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Marine Metadata




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Dataset 1100: Surface Marine Observations

Abstract: This data file contains surface marine observational data obtained from numerous and varied sources. DSI-1100 was derived from a variety of punched card decks. Observations were obtained from Ship Logs, Ship Weather Reporting Forms, published Ship Observations, Automatic Observing Buoys, Teletype Reports and on cards purchased from several foreign Meteorological Services. The quality of instruments ranges from those found aboard a 19th century Whaling Ship to the most sophisticated electronic equipment used on today's ocean Weather Ships. Observer qualifications vary from Deck Hand to trained Meteorologist. Over 31 million Surface Marine observations are currently in this dataset. They are filed by 10 Mardsen Square, Year, Month without regard to individual deck number. The major parameters that make up this file are ship position (latitude, longitude), wind direction (degrees to 10ths), wind speed (knots), visibility (coded), present and past weather (coded), sea level pressure (mb), dry bulb, wet bulb, dewpoint, sea surface temperature, air-sea temperature difference (Deg. C), total cloud amount (oktas), and wave and sea swell heights (1/2 meters) and periods (coded, seconds).

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Dataset 1117: U.S. Surface Hourly Marine Data

Abstract: The Navy Marine Surface Observations dataset is a historical dataset archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Observations were recorded on WBAN 11A and 11B forms. Major parameters include temperature, dew point, wet bulb, wind speed, present weather, visibility, ceiling height, sea surface temperature, wave direction, and cloud types. These observations began in 1952 and continued through June of 1964 and cover the entire globe.

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Dataset 1118: Japanese Ship Observations

Abstract: Japanese Ship Observations (DSI-1118) is a historical digital data set in archive at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Data are from ocean areas wherever Japanese ships operated, from 1933 to 1953. Parameters included in this dataset are: wind direction, pressure, temperature of air and sea, cloud type, high, middle and low, visibility, sea and swell direction and height, ice descriptions and special phenomena.

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Dataset 1127: Surface Marine Observations - 1970's

Abstract: The major parameters making up this file are sky condition, visibility, present and past weather, wind speed and direction, temperatures (both sea and air), sea and swell wave data, and pressure data. This marine data file contains data from ship logs, ship weather reporting forms, published ship observations, automatic observing buoys and teletype reports from the U.S. and several foreign meteorological services. The 1970's decade files were sorted and inventoried by 10 degree marsden squares (gridded map of the marsden square numbering system can be obtained from NCDC). Much of the processing software, including quality control tests, were originally developed for the first GARP global experiment (FGGE) project at the NCDC.

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Dataset 1129: Monthly Marine Observations

Abstract: From 1983-85 a joint project was undertaken to collect all available marine data sets of reasonable quality and combine them into one database. Members of the joint project included the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), Environmental Research Laboratory (ERL), National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES). The latter three participants are located in Boulder, Colorado and are referred to collectively as the Boulder Group in this document. The Boulder Group has produced several data files and statistical summaries for the period 1854-1979.The period of record of the current database includes the years 1854 through the present. Data received at the NCDC after 1982 are in 1129 format regardless of data year. Users requesting marine data from the NCDC will receive 1129 formatted data for 1970 through the present year.

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Dataset 1138: Marine Buoy Data

Abstract: Moored buoys are the weather sentinels of the sea. They are deployed in the coastal and offshore waters from the western Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean around Hawaii, and from the Bearing Sea to the South Pacific. The major parameters that make up this data file are: air and dew point temperature (Deg. C to 10ths), sea level pressure (MB to 10ths), wind direction (degrees to 10ths), wind speed (meters/sec. to hundredths), current weather (coded), visibility (nautical miles to 10ths), precipitation (accumulation in mm), solar radiation (if available, in Langleys per minute), sea surface temperature (Deg. C to hundredths), significant wave height (meters to 10ths) and average wave period (seconds to 10ths). Also included are wave spectra data including frequency (center frequency of interval in Hertz to thousandths), resolution (resolution of interval in Hertz to ten-thousandths), and density (spectral density of interval in M5424/Hz to thousandths).

