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12 Hour Pressure Change Charts

Abstract: This data set is a series of 12-hour barograms showing station pressures for selected U.S. weather stations operated by the former United States Weather Bureau (USWB), now known as the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The barograms are archived on microfiche. The time period covered is from 1942 to 1980.

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1994 Weather in the Southeast: The February Ice Storm and July Flooding

Abstract: During the first seven months of 1994, the Southeastern United States was struck by a severe ice storm in February, followed by severe flooding in July. The ice storm resulted in over $3 billion in damage, while the flooding, caused by the remnants of Tropical Storm Alberto, resulted in up to $1 billion in damage. This report provides details and climatic data from these two events.

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1995 Atlantic Storms - NOAA Satellite Views

Abstract: The narrative portion of the report was derived from the Preliminary Hurricane Reports prepared by several research meteorologists at the National Hurricane Center, and the satellite imagery was provided by NCDC. The report provides a brief synopsis of each named tropical storm system in 1995 with one or more satellite images of each storm taken by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) or the Polar Orbital Environmental Satellite (POES). The geographic area is the tropical storm basin of the North Atlantic Ocean, and adjacent land areas in the path of Atlantic tropical storms.

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1996 Atlantic Tropical Storms: Views from the NOAA Satellites

Abstract: Geographic coverage is the north Atlantic Ocean tropical storm basin. Land areas include particularly the Caribbean islands and the eastern and southeastern United States. This report, produced by NCDC in cooperation with the Tropical Prediction Center (TPC), is a preliminary summary of the 1996 Atlantic Hurricane Season. The report provides a synopsis of each named tropical storm using textual information based on the TPC Preliminary Hurricane Reports authored by Avila, et al, and remotely sensed and in-situ data received at the NCDC. The satellite imagery for each storm was taken by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) or the Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES). Additional meteorological data for Hurricanes Bertha and Fran, the two most important hurricanes affecting the U.S. mainland, are also included. The graphical products include: NEXRAD Level III Base Velocity, Base Reflectivity and Storm Total Precipitation; GOES Water Vapor Movement Winds; and total precipitation from an extensive collection of cooperative and National Weather Service stations.

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1998 Atlantic Tropical Storms: Views from the NOAA Satellites

Abstract: This annual report is a preliminary summary of the 1998 Atlantic Hurricane season. It provides a synopsis of each named tropical storm, using textual information obtained from the National Hurricane Center's Summary of the 1998 Atlantic Season report and the National Weather Service's Preliminary Storm Data reports. Selected satellite and doppler radar imagery were used for key times of each storm. The tables of station precipitation data were created from NWS cooperative and airport stations. The numbers for deaths and damages were obtained from several sources including the NHC Preliminary Hurricane Reports, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and state emergency management agencies. These numbers are subject to revision. The satellite images within this report along with many more tropical storm images are on-line under the satellite resources section at http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/ol/satellite/olimages.html.

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1998-1999 Tornadoes and a Long Term U.S. Tornado Climatology

Abstract: This report provides long-term climatological summaries and maps for tornadoes in the United States, with specific information concerning tornadoes during 1998-1999. The years 1998 and 1999 were quite active for tornadoes in the US, with well-above average numbers of fatalities. It is interesting to note that the winter-spring of 1998 was dominated by El Nino conditions, while the winter-spring of 1999 was dominated by La Nina, thus showing that active tornado seasons may occur in either situation. However, the 1998 season was much more active in the southeast, while 1999 saw a shift of activity farther west--very much as expected. Also, these 2 years produced a total of 3 tornadoes of F5 intensity and 11 tornadoes of F4 intensity, for a total of 14 in the violent F4-F5 category.

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A Climatic Resume of the Mediterranean Sea

Abstract: A Climatic Resume of the Mediterranean is an historical publication archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC).

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A Comparison of NEXRAD Rainfall Estimates with Recorded Amounts

Abstract: This study compares NEXRAD-estimated storm-total precipitation with rain-gauge measured total precipitation for five events: a. Missouri-Kansas in April 1994, Kansas City NEXRAD site. b. Southeast Texas in October 1994, Houston NEXRAD site. c. Florida in November 1994 (Hurricane Gordon), Melbourne NEXRAD site. d. Louisiana-Mississippi-Alabama in May 1995, Mobile and Slidell NEXRAD sites. e. South Carolina-North Carolina-Georgia in August 1995 (Tropical Storm Jerry), Columbia NEXRAD site. The hourly and daily precipitation data from NCDC were used to determine actual precipitation (ground truth) during the period in which the storm total precipitation estimates were determined by the NEXRAD Level III data. These hourly and daily precipitation amounts are taken from the National Weather Service and cooperative network of weather stations. Across the country, over 8000 of these cooperative stations generally record daily precipitation and maximum/minimum temperature data, with approximately 2500 sites reporting hourly precipitation amounts.

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Adiabatic Charts

Abstract: These upper air WBAN-31 adiabatic charts and minicomputer printouts are archived at the NCDC and are placed on 35-mm microfilm and/or microfiche. Charts from 1952 through 1973 were placed on microfilm. All data after that are placed on microfiche. WBAN-31 charts are available from 1952 through 1973. The conversion to mini- computers was phased in gradually from 1971 through 1978. The major parameters presented in this file are pressure (Mb), height of pressure level, temperature (degrees C), dew point depression (degrees C), wind direction, and wind speed (knots). Digital data of the upper air observations are also available in several data sets at NCDC.

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Air Weather Service Climatological Brief

Abstract: The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) has, in archive, a number of U. S. Air Force Air Weather Service (AWS) climatological briefs, also called climatic briefs, from about 1940 through 1993. The briefs consist of climatological summary data for selected U. S. Air Force bases and commercial airports throughout the world. Monthly mean temperature, maximum and minimum temperatures, mean monthly precipitation, maximum and minimum monthly precipitation, minimum and maximum snowfalls, relative humidity, wind direction and speed, sky cover, ceiling height, and visibility.

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American Weather Stories

Abstract: Stories consist of American weather experinces from the hurricane that threatened Columbus and colonial settlers to the peculiar run of bad weather that has plagued American presidents on Inauguration Day; from Americans who documented the weather and climate of the Revolutionary and Civil War eras to those who suffered through the 'year without a summer', the Blizzard of 1888, and the dust bowl drought of the 1930's.

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Annual Climatological Summary

Abstract: It comes from the United States of America, U.S. Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, and Pacific islands of the U.S. and associated nations. This product contains monthly and annual summaries for over 8000 U.S. locations. The major parameters are: monthly mean maximum, mean minimum and mean temperatures; monthly total precipitation and snowfall; departure from normal of the mean temperature and total precipitation; monthly heating and cooling degree days; number of days that temperatures and precipitation are above or below certain thresholds; and extreme daily temperature and precipitation amounts. It is derived from data set Summary of the Month, DS-3220 (C00504).

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Atlas of Climatic Charts of the Oceans

Abstract: This publication contains monthly air and sea surface temperatures, by degree latitude/longitude squares, for the years 1885 - 1933. It also gives seasonal sea-air temperature difference contours for the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans 10 degrees south to 67 degrees north for those years. This publication was derived directly and exclusively from original weather observations recorded on ships at sea and collected in the files of the United States Weather Bureau.

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Average Circulation in the Troposphere over the Tropic

Abstract: This publication presents summarized upper air charts containing monthly, seasonal, and annual u and v components, stream and wind speed for levels 700, 500, 300, 250, and 200 mb.

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Barograph Forms/Charts

Abstract: The barograph was an instrument that made a continuous pen and ink trace of the changing atmospheric pressure on a chart. The barograph chart is also called a barogram. There were also measurements made using other types of barometers, and recorded on paper forms. Pressures were in millibars or inches of mercury. Many of these barograms and forms were provided to NCDC by U.S. agencies: National Weather Service (NWS), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Air Force Air Weather Service (AWS), and the U.S. Navy Weather Service. The archive includes barograms and forms from other sources, including merchant ships at sea.

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Buoy Observations

Abstract: These surface marine observations from automatic buoy stations are archived on microfiche at the NCDC. C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) station data typically include barometric pressure, wind direction, speed and gust, and air temperature; however, some C-MAN stations are designed to also measure sea water temperature, water level, waves, relative humidity, precipitation, and visibility.

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Climate Maps of the United States

Abstract: This product contains over 700 digital climate maps of the contiguous United States. These full color maps are available for climatic elements such as temperature, precipitation, snow, wind, pressure, etc. The period of record of the data for most of the maps is 1961-1990. Most of the maps can be ordered in a high resolution Adobe PDF format or as ESRI Shape Files. The entire set of climate maps available here is also available for purchase in the Climate Atlas Of The United States CD-ROM Version 1.0 (C00519), also a NCDC product.

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Climate Summary of the U.S. (Beginning 1930)

Abstract: This data file contains about a 50-year climatological record of the extreme temperatures, precipitation, wind, humidity, and freeze data for the 48 contiguous United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.

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Climate Visualization (CLIMVIS)

Abstract: Climate Visualization (CLIMVIS) is one of the services offered at the web site of the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Choose from four major climatic data sets at NCDC; National Weather Service Summary of the Day, Global Summary of the Day, Climate Division Precipitation, Temperature, and Drought Data, and Global Historical Climatological Network Data. Create time series graphs, download data files, or produce map analyses.

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Climatic Atlas of the United States

Abstract: This atlas contains monthly and annual mean data on the following parameters: normal maximum, and minimum temperature, earliest and latest freeze dates, normal total heating degree days, normal and mean total precipitation, mean total snowfall, mean number of days with 0.01 inch or more of precipitation, mean dew point temperature, maximum persisting 12-hour 1000-millibar dew point temperature, mean relative humidity, mean lake evaporation, mean percentage of sunshine, mean daily solar radiation, mean sky cover, and prevailing direction, mean speed, and fastest mile of wind.

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Climatic Data for Frost Protected Shallow Foundations (FPSF)

Abstract: A frost protected shallow foundation (FPSF) is a practical alternative to deeper, more-costly foundations in cold regions with seasonal ground freezing and the potential for frost heave. An FPSF incorporates strategically placed insulation to raise the frost depth around a building, thereby allowing foundation depths as shallow as 16 inches, even in the most severe climates. The most extensive use has been in the Nordic countries, where over one million FPSF homes have been constructed successfully over the last 40 years. The FPSF is considered standard practice for residential buildings in Scandinavia. The objective of this web page is to provide US builders, designers, code officials, and others with the air freezing index (AFI) data necessary to employ FPSF technology.

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Climatic Extremes of the Summer of 1998

Abstract: Regions of the U.S. and other parts of the world experienced a variety of weather and climate extremes during the summer of 1998. This report describes some of these events and conditions, including drought and fires in Florida, a heat wave and drought across parts of the south, flooding in China, flooding in parts of the U.S., Hurricane Bonnie striking North Carolina and Virginia, and an overall review of U.S. and global climatic conditions. Overall damages and costs for the events described in this report exceeded $30 billion (including over $10 billion in the U.S.),and the death toll exceeded 3000 (including over 200 fatalities in the U.S.).

