Dataset Documentation / Archive List

Upper Air Metadata




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Dataset 3270: Surface Ozone In-Situ Measurements

Abstract: NCDC maintains an extensive digital collection of historical global, climatic archives from surface, oceanic, and satellite sources. The actual data in this file is ozone, continuous, in situ (In the original position) measurements. The primary data set consists of one hour average values. There are four global baseline observatories maintained and operated by CMDL where local pollution and anthropogenic (man made or influenced) influences are frequently non existent. The sites are located at Barrow, Alaska, Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, Cape Matatula, American Samoa, and South Pole, Antarctica. The data taken from these four stations goes back to the mid 1970s. The hourly digital file contains: record type, station identification, dates, units of measurement indicator, source codes, data quality flags, and element type. Surface Ozone Hourly data contains hourly ozone data.

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Dataset 3500: Monthly Climatic Data for the World - Surface and Upper Air

Abstract: The National Climatic Data Center processes international electronic transmissions in CLIMAT (surface land station format), CLIMAT SHIP (ocean ship format) and CLIMAT TEMP (upper air format), for the purpose of building a surface/upper air database and publishing the Monthly Climatic Data for the World bulletin. Approximately 1200 surface and 500 upper air stations are processed. These data are used in agricultural and energy assessment activities, in crop yield model development, and in the analysis of global atmospheric and regional climatic variations. The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) produces the data sets DSI-9645 and TD9648 (obsolete), which are also archived at NCDC, from the MCDW annual. (This data set contains data from 1986 onward. However, the data sets listed above contain other data from as early as 1731.

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Dataset 3515: GFDL Monthly Rawinsonde Station Statistics

Abstract: This dataset was produced at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory/NOAA. It contains monthly sum statistics for most rawinsonde stations operational during the period May 1958 through December 1989. The bulk of the statistics are available twice a day for 00 and 12 GMT, whereas a small number of station statistics are also available for 06 and 18 GMT. Get the documentation in Word or PDF

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Dataset 3638: ASOS/Sounder Processing System Software

Abstract: The satellite derived cloud height and amount for the Automated Surface and Observing System (ASOS) for GOES East and GOES West is a processing system incorporating GOES, RGLX forecast output, and surface information to generate remotely sensed cloud parameters every hour for a selected number of surface stations over the contiguous United States of America. The remotely sensed cloud parameters in the form of a report are transmitted on an hourly bases SATEPS Product Server for availability to outside users. Get the documentation in 3638 Word or 3638 PDF

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Dataset 3710: Upper Air Merged Monthly 1985-1989

Abstract: The Merged Monthly Dataset is a 360 tape database of the 00Z and 12Z ECMWF (European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting). Upper Air Analysis tapes from Jan. 1980 to Dec. 1989 for levels surface to 10mb are included. The data is arranged into files containing one latitude "band" for each month-year. Get the documentation in 3710 Word or 3710 PDF

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Dataset 5200: Winds Aloft

Abstract: This data set includes winds aloft observations which are the measurement and computation of wind speeds and directions at various levels above the surface of the earth. Data periods vary from station to station which covers countries over the entire globe. The earliest period of record is in 1927 and the latest is in 1971.

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Dataset 5681: Upper Air Rawinsonde Observations

Abstract: Dataset 5681 is a historical, composite data set that NCDC built from upper air data received from the Air Force's Global Weather center (GWC) and NOAA's National Meteorological Center (NMC). NCDC converted these two sources separately into DS-5681, then merged the two giving priority to the NMC source. Major parameters which make up this file are number of levels, pressure of level, height of level, temperature of level, relative humidity of level, wind direction and speed of level. Period of coverage is from 1971 through 1978.

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Dataset 5683: Upper Air (Rawinsonde) Global Coverage

Abstract: This dataset was produced from upper air data received from NOAA's National Weather Service, National Meteorological Center. The data in this file are sorted by stations (WMO) number. The first level is always the surface, standard and significant levels then follow in decreasing pressure (ascending height) order. The major parameters that make up this file are observation time (year, month, day, hour), number of levels, pressure of level (mb to tenths), height of level (geopotential meters), temperature of level (degree Celsius to tenths), relative humidity of level (%), and wind direction (whole degrees) and wind speed (meters per second) of the level.

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Dataset 5810: U.S. Upper Air Rawinsonde




Abstract: U.S. Upper Air Rawinsonde is historical digital data set DS-5810, archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Data are of two types: thermodynamic data (TDAT) and minute wind direction and speed (WDAT). Major parameters in 'TDAT' are station id, observation id, elapsed time of data levels, pressure height, temperature, moisture, equipment performance and ship position (if applicable). Major parameters in 'WDAT' are station id, observation id, wind direction and speeds for each available minute of winds aloft data. Unique ship numbers which were established by NCDC are included in these data.

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Dataset 5811: Monthly Global and Tropical Surface and Upper-Air Temperature Anomaly Data

Abstract: These files contain monthly global and tropical temperature anomaly time series for the surface and several upper-air layers and pressure levels, from satellite and in situ observations, for the period 1958-2004, and covering a vertical range from the surface to the lower stratosphere. They were prepared for the U.S. Climate Change Science Program's (CCSP) Synthesis and Assessment Report 1.1 entitled "Temperature Trends in the Lower Atmosphere: Steps for Understanding and Reconciling Differences" and available at www.climatescience.gov. That report gives more details about the individual surface, radiosonde, satellite Microwave Sounding Unit, and reanalysis datasets that were used in the report, including information on how to access them and sources of additional documentation. The only changes made to those original datasets were (1) creation of global and tropical (20S-20N) means from the original gridded or zonal-mean datasets, (2) normalization of all temperature anomalies to a consistent base period (1979-1999), and (3) creation of vertically-weighted layer-mean anomalies for additional layers not available in the original data products. The main purpose of these datasets was to facilitate the analysis presented in the CCSP report. They are being made available as part of the publication of that report.

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Dataset 5850: Rocketsonde Observations

Abstract: Rocketry, as a means of gathering information from the atmosphere, appealed to scientists for many years; but it was not until the late 1950's that technology had advanced enough to allow a modest rocket-sounding program. Prior to 1969, the World Data Center-A for Meteorology (collected and operated by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC)) acted as the collection agency and was responsible for editing and publishing these upper air soundings. The pre-1969 observations were converted from magnetic tapes retained by the U.S. Air Force Air Weather Service. Beginning with the 1969 observations, responsibility for preparing observations was transferred to the National Climatic Data Center. This rocketsonde data set is comprised of a network of approximately 42 stations located globally.

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Dataset 5900: NOAA Profiler Network

Abstract: The NOAA Profiler Network (NPN) operates a network of tropospheric wind profilers and serves as a collection and distribution point for wind profiler and upper-air data collected from the NPN and other cooperating agencies. The hourly archive data come from the NOAA Profiler Network (NPN). The NPN consists of up to 40 Lockheed-Martin doppler wind profilers located primarily in the midwest of the continental US and Alaska. Boundary layer profilers operated by cooperating agencies beginning in approximately 1995 are also included in the data sets.

