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Greenland Ice Sheet Project (GISP)

Welcome to the Greenland Ice Sheet Project (GISP). GISP was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and identified as the major NSF scientific initiative in the Arctic during the late 1970's and early 1980's. GISP was a decade long project that involved scientists and funding agencies from Denmark, Switzerland and the United States. Besides NSF, funding was provided by the Swiss National Science Foundation and the Danish Commission for Scientific Research in Greenland.
The preliminary GISP field work started in 1971 at Dye 3, where a 372 m deep, 10.2 cm diameter core was recovered. After this, anual field expeditions were carried out to drill intermediate depth cores at various locations on the ice sheet (see table below). The first was a 398 m core at Milcent and another was a 405 m core at the Crete station in 1974. After working out various logistical and engineering problems related to the development of a more sophisticated drilling rig, drilling to bedrock at Dye 3 began in the summer of 1979. In the first year, an 18 cm diameter hole was drilled and cased to a depth of 80 m. Coring continued for two more seasons and on August 10, 1981 bedrock was reached at a depth of 2037 m.
The results obtained from GISP have added a great deal to the interpretation of the history of the Greenland ice sheet, the climatic history of the earth, and have demonstrated the significance of the climatic record stored in ice sheets.
References:
Clausen, H.B., N.S. Gundestrup, S.J. Johnsen, R. Bindschadler, and J. Zwally. 1988. Glaciological investigations in the Crete area, Central Greenland: A search for a new deep-drilling site. Annals of Glaciology, 10:10-15.
Dansgaard, W., S. J. Johnsen, J. Moller, and C.C. Langway, Jr. 1969. One thousand centuries of climatic record from Camp Century on the Greenland ice sheet. Science, 166:377-381.
Dansgaard, W., S.J. Johnsen, N. Reeh, N. Gundestrup, H.B. Clausen, and C.U Hammer. 1975. Climatic changes, Norsemen and modern man. Nature, 255:24-28.
Hansen, L.B., and C.C. Langway, Jr. 1966. Deep core drilling in ice and core analysis at Camp Century, Greenland, 1961-1966. CRREL Spec. Report 126, no. 5, p.207-208.
Johnsen, S.J., W. Dansgaard, H.B. Clausen, and C.C. Langway, Jr. 1970. Climatic oscillations 1200-2000 A.D. Nature 227:482-483.
Johnsen, S.J., W. Dansgaard, H.B. Clausen, and C.C. Langway, Jr. 1972. Oxygen isotope profiles through the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. Nature 235:429-434.
Langway, C.C., Jr., H. Oeschger, and W. Dansgaard (eds.), 1985. Greenland ice core: Geophysics, geochemistry and environment: Geophysical Monographs, v. 33, American Geophysics Union, Washington D.C.
PLEASE CLICK ON THE LINKS IN THE TABLE BELOW TO ACCESS THE DATA
 Year Location Coordinates Drill Type diameter (cm)  Depth (m)
 1971 Dye 3  65 deg. 11 min. N, 43 deg. 49 min. W Thermal (US) 10.2 372
 1972 North Site 75 deg. 46 min. N, 42 deg. 27 min. W SIPRE (US) 7.6 15
  Crete 71 deg. 07 min. N, 37 deg. 19 min. W SIPRE (US) 7.6 15
 1973 Milcent 70 deg. 18 min. N, 45 deg. 35 min. W Thermal (US) 12.4 398
  Dye 2 66 deg. 23 min. N, 46 deg. 11 min. W Shallow (Swiss) 7.6 50
 1974 Crete 71 deg. 07 min. N, 37 deg. 19 min. W Thermal (US) 12.4 405
  Dye 2 66 deg. 23 min. N, 46 deg. 11 min. W Shallow (US) 10.2 101
  Summit 71 deg. 17 min. N, 37 deg. 56 min. W Shallow (Swiss) 7.6 31
 1975 Dye 3 65 deg. 11 min. N, 43 deg. 49 min. W Shallow (Swiss) 7.6 95
  South Dome 63 deg. 33 min. N, 44 deg. 36 min. W Shallow (Swiss) 7.6 80
  H. Tausen 82 deg. 30 min. N, 38 deg. 20 min. W Shallow (Swiss) 7.6 60
 1976 Dye 3 65 deg. 11 min. N, 43 deg. 49 min. W Wireline (US) 10.2 93
  H. Tausen 82 deg. 30 min. N, 38 deg. 20 min. W Shallow (Dane) 7.6 50
 1977 Cp. Century 77 deg. 10 min. N, 61 deg. 08 min. W Shallow (Dane) 7.6 100
  Dye 2 66 deg. 23 min. N, 46 deg. 11 min. W Shallow (US) 7.6 84
  N. Central 74 deg. 37 min. N, 39 deg. 36 min. W Shallow (Dane) 7.6 100
  Camp III 69 deg. 43 min. N, 50 deg. 08 min. W Shallow (Swiss) 7.6 49
 1978 Dye 3 65 deg. 11 min. N, 43 deg. 49 min. W Shallow (US) 10.2 90
  Camp III 69 deg. 43 min. N, 50 deg. 08 min. W Shallow (Swiss) 7.6 80
 1979 Dye 3 65 deg. 11 min. N, 43 deg. 49 min. W Thermal (US) access hole 80
  Dye 3 65 deg. 11 min. N, 43 deg. 49 min. W Elec.mech. (Dane) 10.2 80-225
 1980 Dye 3 65 deg. 11 min. N, 43 deg. 49 min. W Elec.mech. (Dane) 10.2 225-901
 1981 Dye 3 65 deg. 11 min. N, 43 deg. 49 min. W Elec.mech. (Dane) 10.2 901-2037
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