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Climatic Summaries for NOAA Data Buoys

Abstract: The primary source of data used in this climatic summary for NOAA data buoys publication is from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration buoys. Data utilized to produce this publication are included in DS-1129. This publication presents narrative descriptions and formulae (where appropriate) on data quality, the definition of wave analysis parameters, and data processing along with statistical monthly and annual summaries: Table 1 - monthly and annual means, standard deviations, and extremes for air temperature (deg. C), sea surface temperature (deg. C), air-sea temperature difference (deg. C), sea level pressure (mb), surface wind speed (knots), and significant wave heights (meters), Table 2 - monthly and annual frequency distribution of air temperature (deg. C), sea surface temperature (deg. C), air-sea temperature difference (deg. C), sea level pressure (Mb), surface wind speed (knots), and significant wave height (meters), Table 3 - monthly and annual percent frequency of wind direction (tens of degrees) versus wind speed (knots) based on three-hourly data, Table 4 - the seasonal and annual percent frequency of wind speed (knots) versus significant wave height (meters) based on three-hourly data, Table 5 - the seasonal and annual percent frequency of significant wave height (meters) versus average wave period (seconds) based on three-hourly data, Table 6 - the seasonal and annual persistence (duration and interval in hours) of wind speed and wave height events based on three-hourly data.

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Climatic Summary of the U.S. 1931 - 1952

Abstract: This publication is also called Climatography of the U.S. #11. Data are given for each state or combination of states. The state combinations are Maryland and Delaware, and New England (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont). Monthly and annual total precipitation, and mean monthly and annual snowfall, mean temperatures, mean maximum and minimum temperatures, and highest and lowest temperatures are presented.

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Climatic Wind Data for the United States

Abstract: Wind data in this summary were extracted from the NCDC's Edited Local Climatological Data publication (C00128), Air Force and Navy climatic briefs, and other sources. The total period of this summary is 1930- 1996, though the period of record (POR) for which wind data is summarized varies for individual locations, and may begin and end at any time during the 1930- 1996 period. Wind summaries from a total of 321 stations from all U.S. states are presented. The wind elements summarized by month and overall annual values include prevailing wind directions (given in compass points), mean wind speeds, and either peak gusts (in miles per hour), fastest-mile, or highest 5-second winds. Peak wind types may be combined to reflect the highest reported wind. Updated wind data for many sites can be obtained from the post 1996 Edited Local Climatological Data - Annual publications.

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Climatography of the United States No. 20 and No. 60

Abstract: The Climatography of the United States No. 20 (CLIM20), Monthly Station Climate Summaries for 1971-2000 are station summaries of particular interest to agriculture, industry, and engineering applications. These summaries contain a variety of statistics for temperature, precipitation, snow, freeze dates, and degree day elements for more than 4,000 stations. The NCDC No. 20 series of climatic summaries gives weather data from selected observation sites in the National Weather Service (NWS) cooperative observation network. Those sites are usually in or near cities which do not have airport weather stations or city weather offices. There have been several issues of the No. 20 series; each issue is based on a specific period-of- record of observations. The latest issue is from the 1971-2000 period. Each issue is updated decennially. The major parameters in the No. 20 file for the 1971-2000 issue are monthly and annual temperature climatologies; monthly and annual precipitation climatologies; monthly and annual snow climatologies; freeze data; and degree days.

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Climatography of the United States No. 40

Abstract: This publication is also called Clim-11. Data are given for each state or combination of states. The state combinations are Maryland and Delaware, and New England (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont). Monthly and annual total precipitation, and mean monthly and annual snowfall, mean temperatures, mean maximum and minimum temperatures, and highest and lowest temperatures are presented.

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Climatography of the United States No. 82, Summary of Hourly Observations

Abstract: This publication contains summary data collected at about 145 U.S. Weather Bureau (now National Weather Service) stations in the U.S. and Puerto Rico that recorded 24-hour surface weather observations daily. Data from most stations is from the period 1951-1960; other stations have data from either 1959-1960 or 1949-1954. The major parameters are temperature, relative humidity, wind direction and speed, ceiling height, visibility, and sky cover. Annual and monthly values for number of occurrences or percent of occurrences are based on hourly observations.

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Climatography of the United States No. 86, Climatic Summary of the U.S., Supplement for 1951 - 1960

Abstract: This data file contains monthly and annual averages of maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures, precipitation, snowfall, and evaporation; monthly and annual highest and lowest temperatures; mean number of days with precipitation equal to or greater than 0.1 and 0.5 inch; and mean number of days with temperature equal to or greater than 90 Deg. F or equal to or less than 32 Deg. F. Data encompases all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Although there have been no supplements to the Climatography of the United States, Climatic Summary of the U.S., published since the 1951-1960 edition, sequential tables of monthly and annual values of the average maximum, average minimum, and average temperatures and total precipitation have been compiled for the period 1951-1980, 1961-1990, and 1971-2000 for many stations. In order to be included in the normals, a station had to have at least 10 years of monthly temperature data or 10 years of monthly precipitation data for each month in the period of record. These are included in and may be ordered from DS-9641 (C00115). Data subsequent to 2000 are available in DS-3220 (C00504) and Climatological Data publications (C00128).

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Climatography of the United States No. 90, Airport Climatography Summary

Abstract: This publication is intended mainly as an aid to aviation for 163 airports in the United States and Puerto Rico. Based upon the period 1965 through 1974, it presents summary aviation weather data and monthly and annual values of average daily maximum and minimum temperature, monthly average temperature, total precipitation, total snowfall, total heating-degree days, and total cooling-degree days. It also includes, based upon eight observations per day, monthly and annual percent frequencies of ceiling, visibility, and weather conditions by wind direction, wind direction versus wind speed for both all weather and instrument flight rules (IFR), and the mean number of days with various weather conditions for each of the eight observational times.

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Climatological Data

Abstract: The publication presents basic climatological data in monthly and annual issues. It is published for each U.S. state or combination of states. The issues for combined states are: Hawaii-Pacific; Maryland-Delaware; New England (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont); and Puerto Rico - U.S. Virgin Islands. The monthly issues contain: 1. Daily maximum and minimum temperatures (deg. F), precipitation (in.) totals, snowfall (in.) and snow on ground (in.) totals, soil temperature (Deg. F) at selected depths, and evaporation (in.) and wind movement (statute miles) totals. 2. Monthly temperature (Deg. F) and precipitation (in.) extremes; monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures (Deg. F), monthly average temperature (Deg. F) with departure from normal, highest and lowest temperatures (Deg. F) and date of occurrence, total heating degree days and cooling degree days (base 65 Deg. F), total number of days the maximum temperature is 90 Deg. or above and 32 Deg. F or below, total number of days the minimum temperature is 32 Deg. or below, and 0 Deg. F or below, monthly total precipitation (in.) with departure from normal, greatest day total precipitation (in.) and date, monthly total snowfall (in.), maximum depth of snow (in.) on ground and date,total number of days precipitation totals were 0.1 inch, 0.5 inch, and 1.0 inch or more, and state climatic divisions monthly average temperature (Deg. F) and precipitation (in.) with departures from normal. Seasonal (July through June) heating degree days (base 65 Deg. F) and snowfall (in.) are published in the July issue. The seasonal (January through December) cooling degree days (base 65 Deg. F) are published in the annual issue. The annual issue contains monthly and annual station and state climatic division average temperatures (Deg. F) with departure from normal, station monthly and annual total precipitation (in.) and state climatic division monthly and annual average precipitation (in.) with departure from normal, temperature extremes and freeze data, total evaporation (in.) and wind movement (statute miles), and average and extreme soil temperatures (Deg. F) at selected depths.

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Climatological Data - Arctic Stations

Abstract: The publication contains data from three manned drifting ice stations in the Arctic Ocean. Volume 1 includes data from July 1957 through December 1958 for Drifting Stations A and B. Volumes 2 and 3 include data from June 1966 through April 1971 for Ice Island T-3. Parameters included are: 1. Average and extreme maximum and minimum daily temperatures (Deg. F), 2. Average air temperature (Deg. F), 3. Frequency of pressure by 10-millibar intervals, 4. Station pressure (mb), 5. Number of observations with occurrences of weather, 6. Days with rain, days with snow, rain amount (in.), and snowfall (in.), 7. Temperature (Deg. F) and wind speed (knots), 8. Three-hourly observations of wind speed (knots), 9. Ceiling-visibility (feet and miles), 10. Total cloud amount (10ths), and 11. Rawinsonde data. If you are using a recent version of Microsoft Internet Explorer, you can view the C00229 complete document

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Climatological Data for Amundsen-Scott, Antarctica

Abstract: This publication was a product of the U.S. Weather Bureau and the agency that succeeded it, the National Weather Service. The publication consists of tabular presentations of surface weather and upper air observations. Tabular data presented in this publication include the following: 1. Monthly and annual percentiles and extremes, for each year, of station pressure and station temperature. 2. Percent of days, for each month and year, with various atmospheric phenomena. 3. Peak wind speed (knots) and direction for each day of each year. 4. Percent frequency of sky cover, and mean cloud amount, for the hours 00, 06, 12, and 18 GMT for each month. 5. Percent frequency of visibility (statute miles) for the hours 00, 06, 12, and 18 GMT for each month. 6. Percent frequency of various ceiling-visibility combinations for each month and year. 7. Percent frequency of various temperature-wind speed combinations for each month. 8. Percent frequency of wind direction versus wind speed and hour for each month. 9. A complete listing of standard level data (height, temperature, relative humidity, and wind direction and speed) for each rawinsonde observation taken at 0000 and 1200 GMT. The data are from 1957-1975. There are 14 volumes of the publication consisting of 1-3 years of data per volume. Volume 14 contains the last two years, plus a climatological data summary of Amundsen-Scott surface data for the entire 1957-1975 period. NCDC has volumes 11-14 in the Technical Library.

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Climatological Data National Summary

Abstract: This publication issued monthly and annually, contains selected climatological data for the United States and its protectorates. It began with the January 1950 issue, but prior to that, much of the data appeared in the Monthly Weather Review, the U.S. Meteorological Yearbook (last published for the period 1943-49), and the Report of the Chief of the Weather Bureau (last published for 1934). The monthly and annual issues present narrative summaries of general weather conditions, detailed weather measurements that include but are not limited to: max/min temperature, dew point, relative humidity, winds, precipitation, river stage height, degree days, rawinsonde data, pibal data, solar radiation data, damage estimates, climate maps and special reports on tropical cyclones.

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Climatological Record Book

Abstract: This record contains daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual averages, extremes, or occurrences. Most data are sequential by period of record 1871-1910, 1911-1930, 1931-1950, 1951-1970, and 1971-1990. Climatological Record Books are prepared and maintained by National Weather Service stations and offices. These books present detailed climatological data for an individual station, or office, for a long period of years. Data are arranged by element by years. The first volume, 1871-1910, was prepared for 202 stations although not all stations had the full period of record. The second volume 1911-1930, is available for 228 stations, the third volume, 1931-1950, is available for 247 stations, and the fourth volume, 1951-1970, is available for 324 stations. The five volumes have been placed on 35-millimeter microfilm. Volumes one (1871-1910), two (1911-1930), and three (1931-1950) of each station's record book are on one reel of 35-millimeter microfilm, volume four (1951-1970) is on a second reel of 35-millimeter microfilm. More than one station's record book is on the same reel of microfilm. These microfilm are filed in the NCDC archives. These books have also been imaged by Information Manufacturing Corporation of West Virginia (IMCWV) and are available for viewing in Web Search Store Retrieve Display (WSSRD).