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Dataset 1148: Navy Marine Surface Observations

Abstract: The National Climatic Data Center has is its archive the historical dataset DS-1148 (Navy Marine Surface Observations). Major parameters include temperature, dew point, sea surface temperature, wind speed and direction, and cloud, wave and swell data. The coverage area includes the entire globe and data begins in 1915 and continues through 1975. Get the documentation in Word or PDF

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Dataset 1149: SEAS Marine Observations

Abstract: Shipboard Environmental Data Acquisition System (SEAS) transmits data through either the GOES or INMARSAT C satellites to NOAA for use in weather, climatology and ocean models. The satellite transmitted observations are recorded and quality controlled on a shipboard computer. The data are electronically transferred by the National Ocean Service (NOS) to the NCDC for further quality control and archive.

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Dataset 1165: Tropical Pacific Moored Buoy Data

Abstract: The Tropical Pacific Moored Buoy data set contains the meteorological and oceanographic data obtained from the ATLAS (Autonomous Temperature Line Acquisition System). This set is from the early years of the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) project of the Pacific Marine Environment Laboratory (PMEL), which is still ongoing today. However, NCDC has data only for 1984-92. There was one reporting buoy in 1984. The numbers had increased to 53 by 1992. The ATLAS mooring is a taut wire surface mooring with a toroidal float. It is deployed in depths of up to 6000 meters. Measurements from the mooring include surface variables (wind, air and sea surface temperature), as well as subsurface temperatures down to a depth of 500 meters.

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Dataset 1168: National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) Drifting Buoys

Abstract: According to the U.S. Toga Drifting Buoy Logistics Plan, August 1986, the Southern Hemisphere Drifting Buoy System (SHDBS) consists of three basic components. They are the buoy platforms with their sensors and electronics, the TIROS-N/ARGOS Data Collection Platform Location System (DCPLS) and the Data Processing Center. As the NOAA/TIROS-N polar orbiting satellite pass within line-of-sight of a buoy, the ARGOS DCPLS aboard the satellites receive telemetry from the buoy. This telemetry contains an identification number, the sensor data (atmospheric pressure, air and sea surface temperatures), and information necessary for deriving buoy position. Upon receipt of this information by the ground processing system, the data are processed and then transmitted on the Global Telecommunications System (GTS) for operational analysis and incorporated into the (INTERNATIONAL) TROPICAL OCEANS GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC (PROGRAM) TOGA research data sets.

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Dataset 1169: COADS Monthly Summary

Abstract: Global marine data observed during 1854-1979, primarily by ships-of-opportunity, have been collected, edited, and summarized statistically for each month of each year of the period, using 2 latitude X 2 longitude boxes. Each of the 70 million unique reports contains 28 elements of weather, position, etc., as well as flags indicating which observation were statistically trimmed. The summaries give 14 statistics, such as the median and mean, for each of eight observed variables of air and sea surface temperatures, wind, pressure, humidity, and cloudiness, plus 11 derived variables. Relatively noisy (untrimmed) individual reports and summaries (giving 14 statistics for each of the eight observed variables) are available for investigators who prefer their own quality control. Two other report forms, inventories, and decade-month summaries are among the other data products available.

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Dataset 1170: Surface Marine Data

Abstract: In the late 19th century, many maritime countries began the task of keying the vast array of ship logbooks which had accumulated over the years onto punch cards. Unfortunately, very little coordination among maritime countries existed during that time, resulting in each data set being keypunched in an entirely different format, and with different coding practices. In the 1940s and 1950s, the United States began acquiring these sets of historical ship observations. As each collection of punch cards was received, it was assigned a unique three digit number called a card deck or deck number. When these data were received by the United States and converted into a common format, random or systematic errors crept into the database. In the 1960s, it was decided to convert all these independent card decks into one common format (TD-1100). By the late 1960s, over fifteen independent card decks were at NCDC totaling over 30 million ship observations. Each card deck had certain unique characteristics and observing methods. In January 1981, a cooperative project was planned to create a consistent and easily used historical record of surface marine data for the period 1854-1979 (Woodruff, et al., 1987). Members of this project were the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), Environmental Research Laboratories, the cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The culmination of four years of work resulted in the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) (Slutz, et al., 1985, hereafter referred to as COADS Release 1). One of the many products of COADS was a unique set of surface marine ship reports in a modified DS-1129 format covering the period 1854-1979 (DS-1170).