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Dataset 5913: Unisys Radio Acoustic Sounding System RASS-6 (6-Min)

Abstract: Since 1990, the Forecast Systems Laboratory (FSL) has operated the Wind Profiler Demonstration Network (WPDN) to demonstrate and assess the utility of wind profiler technology in a quasi-operational environment, and to help define operational specifications for a possible future U.S. national network. The first phase of the WPDN was completed in May 1992 with the installation of a network of 32 wind profilers in the U.S. Near continuous real-time data from this network are available to meteorological centers around the world. The second phase of the WPDN is the addition of Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) sensors to 8 network sites. This phase began in 1993 with the installation of the first RASS unit at Platteville, CO. RASS is a technique that remotely measures atmospheric (virtual) temperature by combining wind profilers and acoustic sources in such a way that temperature profiles are produced with the same temporal- and spatial-resolution as the radar. The wind profiler measures the speed of refractive index perturbations induced by sound waves generated with the acoustic waves generated with the acoustic sources. This allows the measurement of the local speed of sound as the acoustic waved ascend through the atmosphere. Since the speed of sound is proportional to the square root of the virtual temperature, profiles of virtual temperature are generated at the same heights and temporal frequencies as the wind measurements. Maximum height coverage is determined by attenuation of sound, which is a function radar frequency and meteorological conditions, such as temperature, humidity, and wind speed. Get the documentation in 5913 Word or 5913 PDF

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Dataset 5915: Unisys Radio Acoustic Sounding System RASS Spectrum-6 (6 min)

Abstract: Since 1990, the Forecast Systems Laboratory (FSL) has operated the Wind Profiler Demonstration Network (WPDN) to demonstrate and assess the utility of wind profiler technology in a quasi-operational environment, and to help define operational specifications for a possible future U.S. national network. The first phase of the WPDN was completed in May 1992 with the installation of a network of 32 wind profilers in the U.S. Near continuous real-time data from this network are available to meteorological centers around the world. The second phase of the WPDN is the addition of Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) sensors to 8 network sites. This phase began in 1993 with the installation of the first RASS unit at Platteville, CO. RASS is a technique that remotely measures atmospheric (virtual) temperature by combining wind profilers and acoustic sources in such a way that temperature profiles are produced with the same temporal- and spatial-resolution as the radar. The wind profiler measures the speed of refractive index perturbations induced by sound waves generated with the acoustic waves generated with the acoustic sources. This allows the measurement of the local speed of sound as the acoustic waved ascend through the atmosphere. Since the speed of sound is proportional to the square root of the virtual temperature, profiles of virtual temperature are generated at the same heights and temporal frequencies as the wind measurements. Maximum height coverage is determined by attenuation of sound, which is a function radar frequency and meteorological conditions, such as temperature, humidity, and wind speed. Get the documentation in 5915 Word or 5915 PDF

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Dataset 6103: NMC Global GTS Upper Air

Abstract: The major parameters in TD-6103 are mandatory constant pressure data (1000-mb through 1-mb), various pressure data, and tropopause data consisting of heights of pressure levels, temperatures, and wind direction and speed. The National Meteorological Center (NMC) Global Telecommunication System (GTS) data is a collection of those observations used to initialize the NMC global forecast model. NMC places the data on disc at each main synoptic hour; 00Z, 06Z, 12Z, and 18Z. The data is then placed on magnetic tape every seven days (5 days for the Surface/Marine) and sent to the NCDC. SIRS stands for Satellite Infrared Sounding. Sirs-A was part of Nimbus-3 launched in 1968. It was a downward (nadir) pointing instrument. SIRS-B was part of Nimbus-4 launched in 1972. It was a cross track scanner and also provided vertical temperature profiles. See also NMC Satellite Winds. The files from January 1973 through December 1984 were converted from previous digital files.

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Dataset 6106: NMC Global GTS Aircraft Data

Abstract: The major parameters in TD-6106 are mandatory constant pressure data (1000-mb through 1-mb), various pressure data, and tropopause data consisting of heights of pressure levels, temperatures, and wind direction and speed. The National Meteorological Center (NMC) Global Telecommunication System (GTS) data is a collection of those observations used to initialize the NMC global forecast model. NMC places the data on disc at each main synoptic hour; 00Z, 06Z, 12Z, and 18Z. The data is then placed on magnetic tape every seven days (5 days for the Surface/Marine) and sent to the NCDC. SIRS stands for Satellite Infrared Sounding. Sirs-A was part of Nimbus-3 launched in 1968. It was a downward (nadir) pointing instrument. SIRS-B was part of Nimbus-4 launched in 1972. It was a cross track scanner and also provided vertical temperature profiles. See also NMC Satellite Winds. The files from January 1973 through December 1984 were converted from previous digital files.

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Dataset 6110: NCEP Charts

Abstract: The National Climatic Data Center archives weather charts that are produced by the U.S. National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The charts are the most commonly used by the climate community because they provide a quick historical reference concerning weather conditions on selected dates. They can also be used to geographically locate and date a series of weather phenomena and events. These charts consist of analyses and forecasts of all mandatory levels of the atmosphere. Get the documentation in 6110.doc or 6110.pdf

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Dataset 6116: GTS NCEP PREPBUFR Data

Abstract: It is one of several sets of model data from NCEP that are archived at NCDC. The files come from NCEP FNL (final) model runs for 00Z, 06Z, 12Z and 18Z, via the Global Telecommunications System (GTS), and contain all of the quality- controlled data that is input to the analysis for the model run. Data are in Binary Universal Form for the Representation of meteorological data (BUFR) format, a World Meteorological Organization (WMO) approved format. BUFR is a binary code desiged to represent any meteorological data. The final file (this data set) is a monolithic BUFR file known as PREPBUFR. All data types used by the model are present, including upper air, marine surface, aircraft reports (ACARS, AIRCAR), land surface, etc. Major parameters include location of data and particulars about the instruments; wind and turbulence information; temperature information including dry bulb, wet bulb, dew point, soil, etc.; hygrographic and hydrological information including precipitation, snow and snow depth, river stage, relative humidity, and others; radiation and radiance; ozone and air mass; synoptic features; present weather; oceanographic data including wave and swell and others; dispersal and transport; and radiological elements.

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Dataset 6145: CAC Tropical Strip Winds and Outgoing Radiation

Abstract: This data set is comprised of one tape that contains monthly means of u and v components of the winds at 1000, 850, 700, 500, 300, and 200 mb and the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) for each month for which they are available from March 1968 through February 1988. The data for each year (March through February) constitute 1 file, so there are 20 files on the tape. Each file contains 156 records, one for each component at each of 6 levels and another for the OLR, all for each of 12 months.

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Dataset 6147: TOGA COARE Data

Abstract: The Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) was a large international field experiment conducted in 1992-1993 to study the atmospheric and oceanic processes over the region of the western Pacific known as the "warm pool". This is the region of warm ocean and atmospheric clouds and precipitation that is linked to the El Nino climate variation. Data and data products generally covered the period July 1992 to June 1993 with an intensive observing period 1 November 1992 to 28 February 1993.

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Dataset 6201: US Rawinsonde Observations

Abstract: US Rawinsonde Observations (DS-6201) is a historical digital data set archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). It contains upper air observations by rawinsonde from 1945 to 1990. Stations are mostly US civilian and military, but include a scattering of other stations over the globe. The parameters are observation time (year, month, day, hour) in GMT, number of pressure levels, level quality indicator, elapsed time since release (beginning with January 1, 1981), pressure of level (kilopascals and hundredths), geopotential height of level (whole meters), temperature of level (Deg. C and 10ths), relative humidity of level (whole %), wind direction of level (whole degrees), and wind speed of level (meters per sec.).