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Coastal-Marine Automated Network Station and Buoy Reports and Summaries CD-ROM

Abstract: This two-volume set contains climatic summaries and archived observations measured by NDBC moored buoys and Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) stations for 197 sites. The geographic area covered is most of the U.S. coastline, plus a few additional areas. Period of record is generally a 3-20 year period, depending on the station, and ends with December 1993. The set consists of archived observations and climatic summary tables. All measurements are included except spectral wave and subsurface. A map shows station locations, and data inventories show measurements and time periods, for each station. The following elements are summarized: monthly frequency distributions of wind speed, wind gust, sea level pressure, air and sea temperature, air-sea temperature difference, dew point (where available), significant wave height, and average and dominant wave period. Additional tables include: wind speed versus direction, significant wave height versus dominant and average wave periods, significant wave height versus wind speed.

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Combined On-line Subscription

Abstract: This includes access to all 4 of NCDC's form generated subscription products for all stations (Unedited Local Climatological Data, Surface Weather Observations (MF1 - 10A/B forms), COOP Data / Record of Climatological Observations Form, and the Annual Climatological Summary forms) for one low price. This is a substantial discount compared to purchasing each subscription separately. The subscription service (access) is valid for one full year after purchase. Access to this service is controlled by username/password authentication.

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Composite Moisture Index Chart

Abstract: These four panel charts are prepared by the National Weather Service, National Meteorological Center, now known as The Hydrometeorological Center of the National Environmental Prediction Center (NCEP), archived on 35-mm microfilm by the NCDC. The upper-left panel contains the lifted index/k-index. High values of k are unstable, low values of k are stable. The upper-right panel is precipitable water. The lower-left panel is the freezing level, only the three lowest levels are plotted. The lower-right panel is the average relative humidity (surface to 500 mbs).

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Constant Pressure Prognostic Charts

Abstract: These operational forecasts began 4 hours after 00Z and 12Z observation times on a 1:40 million scale unless otherwise noted. The forecast levels were produced for 1000, 850, 700, 500, 300, 200, and 100 millibar levels. Most levels were forecast in 12 hour increments out to 48 hours. The 500 millibar was forecast out to 168 hours. The forecasts usually contain two or more of the following: All charts contain height contours - solid lines in decameters at 60 or 120 meter intervals. Temperature - dashed lines at intervals of 5 degrees Celsius. Wind - dashed lines at intervals of 20 knots. Thickness (derived from subtracting the height of a low level from a higher one) - dashed lines in decameters at 60-meter intervals.

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Daily River Stages

Abstract: The major parameters are daily river stages with highest stage or crest and date for each month, an index by stations, and miscellaneous information. Historically, Daily River Stages was published under various names by the U.S. National Weather Service and its predecessors, the U.S. Weather Bureau and the U.S. Army Signal Corps: 1. 1858-1889, 'Stages of the Ohio River and of its Principal Tributaries' (Volume 1) 2. 1860-1889, 'Stages of the Mississippi River and of its Principal Tributaries' (Volume 2) 3. 1875-1889, 'Stages of Water at Miscellaneous River Stations in California, Oregon, North Carolina, etc.' (Volume 3) 4. 1890-1948, 'Daily River Stages at River Gage Stations of the Principal Rivers of the United States' (Volumes 4-44) 5. 1949-1971, 'Daily River Stages' (Volumes 45-67).

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Daily Weather Maps

Abstract: The daily weather maps are published weekly. They contain daily surface weather charts, 500-millibar constant pressure charts, highest and lowest temperature charts, and daily precipitation and amount of precipitation charts. The weekly publications are stocked for one year. Historical publications are on 35-mm microfilm. Both of these items are available for purchase from the NCDC. Subscriptions are available from the public documents department, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402.

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Engineering Weather Data CD-ROM

Abstract: This CD-ROM contains an update of a very popular publication that was first printed by the Air Force in 1967 and republished in 1978. As compared to the Engineering Weather Data publication, the new interactive CD-ROM data base contains updated meteorological tables, new summarized parameters, and graphical displays. Approximately 800 worldwide stations have been summarized. The period of record summarized for most stations is 1973-1996. For each station, the data and information on this CD-ROM include: summarized design criteria data for dry and wet bulb temperatures and humidity ratios, average annual climate summaries, psychrometric summaries, binned temperature data, annual temperature and humidity summaries, heating and cooling degree data summaries for building envelop loads, ventilation and infiltration loads, solar radiation data, and seasonal wind direction and wind speed summaries.

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Extreme Weather and Climate Events

Abstract: Extreme Weather and Climate Events web site links to some of the more interesting NCDC web pages. Links are provided to US Hurricanes, Heavy Precipitation, Temperature Extremes and Drought, US Tornadoes, Worldwide Weather and Climate Events, Historical Global Extremes, Satellite Images, US Radar Composites, Climatic Data, US Local Storm Reports, Climate Monitoring, El Nino/La Nina, Global Climate Change, and Billion $$ Weather Disasters. Tabular data, maps, radar images, technical papers, and other work are presented in these web pages.

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Extreme Wind Speeds - 129 U.S. Stations

Abstract: Extreme wind speeds at 129 stations in the contiguous United States was produced by the NCDC for the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards and published under the NBS Building Science Series 118. The primary source of data used in the preparation of this study was the original record of surface weather observation forms from which the recorded fastest-mile wind speeds were extracted. This publication on microfiche presents narrative descriptions and formulae utilized in the preparation of the wind data for analyses, and the statistical methods used in these analyses. Data presented for each of 129 selected stations are: 1) recorded (anemometer elevation) and calculated (10) meters above the ground) fastest-mile wind speeds (mph), and 2) predicted extreme wind speeds for return periods of 2 to 1,000,000 years.

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Federal Meteorological Handbook Publication

Abstract: There are currently four publications offered at the NCDC under the general category of Federal Meteorological Handbook: #11-A, Doppler Radar Observations/Systems Concepts, Responsibilities, and Procedures #11-B, Doppler Radar Observations/Doppler Radar Theory and Meteorology #11-C, Doppler Radar Observations/WSR-88D Products and Algorithms #11-D, Doppler Radar Observations/WSR-88D, Unit Description and Operational Analysis.

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Fischer Porter Charts

Abstract: The primary source of these Fischer Porter weighing-type precipitation recorder charts is the National Weather Service and cooperative stations. The chart is a strip of paper inches wide and several tens of feet long. The chart contains, across its width, 16 punchable locations made up of 4 sets of 1,2, 4,8 values. These are labeled. There are also 1 or 2 sets of sprocket drive holes along the charts. Fischer Porter Gauge phase-in began in 1963. The gauge was phased out during the 1990s.

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Global Climate Observing System (GCOS)

Abstract: GCOS was established in 1992 to ensure that the observations and information needed to address climate-related issues are obtained and made available to all potential users. It is co-sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the International Council for Science (ICSU). GCOS is intended to be a long-term, user-driven operational system capable of providing the comprehensive observations required for monitoring the climate system, for detecting and attributing climate change, for assessing the impacts of climate variability and change, and for supporting research toward improved understanding, modelling and prediction of the climate system. It addresses the total climate system including physical, chemical and biological properties, and atmospheric, oceanic, hydrologic, cryospheric and terrestrial processes. Parameters included in the GCOS are mean daily temperature, daily maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature, mean daily station pressure, mean daily station pressure corrected to sea level, total daily daily precipitation, mean monthly temperature, mean monthly maximum temperature, mean monthly minimum temperature, mean monthly station pressure, mean monthly station pressure corrected to sea level, and total monthly precipitation.

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Global Daily Summary CD-ROM

Abstract: This CD-ROM provides access to a 10,000- station set of daily maximum/minimum temperature, daily precipitation, and 3-hourly present weather for the 1977-1991 period of record. Data can be selected for viewing or output to file for geographic areas or by a predefined user-selected list of stations. The dataset includes element flags for suspected erroneous data. A data inventory contains station name, latitude/longitude, elevation, period of record, and the number of observations of available data.

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Global Historical Fields CD-ROM Version 1.0

Abstract: This version has no data for the Southern Hemisphere. This CD-ROM allows users to view daily surface charts for the Northern Hemisphere for the period 1899 through April 1994. Daily upper air charts (700 mb, 500 mb, 300mb) are available from the late 1940's through April 1994. Surface charts contour sea level pressure only (not station plots); upper air charts contour geopotential heights and temperatures. Charts can be contoured, looped, and exported to a file or printer. This was a joint NCDC and U.S. Navy product.

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Global Tropical and Extratropical Cyclone Climatic Atlas 2.0 CD-ROM

Abstract: This single volume CD-ROM contains all global historic tropical storm track data available for five tropical storm basins. Periods of record vary for each basin, with the beginning as early as the 1870's and with 1995 as the latest year. Northern hemispheric extratropical storm track data are included from 1965 to 1995. Tropical track data includes time, position, storm stage (and maximum wind, central pressure when available). The user has the capability to display tracks, and track data for any basin or user-selected geographic area. The user is also able to select storm tracks passing within a user-defined radius of any point. Narratives for all tropical storms for the 1980-1995 period are included along with basin-wide tropical storm climatological statistics. This is a joint NCDC and U.S. Navy product, available in MS-DOS compatibility only.

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Heat Budget - 10 Year

Abstract: This single volume CD-ROM contains all global historic tropical storm track data available for five tropical storm basins. Periods of record vary for each basin, with the beginning as early as the 1870's and with 1995 as the latest year. Northern hemispheric extratropical storm track data are included from 1965 to 1995. Tropical track data includes time, position, storm stage (and maximum wind, central pressure when available). The user has the capability to display tracks, and track data for any basin or user-selected geographic area. The user is also able to select storm tracks passing within a user-defined radius of any point. Narratives for all tropical storms for the 1980-1995 period are included along with basin-wide tropical storm climatological statistics. This is a joint NCDC and U.S. Navy product, available in MS-DOS compatibility only.

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High Altitude Meteorological Data

Abstract: Data contained within these rocket soundings are wind (direction in whole degrees, speed in meters per second) and temperature (deg C) measurements: and computed values of pressure (mb), density (grams per cubic meter), and speed of sound (meters per second) for significant levels, constant pressure levels, and for each one kilometer (km) interval between the maximum height reached by the rocket (usually less than 90 km) and 20 km. The data are presented in tabular and graphic forms. A supplementary summary and a period of record comparative data table (means and standard deviations) are also included for each station month. Time periods and titles are: Dec. 1959 - Dec. 1968 'Data Report Of The Meteorological Rocket Network Firings', Jan. 1969 - present 'High Altitude Meteorological Data'. Historical Publications are on microfiche for the period December 1959 through December 1976. Data are on 35-mm microfilm after January 1977. Rocketsonde Observations can also be found on file DS-5850 (C00074), for the period January 1969 to present.

