blast fishing

30

11: Marine protected areas

30