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Dataset 6202: GTS Global Upper Air

Abstract: GTS Global Upper Air is historical digital data set DS-6202, archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This is meteorological upper air data. DS-6202 is historical data from the National Meteorological Center (NMC), which is now the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), part of the US National Weather Service. NMC extracted the data from the Global Telecommunications System (GTS). The observations contain all available mandatory and significant levels transmitted under international agreement. Parameters include pressure, height, temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction. The period of record varies from station to station. The general collection began in September 1963 for the Northern Hemisphere. Stations in the Southern Hemisphere are generally not available until mid-1966 or later. Data ends with December 1970.

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Dataset 6207: MICROARTS Upper Air Data

Abstract: This is a historical dataset provided by The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Each file contains both an ID record and a data record. The ID record contains information on station location, date and time of release. Both the hour of observation and the actual time of release (hour and minute) are entered. Flight and equipment information are entered in the ID record and include ascension number, observer initials, type of radiosonde, baroswitch or radiosonde serial number and manufacturer, types of sensing elements, balloon weight, age and manufacturer, reason for flight termination, the number of times the flight was recomputed and the version of software used to reduce the data. The number of recomputes informs the NWS management of potential problems with data reduction and communications software. Sky condition, present weather, surface wind and type of corrections applied to data elements are also recorded in the ID record. The data record is repeated for each level of the clouding and contains the ascension number and the elapsed time since release in minutes and seconds. The elapsed time is used for such purposes as micro-scale research projects, to provide more accurate ground truth for satellite data, and to compute balloon ascension rates used in the data editing process. The data record also contains pressure, height, relative humidity, dew-point depression, and wind speed and direction. Get the documentation in 6207 Word or 6207 PDF

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Dataset 6210: Marine Upper Air

Abstract: The upper Air Observations in this digital data file include stations operated by the National Weather Service, U.S. Navy, and certain South American stations whose data received quality control at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Additional Upper Air Observations from the Global Tel-Communications System (GTS), and the U.S. Air Force are also included is this digital file but are not quality controlled by NCDC. Approximately 100 stations were selected, prime selection factors were marine influence and near sea level heights. The intent was to select data that could be used to supplement ship observations. The period of record is from 1973 through 1993.

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Dataset 6211: Rawinsonde 6-second Data

Abstract: High resolution 6-second data have been received at NCDC since April 1995 and archived as TD-9948/DSI-9948. The data are processed by NCDC through a PC/Workstation based Upper Air Data Assimilation System (UDAS) which creates the final ASCII archive files. The requirement to include the U and V components of the winds has initiated this data set. UCAR/Joint Office of Science Support (JOSS) provided the software to create DSI-6211 from TD-9948 (DSI-9948). The data records (1 record per 6 second interval including surface) contain 22 fields as follows: 20-character sort key, time from release, pressure, temperature, dew point, relative humidity, U and V wind components, wind speed and direction, ascent rate, balloon position data, altitude, and quality control flags.

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Dataset 6221: Monthly Aerological Data Set Subset / Short MONADS

Abstract: MONADS is a database comprised of monthly averaged values and calculated statistics from the radiosonde data in the CARDS database. This dataset consists of simple and ordered statistics, and includes averages, medians, and quartiles for geopotential height, temperature, humidity, and winds. The data begins around 1948 and continues through 1990 and covers the world.

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Dataset 6301: US Rawinsonde Data

Abstract: DS-6301 consists of upper air rawinsonde data from upper air stations operated by the United States of America around the world, from 1946 to the present day. This data set is one of a large family of NCDC upper air data sets that are collectively called CARDS, or Comprehensive Aerological Data Sets. CARDS data includes the following purely meteorological parameters: clouds and obscuration, pressure, geopotential height, temperature, relative humidity, dew point depression, and wind speed and direction. CARDS data also includes a large number of technical specifications and quality control parameters.

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Dataset 6302: NMC Global Upper Air

Abstract: DS-6302 consists of meteorological upper air data from around the world provided by the National Meterological Center (NMC), which later became the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). NMC received the data via the Global Telecommunications System (GTS) and later sent it to NCDC. Data began in 1946 and ended in 1998. This data set is one of a large family of NCDC upper air data sets that are collectively called CARDS, or Comprehensive Aerological Data Sets. CARDS data includes the following purely meteorological parameters: clouds and obscuration, pressure, geopotential height, temperature, relative humidity, dew point depression, and wind speed and direction. CARDS data also includes a large number of technical specifications and quality control parameters.

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Dataset 6303: Comprehensive Aerological Data Set (CARDS) Subset

Abstract: This is meteorological upper air data from all over the world. CARDS data is primarily radiosonde and pibal data. DS-6303 is a static subset of the full, ongoing CARDS data set. During a past NCDC project, the data that is now DS-6303 was extracted from CARDS. Major parameters in upper air data are: pressure, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and height.

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Dataset 6304: Comprehensive Aerological Data Set (CARDS) Core Subset

Abstract: This is meteorological upper air data from all over the world. CARDS data is primarily radiosonde and pibal data. DS-6304 is a static subset of the full, ongoing CARDS data set. During a past NCDC project, the data that is now DS-6304 was extracted from CARDS. Major parameters in upper air data are: pressure, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and height.

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Dataset 6305: Comprehensive Aerological Reference Data Set (CARDS)

Abstract: CARDS consists of meteorological upper air data from all over the globe. The goal of the National Climatic Data Center's CARDS project, which began in 1991, is to produce a global upper air dataset based on daily (up to four per day) radiosonde observations, suitable for use in evaluating climate models and detecting tropospheric and stratospheric climate change. The current primary CARDS data set, DS-6305, is populated with more than 2300 upper air stations, DS-6305 currently contains over 27 million quality controlled radiosonde observations. These data are comprised of observations collected from over 20 data sources and range from 1940 to 2000. A set of monthly-mean data for each station (MONADS) is also available.

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Dataset 6306: Global Upper Air CARDS Synoptic Sort

Abstract: CARDS stands for Comprehensive Aerological Data Set. The goal of the CARDS project has been to produce global upper air data sets based on daily (up to four per day) radiosonde observations suitable for use in evaluating climate models and detecting tropospheric and stratospheric climate change. A major task of the CARDS project, which began in 1991, has been to build observational databases and make this data available to the research community and to NCDC customers. Data from over 27 sources has been collected, converted to a like format, and processed through the Comprehensive Hydrostatic Quality Control (CHQC). This data was then merged, based upon add/replace algorithms that took into consideration the number of mandatory and significant pressure levels and the number of errors detected during the CHQC, selecting the best observations from the available data sets. The data has then been further quality controlled via an advanced Complex Quality Control (CQC) system. The CARDS database contains some 27 million observations beginning in 1948, comprising a data set of approximately 64GB. A metadata record for each observation contains information related to the number of levels in total and by type, as well as a summary of the observation. A full suite of inventories and reports is available based upon the metadata. Building of future CARDS data sets will be based upon the detection and identification or removal of systematic errors (biases). Also, CARDS will provide an in-depth upper air station history for 2400+ stations. CARDS data includes the following purely meteorological parameters: clouds and obscuration, pressure, geopotential height, temperature, relative humidity, dew point depression, and wind speed and direction. CARDS data also includes a large number of technical specifications and quality control parameters.