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High Altitude Meteorological Data - Rocket

Abstract: This consists of a combination of publications and data forms starting in 1960. Initially, high altitude meteorological data reports were presented in a limited publication by the U.S. Army Electronics Research and Development Activity titles Data Report of the Meteorological Rocket Firings. These reports began in April 1960 with the data for the fall 1959 and winter 1960. Publications continued by season through the summer 1962 data, then monthly from September 1962 through March 1964. NCDC began publishing these data on a monthly basis in January 1964 and continued through December 1968. Starting with January 1969 data, the NCDC publication title was changed to High Altitude Meteorological Data, to accommodate all types of high altitude meteorological observations. The publication format was also changed at that time and it continued to be issued monthly through December 1972. Quarterly issues began in 1973 and continued as a formal publication through the October-November- December 1976 issue. The data of the publication contains global wind, temperature, pressure, density, and speed of sound data from dropsondes carried aloft by rockets. Data were generally collected from 90 to 20 kilometers above the earths surface and are presented in tabular and graphic forms. A supplementary summary and a period of record comparative data table (means and standard deviations) are also included for each station month. Participating stations were widely scattered throughout the world. Although data starting with January 1977 were not published, they were compiled in the same format as the 1976 publication, placed on microform, and placed in digital data set DS-5850 (C00074). DS-5850 is a current digital data set at NCDC and is the recommended source for digital rocketsonde data.

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Historical Climatology Series; 1-1, 1-2, 1-3

Abstract: Historical Climatology Series, 1-1 Cooperstown NY, 1-2 Yellowstone WY, and 1-3 Southeastern IA are available separately from NCDC. 1-1 and 1-2 are available online. These stations have long records of collection and are located in distinctly rural areas. The records are as serially complete as possible. The period of record differs for each area: Cooperstown is from 1854-1977; Yellowstone is from 1887-1977; Southeastern Iowa is from 1839-1979. Major parameters include monthly and annual mean temperature, mean minimum and maximum temperature, total precipitation and snowfall, and dates of last freeze in spring and first freeze in the fall. This series is one of several climatological series that is available at the NCDC.

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Historical Climatology Series; 2.1-2.3

Abstract: This is Historical Climatology Series 2 of 6 that are published by the NCDC. This historical index publication contains information about the availability of specific records of meteorological/climatological data. 2-1 Index of Historical Surface Weather Records, New York (August 1978). Surface weather records from observation sites in the state of New York from the early 1800's through 1980 are summarized in this index. 2-2 A History of Sunshine Data in the United States, 1891-1980 (July 1981). The NCDC has digitized and summarized monthly and annual totals of duration of sunshine from 239 observation sites for each available month and year of record for the period 1891-1984 in DS-9788. This publication gives the historical background of the sunshine recording network, periods of record for each recording site, information on the types of locations of instruments, and formats for various sources of published data. 2-3 Inventory of Sources of Long Term Climatic Data in Microfilm and Publication Form (July 1982). Draft this inventory was designed to serve as a guide for users of 19th century climatic data, but includes references to 18th and 20th century data sets which are extensions of the data sets of principal interest.

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Historical Climatology Series; 3.1-3.15

Abstract: This is Historical Climatology Series 3 of 6 that is published by the National Climatic Data Center. The preface of each publication in this Historical Climatology Series provides a narrative description of the analytical techniques utilized to prepare the charts. Each publication contains analyzed isopleth charts which correspond to the title. Charts which depict the area distribution of climatic elements or parameters are often used in studies of climate variability. The atlases in the Historical Climatology Series (HCS) 3- (1 thru 11) are designed to provide maps of climatological parameters which show climatic fluctuations in a relatively long-term or historical context. The coverage of the analyses can be on a local, regional, or continental scale. At present, there are 15 publications in this series classification.

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Historical Extreme Winds for the United States

Abstract: The Historical Extreme Winds for the United States are two separate publications: Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Coastlines and Great Lakes and Adjacent Regions. Both were prepared by the NCDC for the U.S. Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C. These publications contain narrative descriptions and formulae, where appropriate, on instrumentation history, measurement of extreme wind speed, categorization of station exposures, height reduction, and statistical analysis. Tabular data presented for each station are annual fastest-mile of wind speed (mph) for each year (corrected to 10 meter data for airports, 30 meters for city offices) and wind direction when available. Statistical data include computed fastest-mile of wind (mph) for return periods of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1000 years for elevations of 10 meters or 30 meters.

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Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) Publication

Abstract: This publication contains hourly precipitation amounts obtained from recording rain gauges located at National Weather Service, Federal Aviation Administration, and cooperative observer stations. Published data are displayed in inches to tenths or inches to hundreths at local standard time. HPD includes maximum precipitation for nine (9) time periods from 15 minutes to 24 hours, for selected stations. The HPD publication is also available as digital data set DS-3240 (C00313).

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Hurricane Opal - Preliminary Report

Abstract: This report deals with the US landfall of Hurricane Opal, the 15th named storm in an amazingly active 1995 Atlantic tropical storm season. Included are a short narrative with some of the details of Opal and its aftermath, rainfall/wind tables and maps, satellite images, and NEXRAD radar images. Storm surge, rainfall amounts, peak wind gusts, and other information are based on preliminary data.

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Index of Original Surface Weather Records

Abstract: Each publication presents indices of historical recording stations, alphabetic by station and by year, a listing of the hourly surface weather observation, synoptic weather observation, supplementary weather observation, and radar observation forms, and barogram, thermogram, triple register, wind recorder, and relative humidity. Recorder charts filed in the NCDC archives historically is presented for each station. This file is the published historical compilation of original manuscript and autographic records filed in the NCDC archives. An index of original surface weather records was compiled and published for each state, the Pacific Islands, and the combined U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico area. It is intended to provide users of historical meteorological manuscripts and autographic records information on their availability for stations (cities) that are in the NCDC archives.

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Initial Wind Wave Sea Height Chart

Abstract: These analyzed Northern Hemisphere charts (00 and 12 GMT) are prepared by the National Weather Service, National Meteorological Center and archived on 35-mm microfilm by the NCDC. The charts are stored on one reel of microfilm each year. The reels of microfilm, or paper copies of selected charts from the microfilm, are available for purchase from the NCDC. The heights of wind-waves, swell, and combined seas are depicted by labeled solid contours at 3-foot intervals. Wave periods are plotted in seconds and are enclosed in circles at selected grid points. Wave direction arrows are drawn at the maximum wave centers. Other properties of wave height distribution may be inferred from the depicted significant wave heights (defined as the average height of the highest one-third of the waves).

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Input Data for Solar Systems

Abstract: This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy for use in design and performance programs dealing with solar technology at various locations in the United States. Monthly and annual normals of maximum, minimum, and average temperatures and of heating and cooling degree days are given for 1941 through 1970. Average daily values of total hemispheric solar radiation on a horizontal surface also are given for each station. The stations included are that subset of coop and 1st order stations that take solar radiation observations.

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International Station Meteorological Climate Summary Ver 4.0 CD-ROM

Abstract: The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), in cooperation with the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Air Force, has developed an International Station Meteorological Climate Summary CD-ROM containing detailed climate summaries for 640 world wide stations and 5434 of the World Wide Airfield Summary Stations, DS-9647 (C00078) as 'fillers' in sparse regions. The data are accessible by panning and zooming to a given geographic area on a global display, or by directly selecting a station from one of seven identifiers, such as name, WMO id, or country. The data includes surface air temperature, humidity, winds, and precipitation.

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Lillehammer 1994: An Olympic Climatology

Abstract: This report gives a climatological description of Lillehammer, Norway, with emphasis on winter conditions. Lillehammer is in a mountainous northern location with limited winter sunlight. Very similar to parts of the North American Pacific Northwest, Lillehammer winter weather is variable because of the very different western and eastern air masses that move over the area. Stormy weather blowing in from the west over the North Atlantic is the main weathermaker. As these storms move ashore at the Norwegian coast, temperatures are warmer than they would ordinarily be because of the influence of the Gulf Stream in the North Atlantic. Often there is coastal rain and mountain snow. At Lillehammer, the intervening mountains reduce both storminess and temperature. Winds are generally light, and light snowfall is frequent. There is a cold continental air mass that usually stays east of Norway. But occasionally this air mass moves west, and Lillehammer has episodes of bright sunlight and below-zero temperatures.

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Local Climatological Data CD-ROM

Abstract: It is the new CD-ROM version of the digital LCD publication. The local climatological data annual file is produced from National Weather Service (NWS) first and second order stations. These data are contained in the LCD monthly and annual publications. Users can find data prior to 2000, archived at the NCDC under the same entry ID (C00128). You can also find this digital data set under the land documentation, DS-3715. The monthly summaries include maximum, minimum, and average temperature, temperature departure from normal, dew point temperature, average station pressure, ceiling, visibility, weather type, wet bulb temperature, relative humidity, degree days (heating and cooling), daily precipitation, average wind speed, fastest wind speed/direction, sky cover, and occurrences of sunshine, snowfall and snow depth. The annual summary with comparitive data contains monthly and annual averages of the above basic climatological data in the meteorological data for the current year section, a table of the normals, means, and extremes of these same data, and sequential table of monthly and annual values of average temperature, total precipitation, total snowfall, and total degree days.

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Locate a Weather Station (WebCliserv)

Abstract: The service is an interactive web page. Enter identifying information about a weather station such as one of its ID numbers, its name, or its location, and see descriptive information about the station and the data that it has reported to NCDC, as well as links to other helpful sites.Locate a weather station is just one service inside WebCliserv, a larger weather information system at NCDC's web site.

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Marine Climatological Summaries

Abstract: The summaries for each of 60 marine areas on fixed ships present monthly and annual observed frequency of selected visibility, specified weather conditions, total cloud amount, temperature, dew point, sea surface temperature, air-sea temperature difference, atmospheric pressure, and wind force by 30-degree direction sectors. Also included are seasonal tables of observed frequencies and of wave heights and periods. This is a 10 volume set, one volume for each year of the 10 year data period 1961-1970.

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Marine Coastal Weather Log

Abstract: The major parameters that make up this marine coastal weather log file are cloud condition (c=clear, p/c=partly cloudy, cy=cloudy), present weather, visibility (miles), wind direction (16 points), and speed (kts), state of sea (height in feet, period in seconds), sea surface temperature (deg. C or deg. f), temperature (deg. C or deg. F), and station pressure (in. Hg). The primary source of these manuscript records is from U.S. Coast Guard land stations, light stations, and ship stations. The number of reporting stations varies from year to year.

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Mariners Weather Log

Abstract: This publication is issued in magazine form several times a year and contains articles, descriptions, and data of a marine meteorology and oceanographic nature. Through the various articles mariners and other interested individuals are kept abreast of the most current operational uses of marine weather and oceanographic data. There are also articles concerning general meteorology and oceanography. The marine weather review included in the magazine contains a smooth log and sometimes a rough log. The smooth log (complete with cyclone tracks, climatological data from U.S. Ocean Weather Station "Hotel" and buoys, and gale and wave tables) is a definitive report on normal monthly weather systems, the primary storms that affected marine areas, and ship casualties for recent months. The rough log, when published, is a preliminary account of the weather for recent months that are not covered in the smooth log. Also included in the magazine is a special hurricane section as well as a section dealing with current projects and relevant scientific/meteorological occurrences.

