NOAA KLM User's Guide

Section 9.6.4

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9.6.4 Microwave Integrated Retrieval System Products

The Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MIRS) was developed with an end to end capability of calibrating and characterizing the radiances measured from satellite-based microwave instruments, and retrieving the environmental data records with state-of-the-art algorithm science. The MIRS replaced the MSPPS on August 30, 2007. This system is an upgrade from the NESDIS operational MSPPS and is a one-stop resource for microwave-derived products from various polar-orbiting satellite instrument configurations. The MIRS is capable of optimally retrieving atmospheric and surface state parameters and provides physical-based retrievals/products in a consistent fashion. The MIRS is also designed to be instrument/spectrum-independent, parameter-independent, and platform-independent. MIRS produces advanced near-real-time operational surface and precipitation products in all-weather and over all-surface conditions using brightness temperatures from multiple microwave instruments.

These instruments include the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) and Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) on board the Initial Joint Polar-orbiting Operational Satellite (IJPS) System (NOAA-N, -P, MetOp-1, -2, -3), the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) on Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F-16, F 17, F-18, F-19 and F-20 polar satellites, and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) that will fly on National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) and on NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP).

Operational products currently or will include: vertical profiles of temperature, moisture and hydrometeors, and also rain rate, total precipitable water, cloud liquid water, falling snow, snow cover, snow water equivalent, sea ice concentration, ice water path, surface emissivity spectra and land surface temperature.

The following table shows the current delivery schedule to CLASS and the available operational products from each version. Additional products will be added as they become operational

Table 9.6.4-1 MIRS Deliverables.
POES MetOp Deliverables MIRS Version/Delivery Time
Temperature profiles (T(z)) (over ocean)
Moisture Profiles (q(z)) (over ocean)
Total Precipitable Water (TPW) (over ocean)
Land Surface Emissivity (LSE)
Land Surface Temperature ( LST)
Version 1.0 August/September 2007
Cloud Liquid Water (CLW) (over ocean)
Snow Water Equivilent (SWE)
Snow Cover
Sea Ice Concentration
T(z) (extension to non-oceanic surfaces)
q(z) (extension to non-oceanic surfaces)
TPW (extension to non-oceanic surfaces)
Version 2.0 February 2008
Hydrometeor Profiles (Hy(z)) (includes profiles of mixing rations of cloud, rain, graupel, snow and ice particles)
-Ice Water Path (IWP)
Version 3.0/August 2008
-Rainfall Rate/Snow Fall Rate (RR/SFR) Version 4.0/February 2009

9.6.4.1 MIRS File Naming Convention

The MIRS file naming convention is similar to the standard Level 1b file naming convention described in Section 8.2.    The filename has the following format:


< PROCESSING-CENTER>.< PROJECT-ID>.< VERSION>.< PRODUCT-TYPE>.< SENSOR-ID>.< SPACECRAFT-ID>.< YEAR-DAY>.< START-TIME>.< STOP-TIME>.< 
PROCESSING-BLOCK-ID>.< SOURCE>.< FILE-TYPE>


Where:

PROCESSING-CENTER = Processing-Center where the data were created.
Length: 3 char. 
Domain:
"NPR" = NOAA/NESDIS Product Suitland, Maryland, USA PROJECT-ID = Identifies the project name. Length: 4 char. Domain: MIRS = Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (fixed) VERSION = The products algorithm version number. Length: 2 char. Domain: V1 = MIRS Version 1.0 PRODUCT-TYPE = Identifies the type of product. Length: 3 char. Domain: SND = 3-dimentional sounding-type products. IMG = 2-dimensional surface and precipitation type products. Note that the filename convention covers two types of products, and each type includes a suite of individual products. For example, the SND file will contain three sounding profiles: T(z), Q(z) and hydrometeor(Z), and the IMG file will contain 9 integrated precipitation and surface products: TPW, CLW, RR, SWE, Snow Cover, Sea Ice, LSE, LST and IWP. This approach allows one file to store duplicate geolocation and other auxiliary data for each individual product type. SENSOR-ID = Short name for the instrument used to derive the product. Length: 4 to 5 char. Domain: AAMH= derived from combined AMSU-A and MHS data on POES/MetOp spacecraft. SSMIS = derived from SSMIS data on DMSP. ATMS= derived from ATMS data on NPP SPACECRAFT-ID = Spacecraft-Unique-ID. Length: 2 char. Domain: NN = NOAA-18 (NOAA-N) SA = DMSP Air Force F16 SB = DMSP Air Force F17 M2 = MetOp-2 YEAR-DAY = Year-Day. E.g. D79104, where D identifies this group as a Julian day delimiter, 79 identifies the year in which the spacecraft began recording the data set and 104 identifies the Julian day on which the spacecraft began recording the data set. Length: 6 char. (5 characters for the date string, plus one for the D at the beginning). Domain: D+YYJJJ START-TIME = e.g. S1355, where S identifies this group as a start time delimiter. 1355 denotes 13 hours 55 minutes UTC (to the nearest minute) and represents the time at which spacecraft recording began. Length: 5 char. (4 characters for the time string, plus one for the S at the beginning). Domain: S+HHMM STOP-TIME = e.g. E1456, where E identifies this group as an end time delimiter. 1456 denotes 14 hours 56 minutes UTC (to the nearest minute) and denotes the time of spacecraft recording of the last usable data in the data set. Length: 5 char. (4 characters for the time string, plus one for the E at the beginning). Domain: E+HHMM PROCESSING-BLOCK-ID = e.g. B0016465, where B identifies this group as a processing block ID delimiter. 0016465 is a seven digit number identifying the spacecraft revolution (orbit) in which recording of this data set began and the revolution in which the recording of the data set ended (the first five digits identifying the beginning revolution and the last two being the two least significant digits of the ending revolution). Length: 8 char. (7 characters for the orbit number, plus one for the B at the beginning). Domain: B+XXXXXXX SOURCE = Identifies the data acquisition source. Length: 2 char. Domain: NS = Fixed field designating No Station.
FILE-TYPE = File extension that indicates file type. Length: variable. Domain: hdf, he4, netcdf, bin, etc. Note that initial format will be HDF-EOS 4, yet BUFR and NetCDF formats should be available later during the FY09 time frame when the full suite of MIRS products is available. This may occur earlier if there is a strong user request. Filename example: NPR.MIRS.V0.SND.AAMH.NN.D07077.S0855.E1030.B0940405.NS.he4

9.6.4.2 Dynamic Metadata to be Captured

This section identifies the subset of granule (dynamic) metadata attributes to be used by the Archive and the valid range of values that will be used for validation of these attributes. Listed below are the metadata items to be utilized by the Archive. The Source column indicates the location of a particular metadata element. The Use column indicates how the metadata item will be utilized within the Archive: S for searching; D for displaying in the search results; or SD for both searching and displaying.