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Dataset 6307: CARDS Monthly Statistics

Abstract: CARDS Monthly Statistics is digital data set DS-6307, archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This data set uses data from Comprehensive Aerological Data Set (CARDS) (DS-6305), also archived at NCDC. DS-6307 is similar in concept and format to Monthly Aerological Data Set (MONADS) (DS-6220), another digital data set archived at NCDC. DS-6305 and DS-6220 are monthly upper air statistics. DS-6307 data are for surface, tropopause, and mandatory pressure levels. At each level, monthly statistical parameters are provided for geopotential height or pressure, temperature, relative humidity, specific humidity, dew point temperature, wind speed, zonal wind speed, and meridional wind speed. Those statistical parameters are: mean value; standard deviation; minimum value; maximum value; first, second, and third quartile values, and number of non-missing observations used in the calculations. Data are global, from 1948 through the present day.

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Dataset 6308: MIT Upper Air

Abstract: This is a small, historical upper air data set that was created by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and archived at the NCDC. Data is global for the 5 year period 1958-1963. DS-6308 was included in the much larger Comprehensive Aerological Data Set (CARDS) Upper Air data set, DS-6305, which was quality controlled as it was assembled from many smaller data sets. DS-6308 itself was not quality controlled at the NCDC. Most users should not request DS-6308, but should instead opt for DS-6305. Major parameters in upper air data sets are: pressure, temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction.

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Dataset 6309: NCAR-NMC Upper Air

Abstract: This is a small, historical upper air data set that was created by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and the old National Meteorological Center (now the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) in the National Weather Service (NWS)) and archived at the NCDC. Data is global for the 2 year period 1971-2. DS-6309 was included in the much larger Comprehensive Aerological Data Set (CARDS) Upper Air data set, DS-6305, which was quality controlled as it was assembled from many smaller data sets. DS-6309 itself was not quality controlled at the NCDC. Most users should not request DS-6309, but should instead opt for DS-6305. Major parameters in upper air data sets are: pressure, temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction.

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Dataset 6310: Global Upper Air CARDS TDF-54

Abstract: This is a historical upper air data set. Data is global for the period 1948-1963. DS-6310 was included in the larger Comprehensive Aerological Data Set (CARDS) Upper Air data set (C00503), DS-6305, which was quality controlled as it was assembled from many smaller data sets. DS-6310 itself was not quality controlled at the NCDC. Most users should not request DS-6310, but should instead opt for DS-6305. Major parameters in upper air data sets are: pressure, temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction.

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Dataset 6311: Global Upper Air CARDS TDF-56

Abstract: This is meteorological upper air data. Data is global for the period 1946-75, although the period of record varies greatly by station. DS-6311 was included in the larger Comprehensive Aerological Data Set (CARDS) Upper Air data set, DS-6305, which was quality controlled as it was assembled from many smaller data sets. DS-6311 itself was not quality controlled at the NCDC. Most users should not request DS-6311, but should instead opt for DS-6305. Major parameters in upper air data sets are: pressure, temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction.

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Dataset 6314: USSR GTS Upper Air

Abstract: This is a historical upper air data set that was assembled by the old Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) from data they received from the Global Telecommunications System (GTS). Data is global for the period 1984-90. DS-6314 was included in the larger Comprehensive Aerological Data Set (CARDS) Upper Air data set, DS-6305, which was quality controlled as it was assembled from many smaller data sets. DS-6314 itself was not quality controlled at the NCDC. Most users should not request DS-6314, but should instead opt for DS-6305. Major parameters in upper air data sets are: pressure, temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction.

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Dataset 6315: Peoples Republic of China Upper Air

Abstract: This is a historical data set of upper air data for the Peoples Republic of China that was assembled by that nation. Data is for the period 1957-90, although the period of record varies by station. DS-6315 was included in the larger Comprehensive Aerological Data Set (CARDS) Upper Air data set, DS-6305, which was quality controlled as it was assembled from many smaller data sets. DS-6315 itself was not quality controlled at the NCDC. Most users should not request DS-6315, but should instead opt for DS-6305. Major parameters in upper air data sets are: pressure, temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction.

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Dataset 6316: Argentina Upper Air

Abstract: This is a historical data set of upper air data for Argentina that was assembled by that nation. There were 21 reporting stations. Data is for the period 1958-91, although the period of record varies by station. DS-6316 was included in the larger Comprehensive Aerological Data Set (CARDS) Upper Air data set, DS-6305, which was quality controlled as it was assembled from many smaller data sets. DS-6316 itself was not quality controlled at the NCDC. Most users should not request DS-6316, but should instead opt for DS-6305. Major parameters in upper air data sets are: pressure, temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction.

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Dataset 6318: Hong Kong Upper Air

Abstract: This is a historical data set of upper air data for 1956-90, for the old British colony of Hong Kong. DS-6318 was included in the larger Comprehensive Aerological Data Set (CARDS) Upper Air data set, DS-6305, which was quality controlled as it was assembled from many smaller data sets. DS-6318 itself was not quality controlled at the NCDC. Most users should not request DS-6318, but should instead opt for DS-6305. Major parameters in upper air data sets are: pressure, temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction.

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Dataset 6319: Korea Upper Air

Abstract: This is a historical data set of upper air data for the Republic of Korea (South Korea) for 1984-92 that was obtained from a visiting scientist in 1993. There were 4 reporting stations. DS-6319 was included in the larger Comprehensive Aerological Data Set (CARDS) Upper Air data set, DS-6305, which was quality controlled as it was assembled from many smaller data sets. DS-6319 itself was not quality controlled at the NCDC. Most users should not request DS-6319, but should instead opt for DS-6305. Major parameters in upper air data sets are: pressure, temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction.

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Dataset 6320: Hungary Upper Air

Abstract: This is a historical data set of upper air data for Hungary for 1962-90. It was received at NCDC from the Hungarian Meteorological Service. There were 2 reporting stations. DS-6319 was included in the larger Comprehensive Aerological Data Set (CARDS) Upper Air data set, DS-6305, which was quality controlled as it was assembled from many smaller data sets. DS-6320 itself was not quality controlled at the NCDC. Most users should not request DS-6320, but should instead opt for DS-6305. Major parameters in upper air data sets are: pressure, temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction.

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Dataset 6321: Netherlands National Upper Air

Abstract: This is a historical data set of upper air data for Netherlands for 1945-91. It was received from the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute in response to a request from the Secretary-General of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). There was 1 reporting station. DS-6321 was included in the larger Comprehensive Aerological Data Set (CARDS) Upper Air data set, DS-6305, which was quality controlled as it was assembled from many smaller data sets. DS-6321 itself was not quality controlled at the NCDC. Most users should not request DS-6321, but should instead opt for DS-6305. Major parameters in upper air data sets are: pressure, temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction.

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Dataset 6322: Australia GTS Upper Air

Abstract: This is a small historical data set of upper air data for scattered stations around the world for 1990-3. The data was orginally received in Australia from the Global Telecommunications System (GTS). DS-6322 was included in the larger Comprehensive Aerological Data Set (CARDS) Upper Air data set, DS-6305, which was quality controlled as it was assembled from many smaller data sets. DS-6322 itself was not quality controlled at the NCDC. Most users should not request DS-6322, but should instead opt for DS-6305. Major parameters in upper air data sets are: pressure, temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction.