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Mariners Worldwide Climatic Guide to Tropical Storms at Sea

Abstract: The publication provides narrative information about where and when tropical storms occur, their frequency of occurrence, and the general paths they follow. The narrative descriptions are supplemented with numerous charts, graphs, and diagrams. Also included are aerial, satellite, and surface photographs of tropical storms, and average sea conditions from 1/4-foot waves to greater than 37-foot waves associated with wind speeds from calm to 130 knots. The charts are presented in two sections: Storm Track and Frequency Maps, and Tropical Cyclone Roses. The Track Frequency Maps section provides charts by season, and/or by 10- to 30-day intervals, during the tropical storm season for the North Atlantic, Eastern North Pacific, Western North Pacific, Southeast Indian, Southwest Indian, and Southwest Pacific Ocean basins, and the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, and Indochina Oceanic areas. Each chart presents tracks preferred by tropical storms and their frequency along these tracks; and isopleths showing the scalar mean (average) speed in knots of storm movements based on 12 hour displacements. The Tropical Cyclone Roses section presents monthly and annual charts for various storm stages (tropical cyclone, tropical storm, hurricane, and tropical storm - hurricane combined) for the North Atlantic (including The Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico), Eastern North Pacific, Western North Pacific, Southwest Pacific and Australian area (including the Southeastern Indian Ocean), South Indian, and North Indian (including the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea) Ocean basins. The storm roses are presented for five degree latitude-longitude quadrangles. Each storm rose depicts statistics on the direction and speed of 12-hourly movements for tropical cyclone centers. The probability, in percent, of having at least one storm in any given year is also shown.

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National Climate Information CD-ROM Vol. I

Abstract: It provides monthly sequential temperature, precipitation, and drought data for the 344 climate divisions in the contiguous U.S. The data can be viewed in a tabular or graphical format and output sent to a printer. The CD-ROM covers the period 1895-1989 and contains 1032 time-series graphs, 4180 maps, and 5400 frames of video animation.

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National Climatic Data Center Periodical Publications CD-ROM

Abstract: The CD-ROM contains PDF format copies of the most recent NCDC serial publications. Monthly issues of Climatological Data (all states) (C00113), Hourly Precipitation Data (all states) (C00520), Storm Data (C00139), and Monthly Climatic Data for the World (C00129).

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National Summary (N Summary) - AFCCC

Abstract: The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) has, in archive, a number of unpublished National Summaries for selected stations around the world. The National Summaries, also known as N Summaries, were prepared by the U.S. Air Force Combat Climatology Center (AFCCC) and its predecessor, the Environmental Technical Application Center. Some National Summaries are also available from the AFCCC. The source of data was surface weather observations. The parameters in a National Summary are one or more of the following monthly, or seasonal, and annual tabulations: 1. Percentage frequency of surface winds (kts) by day, hour and month, to 16 points of the compass, 2. Percentage frequency of surface winds (kts) (seasonal and annual) to 16 points of the compass, 3. Precipitation amounts (in.), 4. Mean frequency of daily maximum temperature (Deg. F), mean maximum, and extreme maximum temperature (Deg. F), 5. Mean frequency of daily minimum temperature (Deg. F), mean minimum and extreme minimum temperature (Deg. F), and mean daily temperature range (Deg. F), 6. Mean number of days favorable for indicated military operations, 7. Miscellaneous data; mean number of days of occurrence of various weather phenomena, 8. Mean number of days with indicated total and low cloud amounts (oktas), 9. Percentage frequency of observations with low clouds (amount in 8ths, height in feet) and visibility (miles) reported, 10. Relative humidity means, 11. Percentage frequency distribution of wind speed (kts) and temperature (Deg. F), 12. Percentage frequency of visibility (miles) and various atmospheric phenomena, 13. Mean number of days with specified phenomena, 14. Mean cloudiness (%), 15. Snow depth (in.), 16. Percentage frequency of surface winds (kts) to 8 points of the compass (monthly), 17. Percentage frequency of surface winds (kts) to 8 points of the compass/ seasonal, 18. Sea level pressure (mb), means, and standard deviations.

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National Thunderstorm Frequencies for the Contiguous U.S.

Abstract: This publication presents (1) a narrative description of data utilized and the analysis performed, (2) monthly and annual analyzed charts of the contiguous United States depicting the mean number of thunderstorms, (3) tables of monthly and annual mean number of thunderstorms for 450 stations, and (4) station listings. The National Thunderstorm Frequencies for the Contiguous United States publication was prepared by the NCDC for the U.S. Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C. The primary source of data used to produce the publication was the original surface weather observations from which the individual thunderstorm beginning and ending times were extracted. Quality control on these data included assuring (1) a 15-minute maximum duration of thunder (National Weather Service standard), (2) storm beginning times occur before ending times, and (3) record with storm occurrences over the midnight time period, or with multiple storm occurrences, are properly encoded. The beginning and ending times of thunderstorms for the 450 stations processed are in the NCDC file DS-9945 (C00247).

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NOAA KLM User's Guide CD-ROM

Abstract: This CD-ROM is intended for users of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Polar Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) data and products. NCDC produced this CD-ROM specifically for users of the NOAA-K, -L, and -M (herein known as NOAA KLM) series satellite data and products. On this CD-ROM, you will find the NOAA KLM User's Guide as well as actual images and digital data samples obtained from NOAA-K (also known as NOAA-15).

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NOAA Satellite Technical Documentation (POD and GVI) CD-ROM

Abstract: This CD-ROM is for users of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite (POES) data and products. On this CD- ROM, you will find detailed documentation about the NOAA POES program, descriptions of data formats, images produced from the data, and actual data set samples to help you understand the data formats and develop data processing software. The disc is arranged as a series of HTML files that are linked to each other through a welcome page. Also included are Internet addresses for the NCDC Web and ftp sites where the latest updates to the technical documentation are maintained. The two documents contained on the CD-ROM are: NOAA Polar Orbiter Data (POD) Users Guide, August 1997 revision - contains descriptions of the instruments on the NOAA POES series from TIROS-N through NOAA-14, the Level 1b data format that NOAA uses to distribute raw data to users, and derived data products including TOVS Soundings, Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Mapped GAC, and Radiation Budget. NOAA Global Vegetation Index Users Guide, July 1997 revision - describes the various products derived from NOAA POES data to monitor global vegetation growth and distribution.

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NOAA Weather Charts

Abstract: Most of these regional and global weather charts were prepared by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and its predecessor agencies, and archived by the NCDC. The NCDC archive of weather charts extends back as early as 1899 for the U.S. Daily Weather Map series. The archive for Constant Pressure (Upper Air) and North American Surface charts begins in March 1942. Subsequent charts have been added or deleted since then. The original archive consisted of paper charts which were later placed on microfilm. Microfilm was the official archive media through September 1994, when archival on computer digital media began. Selections include the following recent chart types, but are not limited to them. 1) Chart Series - Surface and Upper Air Weather Charts A) North America: Constant Pressure B) N Hemisphere: Constant Pressure C) North America: Surface D) N Hemisphere: Surface E) S Hemisphere: Constant Pressure 2) Chart Series - Initial Analysis and Forecast Charts A) North America: 500 mb Heights/Vorticity B) N Hemisphere: 500 mb Heights/Vorticity C) N Hemisphere: Mean Relative Humidity/Vertical Velocity D) N Hemisphere: Surface Analysis/1000-500 mb Thickness E) S Hemisphere: Surface Analysis/1000-500 mb Thickness 3) Chart Series - Tropical Strip/Precipitation and Observed Weather Charts A) Tropical Strip: Constant Pressure B) Tropical Strip: Surface C) Composite Moisture Index D) Observed Precipitation, Snowfall, and Temperature E) Radar Summary F) Weather Depiction G) Winds Aloft.

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North American Constant Pressure Charts

Abstract: The geographic coverage is the Northern Hemisphere and North America. These analyzed constant pressure charts are prepared by the National Weather Service, National Centers for Environmental Prediction as part of their routine analyses and forecasting procedures. Data are constant pressure charts as follows: 1. January 1, 1946 through December 31, 1949 at 04 and 16 GMT for pressure levels 1000, 850, 700, 500, 300, and 200 millibars. 2. January 1, 1950 through May 31, 1957 at 03 and 15 GMT for pressure levels 1000, 850, 700, 500, 300, 200, and 150 millibars. 3. June 1, 1957 through December 31, 1966 for 00 and 12 GMT for 850, 700, 500, 300, 200, and 150 millibars. 4. January 1, 1967 through the present for 00 and 12 GMT for 850, 700, 500, 300, and 200 millibars, and 12 GMT only for 100, 50, 30, and 10 millibars. 4 and 1 millibars are sometimes included for 12 GMT. Analyzed heights (decameters) of each pressure level for each chart are drawn as solid lines at 60-meter intervals. Isotachs at 20-knot intervals are drawn as dashed lines. High and low pressure centers, troughs, ridges, and sometimes jet streams are depicted. Station observational data with wind-barbs are also plotted.

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NWS River Forecast

Abstract: This data file describes in detail the river forecast and warning services as well as other hydrological services provided by the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS). The major parameters are water level, river forecast points, highest stages at NWS gauges and at locations prior to gauge records, and a list of points for which water supply forecasts are issued.

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Observed Snow Cover Charts

Abstract: These computer plotted charts were prepared by the National Weather Service, and archived on 35-mm microfilm by the NCDC. The charts were prepared only for those days that snow cover exists, normally October through April. They were placed on one reel of microfilm each year for the years 1966 through 1980 and two reels of microfilm each year for 1981 and 1982. The data plotted on these charts were from the automatically processed data sets which had as their source the 1200 OMI Service C (3-hourly synoptic observations) and Service A (hourly aviation observations) of the National Weather Service Communications Network. The total snow depth and 6 hour increase of snow were plotted to the nearest whole inch, but trace amounts were also plotted. Total snow depth was plotted to the right of a blacked-in station circle. When there was snow in the last six hours, the amount was plotted centered on the station circle using white numbers on a black background. Additional reports, for which there is no space at the station location, were listed in a column along the right edge identified by station number, call letter, or name.

