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GCOS Surface Network (GSN)
Performance Monitoring


The Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) was established in 1992 to ensure that the observations and information needed to address climate-related issues are taken and made available to all potential users. It is co-sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the International Council for Science (ICSU).

GCOS does not directly make observations nor generate data products. Rather, its role is to stimulate, encourage, coordinate or otherwise facilitate making necessary observations by national or international organizations in support of their own requirements and other shared goals. GCOS provides an operational framework for integrating, and enhancing as needed, the observational systems of participating countries and organizations into a comprehensive system focused on requirements for climate studies. To do this, GCOS builds upon existing and developing observing systems such as the Global Ocean Observing System, the Global Terrestrial Observing System, and the Global Observing System and Global Atmospheric Watch of the World Meteorological Organization. The GCOS Surface Network, or GSN, is one of the GCOS atmospheric networks.

The principal aims of the GSN include ensuring a relatively homogeneous distribution of upper air stations that meet specific record length and observation continuity requirements as outlined by GCOS, and to make available current and historical upper air data for climate research. To meet these aims, GCOS Monitoring, Analysis, Archive and Lead Centres have been established for the GSN. The WMO and GCOS act on information provided by the GSN Monitoring, Analysis and Lead Centres to feedback to contributing members to enhance network performance and encourage the provision of station data from the GSN.

Performance Indicators

Data Completeness
Completeness is computed as the percentage of reported observations for both daily and monthly data for the six possible elements: mean monthly temperature, mean monthly maximum temperature, mean monthly minimum temperature, mean monthly station pressure, mean monthly station pressure corrected to sea level, and total monthly precipitation.

Data Quality
Quality control results will be made available in the future.

Report Descriptions

Station Listing
The Station Listing provides a list of active GCOS Surface Network stations including latitude, longitude, and elevation along with country and monthly and daily data availability. Links to station graphs and inventories are included.

Station Inventory
The Station Inventory is generated either from the GSN Station Listing , or the GSN Station Map and displays completeness information starting with the most current year.

Station Graphs
Station Graphs are generated either from the GSN Station Listing , or the GSN Station Map and allow the user to define period of record and element for a given station.

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