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Dataset 6323: Australia Upper Air Thermo/Winds Merged

Abstract: This is a historical data set of upper air data for 1950-93 that was received from Australia. Data is mostly from Australia and New Guinea, but includes a few other stations scattered around the world. DS-6323 was included in the larger Comprehensive Aerological Data Set (CARDS) Upper Air data set, DS-6305, which was quality controlled as it was assembled from many smaller data sets. DS-6323 itself was not quality controlled at the NCDC. Most users should not request DS-6323, but should instead opt for DS-6305. Major parameters in upper air data sets are: pressure, temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction.

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Dataset 6324: Brazil Upper Air

Abstract: This is a historical data set of upper air data for 1951-81 from Brazil. DS-6324 was included in the larger Comprehensive Aerological Data Set (CARDS) Upper Air data set, DS-6305, which was quality controlled as it was assembled from many smaller data sets. DS-6324 itself was not quality controlled at the NCDC. Most users should not request DS-6324, but should instead opt for DS-6305. Major parameters in upper air data sets are: pressure, temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction.

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Dataset 6325: USSR Upper Air CARDS

Abstract: This is a historical data set of upper air data for the period 1961-90. Data was collected by the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) for the USSR, Afghanistan, and Soviet stations in Antarctica during the last 30 years of the USSR's existence. DS-6325 was included in the larger Comprehensive Aerological Data Set (CARDS) Upper Air data set, DS-6305, which was quality controlled as it was assembled from many smaller data sets. DS-6325 itself was not quality controlled at the NCDC. Most users should not request DS-6325, but should instead opt for DS-6305. Major parameters in upper air data sets are: pressure, temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction.

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Dataset 6351: Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive

Abstract: The Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) consists of radiosonde and pilot balloon observations at over 1500 globally distributed stations. Observations are available for standard, surface, tropopause and significant levels. Variables include: Pressure Temperature Geopotential Height Dewpoint Depression Wind Direction Wind Speed The period of record varies from station to station, with many extending from 1970 to present. Station records are updated daily and are available online at no charge.

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Dataset 6352: Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive - Monthly Means

Abstract: This dataset contains monthly means of geopotential height, temperature, zonal wind, and meridional wind derived from the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA, DSI-6351). IGRA consists of radiosonde and pilot balloon observations at over 1500 globally distributed stations, and monthly means are available for the surface and mandatory levels at many of these stations. The period of record varies from station to station, with many extending from 1970 to present. Monthly means are computed separately for the nominal times of 0000 and 1200 UTC, considering data within two hours of each nominal time. A mean is provided, along with the number of values used to calculate it, whenever there are at least 10 values for a particular station, month, nominal time, and level. The monthly-mean files are updated on the fifth day of each month and are available online at no charge.

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Dataset 6355: Upper Air Russian Ice Island

Abstract: Russian North Pole Raobs, 1950 - 1991, NCAR, Data Support Section. The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Data Support Section (DSS) received a version of the Russian North Pole Raobs in November 1999. We had processed previous versions of this collection, but in earlier versions each sounding was in two separate parts, a lower part with data at 3km and below and an upper part with data above 3km. It was nearly impossible to insure that the two parts were combined correctly due to differences in the way times were recorded and the lack of any overlapping data. This new version included the complete soundings in one part and DSS ran comparisons to other data sources to see if the parts seemed to be combined correctly.

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Dataset 6380: Worldwide Aircraft Reports

Abstract: These aircraft reports are a collection of many types of reports. NCDC receives reports from the National Centers of Environmental Prediction (NCEP) in Washington, D.C. The different types of reports are explained below:
A. PIREPS (pilot reports) are produced from a pilot talking to a ground observer. There are no latitude or longitude for location but a radial direction and distance from an observing site. NCEP decoders (computer and human) translate the location to latitude and longitude. Because of human coding and intervention, the data can be coded improperly.
B. AIREPS (air reports) have multiple sources but are primary from Air Traffic Control (ATC). These are semi automatic reports from aircraft to ground and are encoded by ATC personnel. These reports are a free code and primarily for over ocean reporting. Aircraft using this reporting procedure have Inertial Navigation System (INS) equipment so the wind is usually of high quality. Instead of latitude/longitude, location is provided by a three or four letter identifier. NCEP decoders translate the letter identifiers to lat/long. AIREPS are received by NCEP from different countries over WMO's Global Telecommunications System (GTS).
C. Aircraft to Satellite Data Relay (ASDAR) is used on a few widebody aircraft of British, Continental, and Quantas Airlines flying predominately between Europe and North America or within these regions. However, others fly to destinations in Asia, Africa, Australia, and South America. Reports are communicated from the aircraft via geostationary meteorological satellites. Because of the automation characteristics, data is usually of high quality.
D. Australian Reports are restricted to line of sight transmission. Since almost every commercial aircraft in Australia has reporting equipment, there are a tremendous number of Australian reports. Frequency of reports is one every 7 minutes during level flight and one every 10hPa or 50hPa during ascent and descent (with the higher frequency applying to the lower part of the atmosphere). Because of the automation characteristics, data is usually of high quality. Reports are received by NCEP over the GTS.
E. Global Weather Intercept (GWIP) network are PIREPS and AIREPS received by the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) at Offutt AFB, NE and sent to NCEP. These reports are from the Southern Hemisphere, South America, and the Western Pacific.
F. ARINC Communications Addressing Reporting System (ACARS) provides reports over the continental United States and Alaska. Frequency of reports is every 5 to 10 minutes at flight level and during ascents and descents around major airports. Because of the automation characteristics, data is usually of high quality. NCEP collects these reports from ARINC (Aeronautical Radio Incorporated).
Aircraft reports are sorted by marsden square and date. The sort order is as follows: 10 degree marsden square, 1 degree marsden box, tenth of degree marsden subbox, year, month, day, hour, minute, receipt hour, and receipt minute.

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Dataset 6404: ASOS 30-Sec Ceilometer Data

Abstract: A major part of the NWS modernization effort in the 1990's is the implementation of the Automated Surface Observations System (ASOS). The ASOS Cloud Height Indicator (CHI) is a laser ceilometer that features a rapid pulse and sampling rate. The pulse rate varies from 620 Hz to 1,120 Hz according to ambient air temperature. At a nominal pulse rate of 770 Hz, the ceilometer outputs 9,240 pulses during a 12-second sampling period. The vertical resolution is 50 feet up to 12,600 feet above ground level (AGL). The maximum reporting height is 12,000 ft. The ceilometer data are sampled by the ASOS software once every 30 seconds. The accumulated 30-second data are arranged by height and averaged over a time-weighted 30-minute period to determine up to three cloud layers for each observation.

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Dataset 6420: NOAA Research Flight Data (AOC)

Abstract: The WP-3D aircraft perform many projects throughout the year. Examples of these projects would be hurricane research, atmospheric chemistry, thunderstorm investigations, and winter weather missions. Each of these projects consists of a series of individual flights. For instance, during hurricane projects, the P-3 may fly numerous flights through different tropical cyclones. For each archived project, there are multiple directories consisting of individual flights. The data in these flight directories contain the actual raw meteorological parameters obtained from sensors located in different positions on the aircraft. Each flight folder also contains a scanned image of the actual flight manifest, the navigation log, and the mission observation logs. The following is a generalized list of these measured parameters:
Time, GPS position data, inertial data, radar altimeter measurements, liquid water, total temperature, dewpoint temperature, attack pressure, slip pressure, differential attack and slip pressures, and static and dynamic pressure. The flight-level data file contains measurements acquired in one second intervals.