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Original Monthly Record of Observations - WB 1001

Abstract: The major parameters that make up this file are in three parts: 1. Twice daily observations of: a. Station pressure and sea level pressure (in. Hg), b. Dry bulb, wet bulb, and dew point temperatures (deg. F), c. Maximum and minimum temperatures for the previous 12 hours (deg. F), d. Relative humidity (%), e. Wind direction (8 points) and speed (mph), f. Maximum wind speed for the previous 12 hours (MPH), g. Precipitation amount (in.) for the previous 12 hours, h. Cloud amount (10 ths), kind, and direction of movement (from scale to 8 points), i. State of weather (plain language). 2. Daily observations of: a. maximum and minimum temperature (deg. F), b. Average temperature with departure from normal (deg. F), c. Precipitation amount with departure from normal (in.) and beginning and ending times, d. Snowfall and snow depth (in.), e. Average cloud amount (10 ths), f. Character of day (clear, partly cloudy, cloudy). 3. Monthly means and extremes of the parameters in 1 and 2. The twice daily observations were not taken at the same time each day by those stations, nor were they taken at the same time historically by each station. Times of observations vary from 05 am to 12 pm and from 12 pm to midnight local standard time. Some of the twice daily, daily, and monthly observations, averages and extremes, are also presented in the 'climatological record book' file. The 'Index of Original Surface Weather Records' lists those stations and the period of record for which the manuscript records in this file are available. They are listed under meteorological summary which indicates that some type of monthly summary is on file in the NCDC archives. A number of parameters are also presented hourly. Later in the period of record 6-hourly data is presented instead of 12 hourly. Limited station history information is available on the first page of the summary.

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Pasquill Stabilities Categories

Abstract: Pasquill stability categories is a schema that descibes the degree of atmospheric turbulence. Categories range from extremely unstable to extremely stable. Unstable conditions promote the rapid dispersion of atmospheric contaminants and result in lower air concentrations compared with stable conditions. The full title of this item is "A Climatological Analysis of Pasquill Stability Categories."

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Pilot Balloon Data (PIBAL) (WBAN-20)

Abstract: These are in the WBAN 20 form types for pilot balloons (PIBAL). The sheets were prepared by the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. Navy, the National Weather Service and its predecessor the Weather Bureau, and other U.S. organizations, for selected stations around the world. The sheets were done generally between 1946 and 1983, with a few at later dates. A WBAN 20 sheet recorded azimuth and elevation angles at one minute intervals during the balloon ascent. The height of the balloon above the surface and the distance the balloon had drifted from the observation point were determined and entered in the appropriate columns. The position of the balloon at each minute (determined by the azimuth angle and the distance from observation point) were plotted, and the wind direction and speed was then evaluated for each minute and for every even minute above 7 km., and entered on the sheet. Wind data were entered in the appropriate blocks. Maximum wind speed data were entered when speeds reached 45 meters per second (100 mph). Wind directions were coded to the nearest 5 deg., and wind speeds were coded in knots.

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Pre-1890 Signal Corps Station History

Abstract: It consists of a series of document images from a 1891 publication of the U.S. Army Signal Corps entitled "Index of Meteorological Observations in the United States from the Earliest Records to January, 1890". In those early years, the Signal Corps had responsibility for U.S. weather observations. Today, these observations are the responsibility of the U.S. National Weather Service. The 1891 publication documented the location and types of observations taken, at more than 7000 surface observing sites established prior to 1890.

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Precipitation Data from Storage Gage Stations

Abstract: This annual data file contains precipitation data collected from 1955 through 1976. Prior to June 1948 the data appeared in various Weather Bureau publications; June 1948-1956 data appeared in July or Aug. issues of the "Climatological Data" Bulletins of the Weather Bureau.

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Preliminary Local Climatological Data

Abstract: This Preliminary Local Climatological Data form contains summary of the day information of stations operated by National Weather Service stations and FAA contract stations in the Central Region. The daily summaries include maximum, minimum, and average temperature, temperature departure from normal, degree days (heating and cooling), daily precipitation, average wind speed, fastest wind speed/direction, sky cover, and occurrences of weather sunshine, snowfall and snow depth. Users of the data in this file should be aware that they are not quality controlled. Most of the PLCD's are handwritten, but for some stations, NCDC produces them by computer.

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Probabilities of Temperature Extremes in the U.S. CD-ROM Version 1.0

Abstract: This CD allows the user to use the U.S. climate normals and various projections of temperature trends to generate statistics for numerous U.S. locations. The software generates frequency distributions of user-selected temperature extremes.

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Radar Chart

Abstract: Radar Chart is a product available from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The geographic coverage is the 48 contiguous states of the United States. These hourly radar charts are prepared by the National Weather Service (NWS), National Centers for Environmental Prediction, and archived at NCDC. Data contains analyzed areas, lines, and cells of cloud formations that include the base, tops, movement, and precipitation intensity. Precipitation types and change of intensity are also depicted. These charts are prepared from radar observations taken by NWS weather radar stations throughout the country.

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Radar Plan Position Indicator Scope

Abstract: The primary source of these images is weather radar operated by the U.S. National Weather Service and its predecessor, the U.S. Weather Bureau, starting in the late 1950s. The images are photographs of radar scopes. The scope shows radar echoes and their distance and direction from the radar. Each photo frame shows a lamp display that provides information about the frame, including radar function settings, range, date, time, etc.

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Radar Weather Observation

Abstract: The primary source of these radar weather observations manuscript records are from approximately 110 National Weather Service (NWS) radar stations. The records were placed on microfiche monthly or annually, depending on the radar station. In addition, the years these records are available vary from station to station. There are also approximately 59 NWS radar observing stations equipped with weather surveillance radar which take photographs of the plan position indicator (PPI) scope on 16-mm or 35-mm film when echoes were visible, pictures were taken at least every 5 minutes and sometimes as often as every 40 seconds. When echoes were visible, pictures were taken at least every 5 minutes and sometimes as often as every 40 seconds. This dataset consist of hourly and special observations on daily MF 7-60 forms. Observations were taken about 35 minutes past the hour throughout each 24 hour period. Each observation provides detailed information about the character, type, and intensity of precipitation; direction and distance of the echoes from the station; movement of echoes; maximum height of cells; and pertinent remarks.

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Radiosonde Data of North America CD-ROM

Abstract: This product contains all available radiosonde data for North America (US, Canada, Mexico, and Caribbean Islands) through the 100-mb level. Each disk provides a different time period: 1946-1965, 1966-1979, 1980-1989, and 1990-1996. The data includes significant, mandatory, and special wind levels for all observation times, and includes geopotential height, temperature, dew point, wind direction, and scalar speed. The user can select output to printer, screen, or file any of the following: a single station or multiple stations for a defined time period, or all stations within a specified geographic region in either synoptic or station sort. The product contains available station metadata, and software is available to access the data for DOS, UNIX and VMS computer systems.

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Record of Climatological Observations

Abstract: The products include a daily account of temperature extremes (participating locations) and precipitation, snow, and snow depth. Available are thousands of sites which are a part of the cooperative observing network in the U.S. This data has a lag time of 2-3 months. Preliminary data which have not been through our complete quality control process are available free of charge through the Preliminary Record of Climatological Observations System. These data are presented in a Web Form or ASCII file format. No PDF file is available for Preliminary data.

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Revised Uniform Standard Summary Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

Abstract: The original tabulations of (RUSSWO) are archived on microfiche by the NCDC. Data are prepared primarily for current and former U.S. military installations and represents unpublished monthly and annual tabulations. Periods of record are varied and updates will be accomplished on a 5 year cycle in most cases. Data contents are as follows. Part A - Monthly and annual summaries on percentage frequency of occurrence of weather conditions and percentage of days with various atmospheric phenomena. Part B - Summaries of percentage frequency of daily precipitation, extreme 24-hour amounts of precipitation in inches and these same type of summaries for snowfall and snow depth. Part C - Monthly, annual, and 3-hourly summaries by month of surface winds. Part D - Monthly and annual summaries and 3-hourly summaries by month of ceiling versus visibility and sky cover. Part E - Cumulative percentage of frequency of occurrence of daily maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures, extreme values of maximum and minimum temperatures, monthly and annual psychrometric summaries and 3-hourly psychrometric summaries by month of temperature versus wet-bulb temperature depression, monthly and annual cumulative percentage frequency of occurrence of relative humidity and means and standard deviations of dry-bulb, wet-bulb, and dew-point temperatures. Part F - Means and standard deviations of station pressure in inches of mercury and millibars.

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Selected Maps from the Climate Atlas of the Contiguous U.S.

Abstract: The Selected Maps from the Climate Atlas of the Contiguous United States, 1961- 1990 publication contains maps for 20 of the more requested products from the Climate Atlas CD-ROM (C00519). The 40-page booklet contains color images of the following Annual Mean maps: Daily Maximum/Minimum/Average Temperatures, Dew Point Temperatures, Relative Humidity, Heating and Cooling Degree Days, Total Precipitation, Days with Measurable Precipitation, Total Snowfall, Wind Speed and Prevailing Direction, Days with Heavy Fog, Sky Cover, Sunshine Hour and Percentage, as well as images of the First/Last 32 Degree Fahrenheit Temperatures, Median Length of Freeze Free Period, and Probabilities of Measurable Snowfall and a White Christmas.

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Ship Weather Observations

Abstract: This data file contains standard surface meteorological observation taken aboard ships from 1796 to the present. While it covers the worldwide oceans, data collection varies widely at any one station and concentrates on shipping lanes. Parameters include temperature, pressure, visibility, wind speed and direction, sea state, cloud type, weather, and wave amplitude and direction. Marine surface weather observations for "fixed" Ocean Weather Stations are included in this file. The primary source of manuscript records in this file are form ships (commercial and military) operated by the United States. This file includes the Maury Collection. This collection has been digitally indexed and scanned. These records are abstract logs of ships that sailed during the period 1796-1861. Most of the material within these logs consists of abbreviated reports of meteorological observations made at sea and, in the case of the numerous abstracts submitted by whalers, abbreviated reports of whale sightings. Bound with the abstract logs in several of the volumes are some reports of land-based meteorological observations. The data from this file can also be found in NCDC's digital data setcatalog: Monthly Marine Observations, DS-1129 (C00242), NMC Global GTS Surface Marine, DS-6105 (C00220), and Marine Atlas Data, DS-9760 (C00091).

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Solar and Meteorological Surface Observational Network CD-ROM

Abstract: This product is a 3-volume CD-ROM set containing data from selected stations in the United States, Puerto Rico and Guam. The 3 CD-ROM's are divided geographically into regions (eastern, central, and western U.S. -- 1 CD-ROM per region), and contain hourly solar radiation and meteorological data for the period 1961-90. They encompass 237 National Weather Service (NWS) stations. The dataset includes both observational and modelled data. The 5 solar elements are: extraterrestrial horizontal and extraterrestrial direct normal radiation; global; diffuse; and direct normal radiation. The 16 meteorological elements are: total and opaque sky cover, temperature and dew point, relative humidity, station pressure, wind direction and speed, visibility, ceiling height, present weather, precipitable water, aerosol optical depth, snow depth, days since last snowfall, and hourly precipitation. This data set was developed jointly by NCDC and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Boulder, Colorado.

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Solar Radiation Charts

Abstract: These charts are archived on microfiche and contain hourly and daily totals of edited global, direct, and diffuse solar radiation.

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Southern Hemisphere Constant Pressure Charts

Abstract: The Southern Hemisphere Constant Pressure chart is one of several types of charts from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) that are archived at NCDC and available to the public.