Table 9.6.4.2-1. Dynamic Metadata Description.
Field Name Source Data Type Description Range of Values Use
ProductType Filename String The MIRS product type refers to whether the product file contains 3-dimensional sounding-type products or 2-dimensional surface/precip-type products. This is determined from three characters in the filename. The MIRS products suite contains the following products: Temperature profiles, moisture profiles, hydrometeor profiles, Rain Rate, Total Precipitable Water or TPW, Cloud Liquid Water or CLW, Snow Cover, Sea Ice, Snow Water Equivalent or SWE, Skin Temperature or LST, Land Surface Emissivity or LSE. All products are 2-dimensional surface/precip-type products except Temperature, Moisture and Hydrometeor profiles,which are 3-dimensional sounding-type products. Product type:
"SND", "IMG"
SD
MIRS Version Filename String The product's algorithm version number Currently "V1" SD
Sensor Filename String The instrument used to derive the product Sensors:
"AAMH", "SSMIS", "ATMS"
SD
Spacecraft-Unique-ID Filename String Two characters identifying the platform "NN" = NOAA-18
"SA" = DMSP Air Force F16
"SB" = DMSP Air Force F17
"M2" = MetOp-2
SD
Start/Stop Time Delimiter Filename String Denotes to the nearest minute the time at which instrument recording began and ended. "S"+"HHMM"
"E"+"HHMM"
SD
Orbit/Processing Block ID Filename String A seven digit number, preceded by "B", identifying the spaceccraft revolution (orbit) in which recording of this data set began and the revolution in which the recording of the set ended (the first five digits identifying the beginning revolution and the last two being the two least significant digits of the ending revolution). N/A D
File Format Filename String Note that initial format will be HDF-EOS 4, yet BUFR and NetCDF formats should be available later during the FY09 time frame when the full suite of MIRS products is available. This may occur earlier if there is a strong user request. "he4", for HDF-EOS 4 SD

9.6.4.3 MIRS Swath Data Fields and Attributes

Table 9.6.4.3-1and Table 9.6.4.3-2 list the attributes and Table 9.6.4.3-3 and Table 9.6.4.3-4 list the retrieved products in the HDF-EOS data files that will be archived in CLASS in the first phase

Table 9.6.4.3-1. MIRS HDF-EOS Sounding Swath Attributes.
Parameter Name Data Type Explanation
Temp_Limits R*4 Lower and upper limits of temperatures (K)
PTemp_SCAL R*4 Scaling factor of layer temperature
PLayer_SCAL R*4 Scaling factor for layer pressure
PVapor_SCAL R*4 Scaling factor of layer water vapor amount
PCloud_SCAL R*4 Scaling factor of cloud amount
PRain_SCAL R*4 Scaling factor of rain amount
PSnow_SCAL R*4 Scaling factor of snow amount
PIce_SCAL R*4 Scaling factor of ice amount
PGrpl_SCAL R*4 Scaling factor of graupel amount
SurfP_SCAL R*4 Scaling factor of surface pressure
Level_pres R*4 (1:101) Pressures of the levels between the products profile layers
Total_scan I*2 Total number of scans in the data
Num_fov I*2 Number of FOVs in the orbit data
Num_layer I*2 Number of layers for profiles
Num_qcatm I*2 Number of atmosphere QC parameters
Num_qcsfc I*2 Number of surface QC parameters