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Dataset 6421: Enhanced Hourly Wind Station Data For The Contiguous United States

Abstract: During the NOAA OGP-funded project "Homogeneous blended wind data over the contiguous United States" we (NCDC) compiled an hourly wind data set from 1655 stations over the lower 48 states for the period of record (up to year 2000), collected and digitized the station metadata related to the history of the anemometer elevation at most of these stations, and blended the station records with historical snow on the ground information. All this has allowed us to generate homogeneous time series of wind speed at the 10-meter height above the ground/surface for the entire period of digital record (usually, since 1948 for the First Order Stations, since early 1970s for other sites with complete metadata, and since the ASOS implementation at the sites without metadata).

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Dataset 6450: CODIAC Data Sets

Abstract: The Cooperative Distributed Interactive Atmospheric Catalog System (CODIAC) was developed jointly by the Office of Field Project Support of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), the US Weather Research Program Office (USWRP), the Forecast Systems Laboratory (FSL), and the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Its goal is to provide researchers with easy access to a distributed meteorological database held at different data centers. Within the DSI-6450 dataset is The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-Scale International Project (GCIP), fully implemented in 1995 and phased out in 2001, was launched in the Mississippi River basin to take advantage of the extensive existing meteorological and hydrological networks. Other datasets included represent various other studies that took place within the United States and the World. Get the documentation in 6450 Word or 6450 PDF

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Dataset 6500: NEXRAD Level II

Abstract: Weather Surveillance Radar - 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D), or NEXt Generation RADar (NEXRAD), Level II data are the base digital data produced by the signal processor (mean radial velocity, reflectivity, and spectrum width) at the full spatial and temporal resolution of the radar. Level II data also contain status messages, performance/maintenance data, volume scan strategy, clutter filter bypass map, and wideband communication console messages. These are the same data transmitted over high-speed, wideband communications to the WSR-88D Radar Product Generator (RPG) for processing by the meteorological analysis algorithms.

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Dataset 7000: NEXRAD Level III

Abstract: Weather Surveillance Radar - 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D), or NEXt Generation RADar (NEXRAD), Level III data are the radar product data generated from the Level II base data to assist forecasters in weather analysis, predictions and warnings. The Level III data have been recorded on WORM Optical Disks at National Weather Service sites since the early 1990s. By the year 2000 the data should be provided as a digital data stream from an NWS Central Collection Facility and the NCDC plans to provide the Level III data in digital files each containing an individual product.

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Dataset 9515: Ozone Data

Abstract: The data set is early ozone data from January-August 1963, collected from stations scattered over the Western Hemisphere. The stations are: Fairbanks AK, Canal Zone Panama, Thule Greenland, Fort Churchill Nevada, Goose Bay Newfoundland, Tallahassee Florida, Seattle Washington, Madison Wisconsin, Fort Collins CO, Albuquerque NM, and Bedford Massachusetts. The data were collected by the USA NOAA Air Resources Laboratories, Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change Program, and published in Canada on behalf of the World Meteorological Organization.

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Dataset 9625: Northern and Southern Hemispheric Smoothed Gridded Data

Abstract: A project was established at NCDC (then called National Weather Records Center) by the U.S. Navy to produce grid-point data for the surface and Upper Air of the Northern Hemisphere. Monthly mean pressures, temperatures and dew points were produced in the computers at what is now the Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center at Monterey, California. For the upper air, monthly mean heights, temperatures and dew points were produced. Dew points were produced only through the 500-mb surface. The pressure surfaces are 850, 700, 500, 300, 200, and 100 mb. Grid point values for the mean temperatures and dew point were furnished in the Monterey grid and grid intersections of five degrees of latitude and longitude. The height grid is furnished by every five degrees of latitude and longitude.

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Dataset 9660: Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE) Project

Abstract: During February 1964, the Marshall Space Flight Center supported an observational program in which rawinsonde data were collected from a network of 30 stations in the southeastern U.S. at intervals of 3 hours or less. This program, called Project AVE (Atmospheric Variability Experiment), presents, for the first time, data with a high degree of time resolution over a spatially and temporally extensive network. The hourly parameters included in these data are surface, boundary layer, and upper level humidity, vapor pressure, temperature, precipitation, pressure, and winds.

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Dataset 9664: TOGA Level III - A Analysis

Abstract: In order to understand better the tropical ocean/atmosphere system and its effect on the climate at higher latitudes, the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program was initiated in 1985 and extends over a ten-year period. TOGA is part of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP). The WCRP was established by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), with the objective to determine to what extent the climate can be predicted and the extent of man's influence on climate. ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) created level III-A atmospheric data in support of projects associated with the World Climate Research Program (WCRP). This archive is directly interpolated from the ECMWF operational, full resolution, surface and pressure level data.

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Dataset 9665: TOGA IMMT Format

Abstract: The TOGA program is a major component of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) aimed specifically at the prediction of climate phenomena on time scales of months to years. The philosophy upon which TOGA is based purposefully emphasizes the tropical oceans and their relationship to the global atmosphere. Underlying TOGA is the premise that the dynamic adjustment of the ocean in the tropics is far more rapid than at higher latitudes. Thus disturbances emanating from the western Pacific Ocean (such as El Nino) may propagate across the basin on time scales of weeks compared to years for corresponding basin-wide propagation at higher latitudes. The significance of shorter dynamic times scales near the equator is that they are similar to those of highly energetic atmospheric modes. This similarity allows the formation of coupled modes between the ocean and the atmosphere. Parameters included in this data set are upper level and surface variables.

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Dataset 9671: BOMEX - Rawinsonde and Radiometersonde

Abstract: BOMEX Archive includes, data collected during the Barbados Oceanographic and Meteorological Experiment (BOMEX) in 1969. Parameters included in this dataset are: geopotential height, boundary layer, air temperature, wet bulb temperature, dew point temperature, humidity, winds, and radiation. With the cooperation of the Government of Barbados and with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration as lead agency, the Barbados Oceanographic and Meteorological Experiment (BOMEX) was conducted over the tropical Atlantic East of Barbados in the summer of 1969. The field operations for this multiagency national study of the ocean-atmosphere system were divided into four observation periods: May 3 to 15, May 24 to June 10, June 19 to July 2, and July 11 to July 28. The first three were devoted to the Sea Air Interaction Program--the BOMEX 'Core Experiment'--within a 500-km by 500-km square ship array. During the fourth period, the array was extended southward to incorporate the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The following is a list of the 8 different records and their respected data sets for this project. Miscellaneous Data (DSI-9670) - C00598 Rawinsonde and Radiometersonde Data (DSI-9671) - C00302 Boom Surface Meteorological Data (DSI-9672) - C00303 Salinity-Temperature-Depth (STD) Data (DSI-9673) - C00599 Aircraft Data (DSI-9674) - C00600 Boundary Layer Instrument Package (BLIP) Data (DSI-9675) - C00304 Surface Radar Data (DSI-9676) - C00601 Dropsonde Data (DSI-9677) - C00602.

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Dataset 9682: FGGE General

Abstract: The idea of an intensive, prolonged, global, atmospheric observing experiment was conceived early in the development of the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP). This concept was later formalized by the Joint Organizing Committee (JOC) for GARP when it recommended to the executive committee of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and to the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) the implementation of a twelve-month global observing experiment to be called the FGGE. The NCDC can provide information of FGGE data transferred from designated FGGE collection centers throughout the world. Information is also available on selected national archives data that are not a part of The NCDC.