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Southern Hemisphere Surface/1000-500 Mb Thickness Charts

Abstract: These 1000-500 millibar thickness charts for the Southern Hemisphere depict computer isobaric analyses in decameters. High and low pressure areas were also depicted. There are no plotted station data. These computer analyzed charts for 0000 and 1200 GMT were prepared by the National Weather Service, National Meteorological Center (now known as the National Environmental Prediction Center, NCEP) as part of their routine analyses and forecasting procedures. They were then sent to the NCDC to be placed on 35 millimeter microfilm and filed in the archives.

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Stability Array (STAR)

Abstract: STAR was born from the work of Pasquill (1951), Turner (1964), and Martin and Tidvart (1968). It provides, at least roughly, the diffusion characteristics for the lowest part of the atmosphere and biosphere. It is an objective method of determining stability from readily available surface meteorological observations utilizing only the variables of ceiling height, total sky cover, and wind direction and speed as input. The methodology employed recognizes that stability near the ground is dependent primarily upon net radiation and wind speed. Wind direction is not a factor in objective determination of stability categories. Without the influence of clouds, insolation (incoming radiation) during the day is dependent mainly upon the solar elevation, which is a function of time of year, time of day, and station location. When clouds exist, their cover and thickness decrease incoming and outgoing radiation. In this system, insolation is estimated by solar elevation and modified for existing conditions of total sky cover and ceiling height. At night, estimates of outgoing radiation are again based on total sky cover and ceiling height. The STABILITY ARRAY consists of frequency and percent frequency tables of wind direction versus wind speed groups for each stability category. This system produces seven categories ranging from extremely unstable (A) to neutral (D) to extremely stable (G) and is summarized on a monthly, seasonal, and annual basis.

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Storm Events Database

Abstract: Search the Storm Events Database to find various types of storms recorded in your county; or use other selection criteria as desired. The Storm Events Database contains data from: All US Weather Events from 1993 - Current, as entered into the Storm Data database. (Except 6/93 - 7/93, which is missing) Plus additional data from the NOAA/National Weather Service/National Centers for Environmental Prediction/Storm Prediction Center, Including Tornadoes 1950-1992 Thunderstorm Winds 1959-1992 Hail 1959- 1992 The Storm Events Database is updated when the data becomes available to NCDC. The data is updated on a monthly basis and is usually 120 days behind the current month.

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Summary of Constant Pressure - WBAN 33

Abstract: The constant pressure levels that have been summarized are: surface, 1000-, 950-, 900-, etc., 200-, 175-, 150-, 125-, 100-, 80-, 70-, 60-, 50-, 40-, 30-, 25-, 20-, 15-, 10-, 7-, 5-, 4-, 3-, and 2- millibars. The major parameters computed and presented twice daily for each constant pressure level are: height (geopotential meters), temperature (deg c), relative humidity (%), wind direction (36 points), and wind speed (meters per second). Computed constant pressure data are for 0000 and 1200 GMT. Prior to 1957, the hours summarized were 0300 and 1500 GMT. Time periods are variable for each upper air station. The primary sources of upper air data used to prepare these summaries are DS-5600 (C00054) and DS-6201 (C00239).

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Summary of Meteorological Observations, Surface (SMOS)

Abstract: These are unpublished summaries on paper and microfiche. They are from an assortment of stations worldwide, with many from Canada and from past and present U.S. military installations. Years of data represented by the summaries are variable, but generally consist of at least five years of continuous data. Many of the summaries were prepared by the U.S. Navy.

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Summary of Synoptic Meteorological Observations - Great Lakes

Abstract: These publications of synoptic meteorological observations for the Great Lakes present climatic summaries for 13 major great lake areas. These data summaries are based on marine surface weather observations taken on board great lakes vessels in passage during the period January 1960 through December 1973.

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Summary of Synoptic Meteorological Observations - Various Worldwide Coastal Marine Areas

Abstract: This data file presents climatic summaries for most of the coastal areas of the world. These data summaries are based upon observations taken by various ships passing through these waters from 1854 to the late 1970's. The observations include air and water temperature, clouds, visibility, weather, pressure, humidity, wave height and period, and wind direction and speed. Each set contains a different geographic area of the world.

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Surface Prognostic Charts

Abstract: These charts include fronts, isobars, cloud, and precipitation areas. There are two separate charts: one is a four-panel 12- and 24-hour,in which the upper two panels are devoted to low-level significant weather; the other, a two-panel 36- and 48-hour with discussion. The discussion is limited to about 260 abbreviated words. Because of the space limitation, it may contain different kinds of information on one example of the chart than on another; but the following information is always included: a. Date/time of the initial data, b. Extent of numerical guidance available, c. Each weather system with significant developments, d. The "how" and "why" of any modification of numerical guidance, e. Revisions of previous forecasts, if needed, f. Clarification of any abrupt changes in continuity. The discussion was written and signed by the forecaster who made the forecast. These charts covered the conterminous United States of America, southern Canada, and northern Mexico. They had a scale of 1:26.7 million.

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Surface Weather Observations

Abstract: This data file contains original manuscript records of raw meteorological data collected by 1st order and 2nd order station located in the U.S., U.S. Pacific Islands, U.S. Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, and by military weather stations located worldwide. Temperature, precipitation, pressure, wind, visibility and cloud data are covered from 1872 to the present. Observed parameters and number of daily observations varies among military and second order stations. Hourly and/or 3-hourly data and summary of the day data that are entered on these manuscript records are also available on file as DS-3280 (C00215) and DS-3210 (C00314). In addition, these data are published as Local Climatological Data, DS-3715 (C00128).

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Summary of Winds Aloft - WBAN 22

Abstract: These forms consist of wind direction and wind speed at specified heights above the surface obtained from pibals and rawinsonds. These are listed by station, year, month, day, and by hour of observation. Scheduled hours of observations changed on June 1, 1957 from 03, 09, 15 and 21 Greenwich Mean Time to 00, 06, 12 and 18 GMT. Provisions exist on these forms for listing wind direction and speed at heights up to 42,000 meters. The first page contains data in 12 five-column fields from the surface through 6,000 meters. Page 2 contains data from 7,000 through 18,000 meters, when available, etc. Heights have varied over the years and, in general, wind observations reached greater heights in the early 1960's than in the 1940's or 1950's. High level wind data (above 50,000 meters) are available in published and summarized forms for selected stations in the rocketsonde network. These archived forms can be found in Rocketsonde Observations, DS-5850 (C00074). The major parameters that make up this file are wind direction (16 point and calm) versus wind speed (m/s, kts, mph) group tabulations. Also included are monthly or seasonal; 1. Standard deviation of east components, 2. Standard deviation of north components, 3. Standard vector deviation of wind velocity, 4. Correlation coefficient of north and east components, 5. Average wind speed, 6. Scalar wind speed, 7. Ratio of standard deviations, 8. Standard deviation of wind components along the major axis of the distribution, 9. Standard deviation of wind components perpendicular to the major axis of the distribution, 10. Angle of rotation of the major axis of the wind distribution counter- clockwise from East-West direction, 11. Standard deviation of wind speeds.

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The 2000 Olympic Games - A Climatology for Sydney, Australia

Abstract: This report provides a detailed climatology for Sydney, Australia--site of the 2000 Olympic Games. Data tables, maps, and a narrative are included. For example, the mean high temperature for September in Sydney is 68 degrees F with a mean low temperature of 50 degrees F, and mean monthly rainfall of 2.2 inches. The report includes much more detailed statistics for September and the remainder of the year, such as daily and monthly extremes, average wind speeds, and frequency distributions of various types of weather. The climatology is based on data collected between 1939 and 1991.

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The Big One! A Review of the March 1993 Storm of the Century

Abstract: The geographic area is the eastern United States, especially the Atlantic coastal states; northeastern Mexico; Cuba; and southeastern Canada. This technical report, prepared by NCDC's Research Customer Service Group, describes the great U.S. winter storm of March 12-15, 1993. The 1993 storm has been called "The Storm of the Century", "The Blizzard of '93", or "The Big One!". The extratropical storm was characterized by hurricane-force winds, tornados, record snowfalls, record low temperatures, major social disruptions, property damage, and loss of life. To find similar U.S. winter storms in history, one has to look back to 1888 and then to 1717. This publication includes a brief summary of the blizzard, a comparison of this and the 1888 storm, and also observational data from various stations that were affected.

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The Development of a U.S. Climatology of Extreme Ice Loads

Abstract: Ice thickness (and therefore weight) is a key engineering design consideration in the construction of many structures which are subject to outdoor weather, such as cables, towers, wires, etc. Detailed information for engineers regarding ice loads from freezing rain has been sorely lacking, due to a deficiency of site-specific data. Therefore, a consortium of individuals and government agencies undertook a project to produce a U.S. climatology of ice thickness due to freezing rain, in the form of an extreme value analysis. This 23-page report describes this effort, along with future plans for further development.

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The El Nino Winter of 1997 - 1998

Abstract: Prior to the winter of 1997-8, record-breaking warm-episode (El Nino) conditions had persisted in the tropical Pacific since June 1997. The winter of 1997-8 was marked by unusual extremes in parts of the country. The winter was dominated by an El Nino-influenced weather pattern, with wetter than normal conditions across much of the southern third of the country, and warmer than normal conditions across much of the northern two-thirds of the country. Overall, the winter (December 1997- February 1998) was the second warmest and seventh wettest since 1895. Severe weather events included flooding in the southeast and California, an ice storm in the northeast, and tornadoes in Florida.

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Thunderstorms Across the Nation

Abstract: The atlas describes all aspects of the climatology of thunderstorms and hail in the US during the 20th century. Since 1950, thunderstorms have created enormous damages--$87 billion in property losses, $19 billion in crop losses, and over 12,000 human lives lost. The atlas has 100 pages with 77 graphs and maps and 33 photos.

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Time Series of Global Monthly Vegetation Cover from NOAA/AVHRR 1985-1997 CD-ROM Version 1.1

Abstract: This product contains data that was generated from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite (POES) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument. A revision of the Time Series of Global Monthly Vegetation Cover from NOAA/AVHRR CD-ROM has been produced. This revision (Version 1.1) corrects problems with the original CD-ROM (Version 1.0) dated January 1998. These data were further processed into Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. There are twelve years of global monthly NDVI files, in both digital and graphical formats.

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Triple Register Charts

Abstract: The primary source of these triple register roll charts is from National Weather Service stations and offices. The roll charts contain continuous recording of wind direction (8 points) and speed (mph), sunshine (minutes), and rainfall (inches).

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Tropical Cyclones: North Atlantic (1871-1992)

Abstract: The NCDC has in archive a number of historical publications and microfiche on the subject of North Atlantic tropical cyclones. Much of the information in these items is in the form of charts. Some of the archived titles are: Data from 1871-1992: Tropical Cyclones of the N. Atlantic Ocean Data from the later 1800s through the 1950s or 1960s: North Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Digitized Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Climatology of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Charts Data from the 1960s only: North Atlantic Tropical Cyclone 1960's.