Table 9.6.4.3-2. MIRS HDF-EOS Sounding Swath Data Fields.
Parameter Name Data Type and (Dimension) Missing Data Value Scale Explanation
ScanTime_year I*2 (1) -999 1 Four digit calendar year (e.g., 1999)
ScanTime_doy I*2 (1) -999 1 Day of year (e.g., 1-366)
Latitude R*4 (2) -999 1 Latitude (degrees, e.g., -90 to 90)
Longitude R*4 (2) -999 1 Longitude (degrees, e.g., -180 to 180)
TimeUTC R*8 (1) -999 1 Number of seconds and fractions since 0000 UTC Jan. 1, 1993 (TAI93)
Atm_type I*2 (2) -999 1 Atmosphere type: 1 = global
Sfc_type I*2 (2) -999 1 Surface type:
0 = ocean, 1 = sea ice
2 = land and 3 = snow cover
Qc_atm I*2 (2) -999 1 Quality flag for retrievals:
0 = retrieval; 1 = no retrieval
(default to background value)
Qc_sfc I*2 (2) -999 1 Quality flag for retrievals:
0 = retrieval; 1 = no retrieval
(default to background value)
Chisqr R*4 (2) -999 1 Convergence rate:
good retrievals with Chisqr <=3:
less reliable retrievals with 3 < Chisqr <=10:
unreliable retrieval with Chisqr > 10.
Orbit_mode I*2 (1) -999 1 Orbit direction:
0 = ascending;
1 = descending
LZ_angle R*4 (2) -999 1 Local Zenith Angle (degrees)
Range from -59 to 59
PLayer R*4 (1) N/A 1 Pressure of profile products layers in mbar
PTemp R*4(3) bkv 1 Temperature profiles containing layer
temperature in Kelvin
PVapor R*4(3) bkv 1 Water Vapor profiles containing mixing
ratio of absorbents for each layer in g/kg
PClw** R*4(3) bkv 1 Cloud profles containing mixing ratio of
cloud particles for each layer in g/kg
PRain** R*4(3) bkv 1 Cloud profiles containing mixing
ratio of rain particles for each layer in g/kg
PGraupel** R*4(3) bkv 1 Cloud profiles containing mixing ratio of
graupel particles for each layer in g/kg
PSnow** R*4(3) bkv 1 Cloud profiles containing mixing ratio of
snow particles for each layer in g/kg
PIce** R*4(3) bkv 1 Cloud profiles containing mixing ratio of
ice particles for each layer in g/kg
SurfP*** I*2(2) bkv 10 Surface pressure in mbar
Note 1: for dimensions
1: scan(retrieval layers for PLayer);
2: scan*spot;
3: scan*spot*layer
Note 2: Error Flags
Flag Value             Explanation
-999                   Missing product
-888                   Products not available
bkv                    Background values used when not retrievals available
**: The arrays are only place holders at the Version 1, and the actual values will be filled in and available
to users folloing the timeline listed in Table 9.6.4.2-1.
***: Any values for pressure layers below the reported surface pressure should not be used.

Table 9.6.4.3-3. MIRS Image Swath Attributes.
Parameter Name Data Type Explanation
Total_scan I*2 Total number of scans in the data
Num_fov I*2 Number of FOVs in the orbit data
Num_qcatm I*2 Number of atmosphere QC parameters
Num_qcsfc I*2 Number of surface QC parameters
BT_SCAL R*4 Scale of Brightness Temperature
TPW_SCAL R*4 Scale of TPW (Total Precipitable Water)
CLW_SCAL R*4 Scale of CPW (Cloud Liquid Water)
RWP_SCAL R*4 Scale of RWP (Rain Water Path)
SWP_SCAL R*4 Scale of SWP (Snow Water Path)
IWP_SCAL R*4 Scale of ICP (Ice Water Path)
GWP_SCAL R*4 Scale of GWP (Graupel Water Path)
CLDTOP_SCAL R*4 Scale of Cloud Top
CLDBASE_SCAL R*4 Scale of Cloud Base
CLDTHICK_SCAL R*4 Scale of Cloud Thickness
RR_SCAL R*4 Scale of Rain Rate
SFR_SCAL R*4 Scale of SFR (Snow Falling Rate)
SWE_SCAL R*4 Scale of Snow Water Equivalent
SNOW_SCAL R*4 Scale of Snow Cover
SICE_SCAL R*4 Scale of Sea Ice
SURFM_SCAL R*4 Scale of Surface Moisture
WINDSP_SCAL R*4 Scale of Wind Speed
WINDDIR_SCAL R*4 Scale of Wind Vector
WINDU_SCAL R*4 Scale of Wind Speed in U direction
WINDV_SCAL R*4 Scale of Wind Speed in V direction
TSKIN_SCAL R*4 Scale of Skin Temperature
SURFP_SCAL R*4 Scale of Surface Pressure
EMIS_SCAL R*4 Scale of Emissivity