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Dataset 9684: ALPEX

Abstract: The general objective of the Alpine Experiment (ALPEX) was to determine the airflow and mass field over and around mountain complexes under various synoptic conditions. The project has focused on circulations due to wind forcing, including storm surges in the Adriatic and western Mediterranean Sea. The area of Europe involved was from 5 degrees west to 30 degrees east Longitude and from 38 degrees north to 50 degrees north latitude. This project was in direct support of the World Meteorological Organization with 20 nations taking part in the project.

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Dataset 9689: U.S. Mixing Heights

Abstract: Major parameters which make up this file are date, morning type indicator, morning mixing depth, morning average wind speed through mixing depth, morning average surface wind speed, afternoon type, afternoon mixing depth, afternoon average wind speed thru mixing depth, and afternoon average surface wind speed. Mixing height tabulations produced and available at the NCDC are listed in the Index alphabetically by state and then rawinsonde data available is given first. Following the upper air dates are dates for which mixing height tabulations have been produced using the listed surface station data. The number of surface observations used in the tabulation is listed as 24 (hourly), 8 (3-hourly), 0 (or blank) (unknown). Tabulations were produced for a total of 62 stations from 1960 through 1964.

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Dataset 9703: Atmospheric Absorption/Emission Observations - AFGL Program

Abstract: This data file contains a compilation developed by the U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL) for spectroscopic data of several gases occurring naturally in the terrestrial atmosphere. The gases included in this compilation are carbon dioxide, ozone, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, water vapor, methane and oxygen. The spectral region covered extends from one micrometer to the far infrared and data are presented on more than 100,000 spectral lines. These line data are sufficient to calculate infrared and visible transmissions through atmospheric paths. The major parameters included in the data file are line center, transition intensity, half-width, lower-state energy, upper vibration level, lower vibration level, upper rotational quantum, lower rotational quantum, isotope code, and molecular identification.

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Dataset 9704: NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP)

Abstract: The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) has, in archive, digital data from the historical NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP). The GASP program began in 1972 with a feasibility study of the concept of using commercial airliners in routine service to obtain atmospheric data. While GASP was operational, from March 1975 to June 1979, NASA obtained data with instruments placed aboard a United Airlines B-747, two Pan American Airways B-747s, a Quantas Airways B-747, and the NASA CV-990 research aircraft. There is some data between 1972 and the official start of GASP in 1975. There is also some data between 1979, the year the program officially ended, and 1983. The objectives of GASP were to provide baseline data of selected atmospheric constituents in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere and to document and analyze these data to 1) prove a better understanding of the dynamics of the atmosphere in the region where commercial aircraft flew, and 2) provide initial value boundary conditions for atmospheric models being used to assess potential adverse effects from aircraft exhaust emissions on the natural atmosphere. The parameters that make up this digital data are beginning and ending times of the flight (GMT), ambient ozone, cabin ozone, water vapor, clouds, carbon monoxide, and filter samples of sulfate, nitrates, chlorides, and fluorides. Also included are tropopause pressure fields and other meteorological data from National Meteorological Center analyses.

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Dataset 9711: Upper Air Monthly Statistics

Abstract: The major parameters which make up this warm flux upper air data file are: wind resultants (mean vector winds), water vapor flux and eddy flux components, specific humidity, computed dew points (sums, counts, and means), temperature (sums, counts, and means), relative humidity (sums, counts, and means), height (sums, counts, and means), maximum winds (dir, speed, and day of occurrence), steadiness factor, warm flux. DS-9711 data is a by-product of routine processing of rawinsonde data. Data is computed monthly for each standard pressure level from approximately 117 upper air stations for the 1200 hour observations with a few exceptions for which the 0000 hour observation is used. Up to 37 levels from the surface to 0002 millibars are possible for each station. Missing levels for each station will have id elements only. Missing data are represented by blank fields. Relative humidity and flux elements within this data set contain both statistical and actual values and counts of each are maintained during processing. A statistical value was used when the rawinsonde humidity element 'motorboats' due to very low humidity. These values are a set of mean values for use at various temperatures when the electric hygrometer is below its operating range.

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Dataset 9723: Hourly SYI and Direct Solar Data

Abstract: NCDC (National Climatic Data Center) has is its possession the historical dataset TD-9723 (Direct Radiation and Standard Year Radiation (SYI) taken from SOLMET. SOLMET refers to the combination of solar radiation and meteorological data. This term is also used to identify the 26 stations that collected global horizontal data from 1951 through 1975. The SOLMET stations, included instruments that measure the global horizontal solar radiation and researchers modeled the direct beam solar radiation data. Each of the stations measured global horizontal solar radiation. Some of these stations made continuous recordings on strip charts; other stations only recorded the daily total energy (insulation) received. Much of these data were digitized at the station, using instructions that changed over the years, and were forwarded to regional centers (later centralized at the NCDC. There they were subjected to varying degrees of quality control. These historical solar radiation data contain errors resulting from a host of calibration and instrument problems. During 1976, the network was essentially shut down while new equipment was purchased and installed. When these data were evaluated, only 26 stations were deemed suitable for inclusion in a national data base.

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Dataset 9724: Hourly Solar Radiation (SOLMET)

Abstract: Hourly radiation data are available at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). SOLMET was designed to provide the solar energy users with easy access to all appropriate historical meteorological data. See the documentation for more details.

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Dataset 9725: Hourly Solar Radiation

Abstract: The Hourly Solar Radiation dataset is a historical dataset maintained by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Elements included are total solar radiation measured in Langley's per hour, solar elevation, extraterrestrial radiation and various surface observations ranging from temperature and dew point to type of precipitation, snow cover and cloud layer parameters. This dataset covers approximately 50 stations in the United States and in the Pacific area. A few stations have records beginning in December 1951. The remaining stations begin observations in July 1952. Hourly surface observations were recorded in Local Standard Time. Prior to June 1 1957, the surface observations were taken 20-30 minutes past the hour. From June 1 1957 through December 31 1964, the surface observations were taken a few minutes before the hour. From July 1 1958 to the end of this observation period the solar data are for the hour ending on the hour punched. This change made the hourly data compatible with the times of the surface observation on Form WBAN 10.

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Dataset 9726: Daily Solar Radiation

Abstract: The Daily Solar Radiation dataset is a historical dataset maintained by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Elements included are total radiation per day, total extraterrestrial radiation, minutes of sunshine, average cloudiness and percent of possible radiation. The dataset covers stations in the United States, Canada, Iceland, West Indies, and the Pacific Islands. Four stations have records beginning December 1 1951. The majority of stations began taking records in July of 1952.

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Dataset 9735: U.S. Upper Air Standard Levels

Abstract: Major parameters which make up this file include station id and position, for all standard levels, height of standard pressure levels, temperature, relative humidity, wind direction and speed, number of levels in observation. The observational data included in this file constitutes a coverage of Air Force, Navy land and sea ships, National Weather Service, Canadian, foreign cooperative and signal corps stations, U.S. controlled ocean weather stations, military sea transport ships that take radiosonde observations. This data set is produced from radiosonde observations recorded in the data blocks on forms WBAN 31 A, B and D (adiabatic charts) and from digital computer output for automatic RAOB stations by various sources.