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Tropical Strip Surface Charts

Abstract: These analyzed charts are prepared by the National Weather Service, and archived on 35-mm microfilm by the NCDC. The charts are on one reel of microfilm for 1969, two reels per year (January - June, July - December) 1970 through 1978, and 4 reels per year from January 1979 through 1984, 6 reels per year from January 1985 through 1992. These charts were analyzed for 00 and 12 GMT from March 1969 thru December 1978 and for 00, 06, 12, and 18 GMT from January 1979 to 1992. The data contains an isobaric analysis at 4-millibar intervals with plotted station data. Fronts, troughs, ridges, and high and low pressure areas are depicted. Also included are plotted satellite winds from low cloud motions.

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Unedited Solar Radiation Data

Abstract: Unedited solar radiation data are archived at NCDC on both microfiche and digital file DS-9794 (C00068). These historic data contain hourly and daily totals of unedited global, direct, and diffuse solar radiation. The solar network consists of 26 selected stations operated by the National Weather Service. The unedited hourly and daily totals are accumulated from 1-minute values contained on files received from the NWS stations. The data were run through a gross edit check only.

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Upper Air Weather Observation

Abstract: The major parameters in this collection are temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and height of levels. Data have been collected from 1934 to the present. Ships are not on the microfiche. Recent upper air data is available in NCDC's modern digital data sets, of which U.S. Rawinsonde CARDS, DS-6301 (C00415) is one.

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U.S. Hourly Precipitation Data CD-ROM

Abstract: These data files contain hourly precipitation amounts for more than 2500 active stations and almost 7000 total stations. The period of record is 1900 through June 1998, although most stations begin in 1948. Access software, available for most UNIX and DOS platforms, is included to extract data from the CDROM archive and, if needed, can be used to summarize the data into daily or monthly precipitation quantities. Display software (java-enabled web browser required) will generate zoomable map and time seriesgraphics.

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U.S. Hourly Weather Observations 1990-1995 CD-ROM

Abstract: This product contains over 12 million hourly weather observations from 262 National Weather Service (NWS) stations nationwide. It has a map interface and station list for data selection, or the user can copy the data files direct from the CD (without using the interface). Data can be output in either English or metric units. The parameters included are: total and opaque sky cover, temperature and dew point, relative humidity, station pressure, wind direction (true north) and speed, visibility, ceiling height, present weather, ASOS cloud layer data, snow depth, and hourly precipitation. The project that produced this product was partly funded by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

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U.S. Landfalling Hurricanes Poster, 1950-2004

Abstract: There were 87 continental U.S. landfalling hurricanes for the period 1950 to 2004. This 36" x 27" glossy poster graphically displays the name, year, and landfall location of each hurricane, as well as, depicts the strength of each hurricane at time of landfall based on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale.

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U.S. Navy Climatological Summary

Abstract: These consist of a number of U.S. Navy Climatological Briefs, or Climatic Briefs, for selected U.S. Navy stations and commercial airports worldwide. The primary source of data utilized in these tabulations is the Record of Surface Weather Observations (MF1-10 forms) recorded at U.S. military installations. Data periods used are variable from 10 to 30 years, starting in about 1940. The U.S. Navy station climatic summary presents a means and extremes table for selected meteorological elements; a table of percentage frequencies for selected flying-weather conditions; sequential tables of monthly and annual values of mean temperature (deg F), total precipitation (in.), and total heating-degree days (base 65 deg F). Also included are a narrative description of the climate of the area around the station and a table showing the station location and instrument history.

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U.S. Navy Marine Climatic Atlas of the World CD-ROM version 1.1

Abstract: Includes analysis and display software for climatological averages of atmospheric and oceanographic data. The data are summarized with user-defined 1 and 5 degree grid areas covering the global marine environment. The summaries are produced using predominately ship data collected between 1854-1969. The major parameters include air and sea temperature, dew point temperature, scalar wind speed, sea-level pressure, wave height, wind and ocean-current roses. This CD-ROM allows the user to define element intervals (e.g. 5 to 10 knots, 2 degree temperature intervals). The CD-ROM also allows contouring for explicitly user-defined regions and exporting data to a printer or diskette. Narratives for Mediterranean ports and ocean basin climatology narratives are included in this updated version.

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U.S. Weather Bureau Technical Paper Series

Abstract: The U.S. Weather Bureau technical paper series contains 58 numbered papers. The completed series is listed in the complete documentation, with the year of publication for each. Many are out of print. The publications annotated with an asterisk are in the NCDC Tecnhical Library. Some may be available from the U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO), Washington, DC 20402. GPO can also be contacted through their web site.

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Vorticity Charts

Abstract: These computer-produced charts are prepared by the National Weather Service and archived on 35-mm microfilm by the NCDC. The charts for 1961 are archived on one reel of microfilm. Subsequent charts are archived on two reels of microfilm for each year. The mean relative humidity/vertical velocity charts are included on these reels of microfilm. Charts are produced twice daily, 0000 and 1200 GMT. Initial analyses are 12, 24, and 36 hour prognosis. The basis for these charts is the seven-layer (FE) numerical prediction model. The 500-millibar contours are depicted as dashed lines at 60 meter intervals and are labeled by three- digit white numbers on a black background. Circulation centers are indicated by 'H' for high and 'L' for low. Centers are located by an 'x' within a circle and labeled by three-digit hollow numbers in decameters. The location points of 500-millibar absolute vorticity isopleths are drawn as solid lines at intervals of 2 x 10 (-5) sec (-1). Absolute vorticity isopleths are labeled 2, 4, 6, etc., multiples of 10 (-5) sec (-1). Centers of positive absolute vorticity are indicated by an 'x' and negative absolute vorticity by an 'n'.

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Water Equivalent vs Rain Guage from the March 1993 Blizzard

Abstract: On March 12-14, 1993, the eastern seaboard of the U. S. was struck by what is now referred to as: 1) The Storm of the Century, 2) The Blizzard of 93, or 3) The Big One!. TR 93-01 describes this storm. One of the interesting and more overlooked aspects of the storm was the discrepancy between liquid water measurements by the rain gauge and water equivalent 'core samples' of the snow/ice on the ground. This report will attempt to show that: 1) The most likely scenario is a problem with 'undercatch' of snowfall, and 2) the careful measurement of water equivalent is an important element for hydrological interests and the climatic records.

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Weather Depiction Charts

Abstract: The data plotted on these charts come from the National Weather Service (NWS). The plotting model on each station circle is an abbreviated version of the complete aviation observation and includes significant weather, visibility, total sky cover, and ceiling height. Fronts, types of precipitation, areas of precipitation, and squall lines from the previous hour are also depicted. Chart times are 01, 04, 07, 10, 13, 16, 19, and 22 GMT.

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Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin

Abstract: The Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin contains a national weather summary, a national agricultural summary, a section of state summaries of weather and agriculture, and an international weather and crop summary. Tabular summaries presented are weekly average temperatures (deg F), total precipitation (in.) with departures from normal, weekly total heating- degree days (base 65 deg F) and seasonal accumulations with departures from normal and from the previous season. The first issue of each month includes tabular summaries of the previous month's average temperature (deg F) and total precipitation (in.). Weekly charts of the total precipitation (in.) and average temperature (deg F) with departures from normal are shown. A chart depicting the depth of snow (in.) on the ground is included during the winter season. A variety of other charts are also included on such maps, such as: crop moisture, crop moisture index, drought severity, soil temperatures, accumulated growing-degree days and extended weather outlooks. Copies of the Bulletin from 1925 to the present are available for purchase from the NCDC.

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Weighing Rain Gauge Recording Charts

Abstract: The primary source of these weighing rain gauge recording charts is from National Weather Service and cooperative stations. The historical recorder charts are archived in the national archives from 1895 through 1980. Subsequent charts are archived in the NCDC. The charts are on microfilm from 1939 through 1972 and microfiche from 1973 through 1980. Paper copies or microforms of these recorder charts are available for purchase from the NCDC. Data contains continuous recording of precipitation amounts to one-hundredth of an inch.

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Wind Gust Recorder Charts

Abstract: The primary source of these wind gust recorder roll charts is from approximately 250 National Weather Service stations which are located at major metropolitan airports. These wind gust recorder roll charts are archived by the NCDC. Data contains continuous wind speeds in mph.

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Wind, Ceiling, and Visibility Data at Selected Airports

Abstract: This publication has also been called "FAA Wind Rose." Annual wind graphs and tabular data for 284 selected airport stations are included in the 18 volumes of this publication. The 3-hourly wind data for each airport are presented as annual wind graphs (wind rose) and wind tabulations for six day and night ceiling-visibility Classes. Also presented is an annual all hours all ceiling-visibility conditions wind graph. Wind directions are to 16 points and wind speeds are in miles per hour. The seven classes are as follows: Class 1 = ceiling equal to or greater than 1,500 feet and visibility equal to or greater than 3 miles. Class 2 = ceiling less than 1,500 feet and/or visibility less than 3 miles. Class 3 = ceiling less than 1,500 feet and/or visibility less than 3 miles, but ceiling equal to or greater than 400 feet and visibility equal to or greater than 1 mile. Class 4 = ceiling less than 400 feet and/or visibility less than 1 mile, but ceiling equal to or greater than 200 feet and visibility equal to or greater than 1/2 mile. Class 5 = ceiling less than 200 feet and/or visibility less than 1/2 mile, but ceiling equal to or greater than 100 feet and visibility equal to or greater than 1/4 mile. Class 6 = ceiling less than 100 feet and/or visibility less than 1/4 mile. Class 7 = all ceiling and visibility conditions, sums of Classes 1 and 2, also the sum of Classes 1 and 3 through 6. The contents of this publication consists of 11 volumes: Vol. 1 - New England Region Vol. 2 - Eastern Region Vol. 3 - Southern Region Vol. 4 - Great Lakes Region Vol. 5 - Central Region Vol. 6 - Southwest Region Vol. 7 - Rocky Mountain Region Vol. 8 - Northwest Region Vol. 9 - Western Region Vol. 10 - Alaskan and Pacific Regions Vol. 11 - Visibility Time Series for Key Stations.

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Wind Summary Index

Abstract: An earlier publication called Index-Summarized Wind Data (M. Changery, W. T. Hedge, September 1977) was prepared as an aid in the identification of wind summaries filed in the NCDC archives. Wind Summary Index (N. P. McGuirk, June 1984) is an updated inventory of that earlier publication. The Wind Summary Index is a guide to the various types of wind summaries forthe U. S. and Puerto Rico filed in the NCDC archives prior to 1984. It does not present the actual summaries nor original wind data. It is alphabetical by state, and lists by station: 1) the type of wind summaries, 2) the periods of record summarized, 3) the frequency of the summaries (monthly, seasonal, annual, or combination thereof), and 4) the latitude, longitude, and elevation of the station during each period of record summarized.

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Winds Aloft Charts

Abstract: These winds aloft charts (6-hourly or 12-hourly) were prepared by the National Meteorological Center now known as National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and archived on 35-mm microfilm by the NCDC. Data contains plotted stations wind direction (36 points) and speed (knots) as wind barbs. The altitude of the plotted winds varies, almost year to year. The charts were for 03 and 15 GMT (some years had additional 09 and 21 GMT) from March 1942 to May 1957. From June 1957 to present the charts were for 00, and 12 GMT (some years had additional 06 and 18 GMT data).

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