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Dataset 1171: Buoy Moored and Coastal Marine

Abstract: The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) processes data from selected US buoys and Coastal Marine Automated Stations (C MAN). The data are sent to the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) monthly in File Type 191 format. The data are stored in DSI 1138 and contain environmental data, subsurface data, wave spectra and directional data. The environmental data are selected from these tapes, used to produce monthly summaries for Mariners Weather Log (MWL), and stored in a separate file for user services. In 1987, a new File Type 191 was developed by NDBC to record 10 minute scalar average winds. At NCDC, a new archive format was designed to store the data, MWL tables were revised, and inventories and listings of buoy data on microfiche were modified. Buoy and C MAN station data observed prior to 1980 are stored in DSI 1129. From October 1979 onward, buoy and C MAN station data from NDBC are stored in a separate file, DSI 1171. Buoy and C MAN observations received through telecommunications at the National Meteorological Center (NMC) are stored in the main DSI 1129 marine file.

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Dataset 1173: ICOADS

Abstract: International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) includes digital data set DSI-1173, archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). ICOADS is the world's largest collection of marine surface in situ observations (and monthly summary products, see http://icoads.noaa.gov) with 261 million marine reports for 1662 through 2007. Each report contains individual observations of meteorological and oceanographic variables, such as sea surface and air temperatures, winds, pressure, humidity, wet bulb, dew point, ocean waves and cloudiness.

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Dataset 1183: International Maritime Meteorological Tape (IMMT) Global Collection Centers

Abstract: The IMMT format is the standard for marine meteorological data exchange around the world, and is approved by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). At NCDC, the data may be stored on digital media other than tapes, but the 131 character record format typical of IMMT remains. Data consists of moving and stationary ship observations from the seas and oceans of the world. Data includes: Ship location, course and speed Date and time Wind direction and speed Sea wave height and period Predominant sea swell height, period and direction Secondary sea swell height, period and direction Cloud types, heights, and amounts Visibility Precipitation Air temperature Dew point temperature Wet bulb temperature Sea temperature Sea level pressure Pressure tendency Present weather Past weather primary and secondary Ice accretion thickness and rate Sea ice development, concentration, motion, and bearing.

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Dataset 3620: Coastal Zone Color Scanner

Abstract: CZCS was a multi-spectral line scanner devoted principally to measurements of ocean color, which operated from November 2, 1978 to June 22, 1986. It had six spectral bands (channels), four of which were devoted to ocean color, each having a 20 nanometer bandwidth and centered at 443, 520, 550, and 670 nanometers. These are referred to as channels 1 through 4, respectively. Channel 5 sensed reflected solar radiance and had a 100 nanometer bandwidth centered at 750 nanometers and a dynamic range which was more suited to land. Channel 6 operated in the 10.5 to 12.5 micrometer region and sensed emitted thermal radiance for derivation of equivalent black body temperature. The Coastal Zone Color Scanner was a multi-spectral line scanner developed by NASA to measure ocean color as a means of determining chlorophyll concentrations and the distributions of particulate matter and dissolved substances.

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Dataset 3810: TOGA COARE Intense Observing Period Surface Observations

Abstract: This dataset is a compilation of all the surface observations from various observation platforms during the Intense Observing Period (IOP) of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE). This experiment was designed to investigate the structure of the coupled system of the warm pool of the western Pacific and the atmosphere, to improve the ability to model this coupled system. Measured variables include air temperature, sea temperature, wet-bulb temperature, dew point temperature, wind direction, wind speed, relative humidity, specific humidity and precipitation.