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Dataset 9789: Turbidity

Abstract: Turbidity Data File is historical digital data set DS-9789, archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Atmospheric turbidity is a measurement of solar extinction by aerosols (suspension of insoluble particles in a gas) in the atmosphere. It gives an indication of the amount of particles in a certain size range in the column of air between the observer and the top of the atmosphere. This data set contains discrete observations of turbidity data taken at various times during the day at selected global stations during the years 1965-1994. Major parameters in the data set are sunphotometer wavelength (nanometers), calibration factors corresponding to the wavelengths of the sunphotometer, Tau values, diopter (air mass measurement), and meter value in nanometers. Other parameters are aerosol optical depths, corrected factor of mean sun-earth distance, visibility, obstructions to vision, dry bulb and dew point temperatures (Deg. C), wind direction (56 points) and speed (knots), sky cover (coded), temperature of recording device (Deg. C), station pressure (mb), calculated aerosol-optical depth (natural LO), true air mass values (calculated from the date, time, and location of the observation), and wavelength exponents.

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Dataset 9796: Atmospheric Handbook Data Tables

Abstract: Atmospheric Handbook Data Tables is historical digital data set DS-9796, archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This data set consists of one combined file containing 226 data files. The files contains information, programs, and data largely taken from results published in scientific journals. In general, sections of files are grouped according to the atmospheric area. Atmospheric data tables in this data set are described in World Data Center A for Meteorology and World Data Center A for Solar Terrestrial Physics Report UAG-89. This report will be furnished with all orders for this file. Data areas cover attenuation coefficients for the atmosphere and H2O; 1962 standard atmospheres; cloud drop size distributions for water and ice spheres; solar spectral irradiance (nimbus and SMM satellite solar irradiance data); sky spectral radiance; Rayleigh coefficients for air; refractive indices for air, ice, liquid H2O, and various atmospheric aerosols; and relative reflectance for ice and H2O.

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Dataset 9798: RADAP II

Abstract: In 1971, the National Weather Service (NWS) began The Digitized Radar Experiment (D/RADEX) to improve the operational use of radar data through computer processing. The primary purpose of D/RADEX was to demonstrate the utility of digital reflectivity data in weather forecasting operations; D-RADEX was programmed for automatic preparation of low level reflectivity and rainfall accumulation products. The early stages of D/RADEX involved four sites: Kansas City, MO; Oklahoma City, OK; Fort Worth, TX; and Monett, MO. Through its lifetime, many advanced meteorological and hydrological products were developed under D/RADEX including echo tops, vertically integrated liquid water content, severe weather probability, storm structure, and rainfall accumulation. In 1983, positive evaluation of the results of D/RADEX resulted in transferring the system to quasi-operational status and renaming it Radar Data Processor, version II (RADAP II). Data were collected from nine stations: Amarillo, TX, Wichita, KS, Charleston, WV, Garden City, KS, Limon, CO, Oklahoma city, OK, Pittsburgh, PA, Ruskin, FL and Monett, MO. The period of record began with April, 1985 data. The major data variables that make up this file are: station identification and time, elevation angle, range interval, merge data, elevation, type observation, rotational direction of original input data, ap indicator, snow indicator, number of data values, and number, mean, and standard deviation of non-zero DVIP values. This data file was collected and processed by the Oklahoma climatological survey of Norman, Oklahoma.

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Dataset 9835: Gridded 700 mb/Sea Level Pressure

Abstract: This data set contains time-series collections of gridded Northern Hemisphere upper air and sea-level pressure data on a 5-degree (72x15) latitude/longitude grid. These grids have been assembled from the grids of various operational models and meteorological projects. NCDC has daily upper air and sea level pressure grids from 1947 to current years. All grids are 5-degree lat-lon grids from 15N - 85N and 00E - 355E. The upper air grids were derived from the National Meteorological Center (NMC) octagonal grid. For these grids there is no original data south of 20N, all these points are set to missing (value of 99999.9). There is also a pole value for later grids.

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Dataset 9870: U.S. Incident Solar Radiation Observations 15-Min

Abstract: NCDC has a collection of US solar radiation data. DSI-9870 contains 15 minute values of incident solar radiation. Major parameters included are: Global horizontal irradiance (GBL), direct beam irradiance (NIP), diffuse irradiance (DIFF), Violet global irradiance (UVB) and photosynthetic active radiation (PARrsr). GBL and DIFF elements are measured using a precision spectral pyranometer. NIP is measured using a precision pyrheliometer. UVB is measured using an Ultra Violet Biometer (Solar Light). PARrsr is measured using a silicon solid-state pyranometer under a rotating shadowband radiometer. In addition to these parameters, this data set also includes maximums and minimums of the 15 second values.

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Dataset 9871: U.S. Incident Solar Radiation Observations 1-Hour

Abstract: NCDC has a collection of US solar radiation data. DSI-9871 contains hourly values of incident solar radiation. Major parameters included are: Global horizontal irradiance (GBL), direct beam irradiance (NIP) and diffuse irradiance (DIFF). GBL and DIFF elements are measured using a precision spectral pyranometer. NIP is measured using a precision pyrheliometer. Ultra Violet global irradiance (UVB) is also measured using an Ultra Violet Biometer (Solar Light).

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Dataset 9872: U.S. Incident Solar Radiation Balance Observations Integrated Surface Irradiance Study (ISIS) Level 2

Abstract: The Integrated Surface Irradiance Study (ISIS) is a continuation of earlier NOAA surface-based solar monitoring programs, in the visible and ultra violet wavebands. ISIS provides basic surface radiation data with repeatability, consistency, and accuracy based on reference standards maintained at levels better than 1% to address questions of spatial distributions and time trends, at sites selected to be (1) regionally representative, (2) long-term continuous and (3) strategic foci for the research that is now needed. The Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) operates the NOAA national broadband solar radiation network collecting data in both the visible and ultraviolet (UV-B) wavebands. ISIS operates at two levels: Level 1 monitors incoming radiation only, and Level 2 (SURFRAD) focuses on surface radiation balance. NCDC currently maintains data for the Level 2 set from 1995 and beyond. Currently six SURFRAD stations are operating in climatologically diverse regions: Montana, Colorado, Illinois, Mississippi, Pennsylvania, and Nevada. Independent measures of upwelling and downwelling, solar and infrared are the primary measurements; ancillary observations include direct and diffuse solar, photosynthetically active radiation, UVB, spectral solar, and meteorological parameters.

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Dataset 9934: Gridded Atmospheric and Ocean Data

Abstract: The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) has, in archive, the digital data set Gridded Atmospheric and Ocean Data (DS-9934), which was provided by the US Navy Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center and its predecessors. The geographic coverage is the global ocean. The time period covered is November 1961 through December 1995. The specific parameters in this data set makes a list that is too long to present in a brief abstract. The parameter keywords section gives some idea of the scope of the parameters. Parameters are sufficient to describe, at each grid point, the upper air and surface meteorological conditions as well as the ocean surface and oceanographic conditions.

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Dataset 9948: Six Second Upper Air Data

Abstract: This data set consists of high resolution 6 second data recorded by the National Weather Service (NWS) operational upper-air observing system. Upper air observations are usually made twice daily at 00 U.T.C. and 12 U.T.C. hours. The station network consists of approximately 100 observing sites over the U.S. and U.S. territories. Generally, stations are spaced so that the distance between stations is about 200 miles within the contiguous United States. These sites use the MicroArt sounding system to process and record the radiosonde flight. The MicroArt System records temperature, pressure, humidity, and balloon position every six seconds for the duration of the radiosonde flight. The MicroArt also reduces the sounding to mandatory and significant level data. The data (except for winds aloft) are averaged for every six seconds using data received every 250th of a second throughout the flight.

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