Table 9.6.4.3-4. MIRS Image Swath Data Fields.
Parameter Name Data Type
and
Dimension
Missing Data
Value
Scale Explanation
ScanTime_year I*2 (1) -999 1 Four digit calendar year (e.g., 2007)
ScanTime_doy I*2 (1) -999 1 Day of year (e.g., 1-366)
Latitude R*4 (2) -999 1 Latitude (degrees, e.g., -90 to 90)
Longitude R*4 (2) -999 1 Longitude (degrees, e.g., -180 to 180)
TimeUTC R*8 (1) -999 1 Number of seconds and fractions since 0000UTC January 1, 1993 (TAI93)
Atm_type I*2 (2) -999 1 Atmosphere type: 1 = global
Sfc_type I*2 (2) -999 1 Surface Type:
0=ocean;
1=sea ice;
2=land and
3=snow cover
Qc_atm I*2 (2) -999 1 Quality flag for retrievals:
0=retrieval; 1=no retrieval
(default to background value)
Qc_sfc I*2 (2) -999 1 Quality flag for retrievals:
0=retrieval; 1=no retrieval
(default to background value)
Chisqr R*4 (2) -999 1 Convergence rate:
good retrievals with Chisqr <=3:
less reliable retrievals with 3 < Chisqr <=10:
unreliable retrieval with Chisqr > 10.
Orbit_mode I*2 (1) -999 1 Orbit direction:
0=ascending;
1=descending
LZ_angle R*4 (2) -999 1 Local Zenith Angle (degrees)
Range from -59 to 59
BT I*2 (3) -999 100 Brightness Temperatures in K at each frequency channels
TPW I*2 (2) bkv 10 Total Precipitable Water (in mm)
CLW** I*2 (2) bkv 100 Cloud Liquid Water (in mm)
RPW** I*2 (2) bkv 100 Integrated Rain Water Path (in mm)
SWP** I*2 (2) bkv 100 Integrated Snow Water Path (in mm)
IWP** I*2 (2) bkv 100 Integrated Ice Water Path (in mm)
GWP** I*2 (2) bkv 100 Integrated Graupel Water Path (in mm)
CldTop** I*2 (2) bkv 100 Cloud Top (in mbar)
CldBase** I*2 (2) bkv 100 Cloud Base (in mbar)
CldThick** I*2 (2) bkv 100 Cloud Thick (in mbar)
RR** I*2 (2) bkv 10 Rain Rate (mm/hr)
RFlag** I*2 (2) bkv 1 Rain Flag (0/1)
SFR** I*2 (2) bkv 10 Snow Falling Rate (in mm/hr)
PrecipType** I*2 (2) bkv 1 Precipitation Type
Snow** I*2 (2) bkv 1 Snow Cover (0/1)
SWE** I*2 (2) bkv 100 Snow Water Equivalent (cm)
SIce** I*2 (2) bkv 1 Sea Ice Concentration (%)
SurfM** I*2 (2) bkv 100 Soil surface Moisture (mm)
WindSP** I*2 (2) bkv 100 Wind Speed (in m/s)
WindDir** I*2 (2) bkv 100 Wind Direction (in degrees)
WindU** I*2 (2) bkv 100 Wind Speed in U Direction (m/s)
WindV** I*2 (2) bkv 100 Wind Speed in V Direction (m/s)
TSkin I*2 (2) bkv 100 Skin Temperature (in Kelvin)
SurfP I*2 (2) bkv 100 Surface Pressure (in mbar)
Emis I*2 (2) bkv 100 Emissivity Vector
Note 1: For Dimensions
1: Scan;
2: scan*spot;
3: scan*spot*channel
Note 2: Error Flags
Flag Value             Explanation
-999                   Missing Product
-888                   Operational Products not available
bkv                    Background values when no retrievals available
**: The arrays are only place holders at the Version 1 and the actual values will be filled in and available to users following the MIRS operational timeline.
Some of them will only available as experimental products. Operational products can be referred to MIRS deliverables in Section 9.6.4.

9.6.4.4 Data Access

The MIRS data sets can be accessed via CLASS. The URLs to access the data are listed below:
http://www.class.noaa.gov
http://www.class.ncdc.noaa.gov
http://www.class.ngdc.noaa.gov

Amended October 1, 2007


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