Drought: A Paleo Perspective
The Beginning
The Story
The Data
A Final Word
Drought Site Map
Paleoclimatology Home Page

Site References

The www sites listed below were used by the creators of this site for historical references as well as the locations of many photos and graphics used for this perspective.

The following is a list of all publications used as scientific or content reference for this perspective.

  • Cole, J. E., and E. R. Cook. 1998. The changing relationship between ENSO variability and moisture balance in the continental United States. Geophys. Res. Lett. 25:4529-4532.
  • Cook, E. R., D. M. Meko, D. W. Stahle, and M. K. Cleaveland. 1996. Tree-ring reconstructions of past drought across the coterminous United States: tests of a regression method and calibration/verification results. Pages 155-169 in J. S. Dean, D. M. Meko, and T. W. Swetnam, editors. Tree Rings, Environment, and Humanity. Radiocarbon, Tucson, AZ.
  • Cook, E. R., D. M. Meko, and C. W. Stockton. 1997. A new assessment of possible solar and lunar forcing of the bidecadal drought rhythm in the western U.S. Journal of Climate 10:1343-1356.
  • Cook, E. R., D. M. Meko, D. W. Stahle, and M. K. Cleaveland. 1999. Drought reconstructions for the continental United States. Journal of Climate 12:1145-1162.
  • Dean, W. 1997. Rates, timing, and cyclicity of Holocene eolian activity in north-central United States: Evidence from varved lake sediments. Geology 25(4):331-334.
  • Dean, W. E., T. S. Ahlbrandt, R. Y. Anderson, and J. P. Bradbury. 1996. Regional aridity in North America during the middle Holocene. Holocene 6(2):145-155.
  • Forman, S.L., Oglesby, R., and Webb, R.S. 2001. Temporal and spatial patterns of Holocene dune activity on the Great Plains of North America: megadroughts and climate links. Global and Planetary Change 29, 1-29. Download in PDF format.
  • Forman, S. L. and K. Munyikwa. 1999. An overview of Holocene dune activity on the Great Plains. EOS Transactions. American Geophysical Union 80(46):F55.
  • Gregory, J. M., J. F. B. Mitchell, and A. J. Brady. 1997. Summer drought in northern midlatitudes in a time-dependent CO2 climate experiment. Journal of Climate 10:662-686.
  • Grimm, E. C., and J. S. Clark. 1999. Fossil pollen and charcoal evidence for drought intensity and variability in the northern Great Plains. EOS, AGU Volume 80:46, F54.
  • Grissino-Mayer, H. 1996. A 2129-year reconstruction of precipitation for northwestern New Mexico, U.S.A. Pages 191-204 in J. S. Dean, D. M. Meko, and T. W. Swetnam, editors. Tree Rings, Environment and Humanity. Radiocarbon, Tucson, AZ.
  • Hayes, M. J., M. D. Svoboda, D. A. Wilhite, and O. V. Vanyarkho. 1999. Monitoring the 1996 drought using the Standardized Precipitation Index. Bulletin of American Meteorological Society 80(3):429-438.
  • Hodell, D.A., J. H. Curtis, and M. Brenner. 1995. Possible role of climate in the collapse of the Classic Maya Civilization. Nature 375:391-394.
  • Hughes, M. K. and L. J. Graumlich. 1996. Climatic variations and forcing mechanisms of the last 2000 years. Volume 141. Multi-millenial dendroclimatic studies from the western United States. NATO ASI Series, pp. 109-124.
  • Keen, K. L., and L. C. K. Shane. 1990. A continuous record of Holocene eolian activity and vegetation change at Lake Ann, east-central Minnesota. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 102(12):1646-1657.
  • Laird, K. R., S. C. Fritz, K. A. Maasch, and B. F. Cumming. 1996. Greater drought intensity and frequency before A.D. 1200 in the Northern Great Plains, U.S.A. Nature 384:552-554.
  • Laird, K.R., S.C. Fritz, E.C. Grimm, and P.G. Mueller. 1996. Century-scale paleoclimatic reconstructions from Moon Lake, a closed-basin lake in the northern Great Plains. Limnol. Oceanogr. 41(5): 890-902.
  • Laird, K. R., S. C. Fritz, and B. F. Cumming. 1998. A diatom-based reconstruction of drought intensity, duration, and frequency from Moon Lake, North Dakota: a sub-decadal record of the last 2300 years. J. Paleolimnol. 19:161-179.
  • Lockeretz, W. 1978. The lessons of the Dust Bowl. American Scientist 66:560-569.
  • Mearns, L. O., F. Giorgi, C. Shields, and L. McDaniel. 2000. Evaluation of high frequency variability of climate in regional climate model experiments over the U.S. Great Plains: an impacts perspective. In preparation for Climate Research.
  • McGregor, K. M. 1985. Drought during the 1930s and 1950s in the central United States. Physical Geography 6(3)288-301.
  • Qin, B., S. P. Harrison, and J. E. Kutzbach. 1998. Evaluation of modelled regional water balance using lake status data: a comparison of 6ka simulations with the NCAR CCM. Pages 535-548 in T. Webb, III, editor. Late Quaternary Climates: Data Syntheses and Model Experiments. Quaternary Science Reviews vol. 17.
  • Riebsame, W. E., S. A. Changnon, and T. R. Karl. 1991. Drought and natural sesources management in the United States: impacts and implications of the 1987-89 drought. Westview Press 11-92.
  • Stahle, D. W., et al. 2000. Tree-ring data document 16th century megadrought over North America. EOS Transactions. Am. Geophy. Union 81(12):121,125.
  • Stahle, D. W., M. K. Cleaveland, D. B. Blanton, M. D. Therrell, and D. A. Gay. 1998. The lost colony and Jamestown droughts. Science 280:564-567.
  • Steinbeck, J. 1939. The Grapes of Wrath. Viking Penguin, Inc.
  • Stine, S. 1994. Extreme and persistent drought in California and Patagonia during medieval time. Nature 369:546-549.
  • Tannehill, I.R. 1947. Drought and Its Causes and Effects. Princeton University Press, 597 pp.
  • Trenberth, K. E., G. W. Branstator, P. A. Arkin. 1988. Origins of the 1988 North American drought. Science 242:1640-1645.
  • Webb T. III, K. A. Anderson, P. J. Bartlein, R. S. Webb. 1998. Late Quaternary climate change in eastern North America: a comparison of pollen-derived estimates with climate model results. Quaternary Science Reviews 17:587-606.