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Dataset 6105: NMC Global GTS Surface Marine

Abstract: The major parameters in DS-6105 are sea level and station pressure, wind direction and speed, temperature and dew point temperature depression, previous 24-hour maximum and minimum temperatures, weather, total sky cover, past 6 and 24-hour precipitation, sea surface temperature, sea and swell heights, and periods. The National Meteorological Center (NMC) Global Telecommunication System (GTS) data is a collection of those observations used to initialize the NMC global forecast model. NMC places the data on disc at each main synoptic hour; 00Z, 06Z, 12Z, and 18Z. The data is then placed on magnetic tape every seven days (5 days for the Surface/Marine) and sent to the NCDC.

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Dataset 6110: NCEP Charts

Abstract: The National Climatic Data Center archives weather charts that are produced by the U.S. National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The charts are the most commonly used by the climate community because they provide a quick historical reference concerning weather conditions on selected dates. They can also be used to geographically locate and date a series of weather phenomena and events. These charts consist of analyses and forecasts of all mandatory levels of the atmosphere. Get the documentation in 6110.doc or 6110.pdf

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Dataset 6116: GTS NCEP PREPBUFR Data

Abstract: This is one of several sets of model data from NCEP that are archived at NCDC. The files come from NCEP FNL (final) model runs for 00Z, 06Z, 12Z and 18Z, via the Global Telecommunications System (GTS), and contain all of the quality- controlled data that is input to the analysis for the model run. Data are in Binary Universal Form for the Representation of meteorological data (BUFR) format, a World Meteorological Organization (WMO) approved format. BUFR is a binary code desiged to represent any meteorological data. The final file (this data set) is a monolithic BUFR file known as PREPBUFR. All data types used by the model are present, including upper air, marine surface, aircraft reports (ACARS, AIRCAR), land surface, etc. Major parameters include location of data and particulars about the instruments; wind and turbulence information; temperature information including dry bulb, wet bulb, dew point, soil, etc.; hygrographic and hydrological information including precipitation, snow and snow depth, river stage, relative humidity, and others; radiation and radiance; ozone and air mass; synoptic features; present weather; oceanographic data including wave and swell and others; dispersal and transport; and radiological elements.

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Dataset 6147: TOGA COARE Data

Abstract: The Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) was a large international field experiment conducted in 1992-1993 to study the atmospheric and oceanic processes over the region of the western Pacific known as the "warm pool". This is the region of warm ocean and atmospheric clouds and precipitation that is linked to the El Nino climate variation. Data and data products generally covered the period July 1992 to June 1993 with an intensive observing period 1 November 1992 to 28 February 1993.

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Dataset 6150: Climate Analysis Center (CAC) Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Analyses

Abstract: The Climate Analysis Center's Sea Surface Temperature Data Set, referred to as "CAC SSTs", contains in situ SSTs, blended SSTs (in situ SSTs blended with AVHRR derived SSTs), blended anomalies, COADS/Ice SST Climatology, and Land/Sea Mask. The blended anomalies are produced by GSFC DAAC from the SST Climatology data provided by the Climate Analysis Center (renamed CPC - Climate Prediction Center). The in situ analyses cover 40 degrees south to 60 degrees north. All other gridded analyses are global. The values for Land/Sea Mask are available on a 0.5 X 0.5 degree latitude/longitude grid; all other gridded values are available on a 2 X 2 degree latitude/longitude grid. With the exception of the Land Mask, all gridded values are monthly means.

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Dataset 9507: Department of Energy Storm Occurrences

Abstract: The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) has, in archive, a historical digital database that contains information on synoptic storms and other climatological factors that affect coastlines and may be used by a vector-based ARC/INFO geographic information system (GIS), a raster GIS, or a non-GIS database. The data were extracted, compiled, or derived from publications and records obtained from the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U.S. Navy, foreign government agencies,universities, and other miscellaneous data sources. The dataset consists of the following data groups: annual probabilities of occurrence of tropical storms and hurricanes for coastal areas of the U.S., Canada, and Bermuda by 1 X 1 degree cells; annual probabilities of occurrence of tropical storms, hurricanes, super typhoons (winds 67 meters/second or greater), and mean forward velocities of tropical cyclones (without regard to tropical cyclone intensity) for the world by 5 X 5 degree cells; number of hurricanes strikes for the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts by state and Saffir-Simpson hurricane category; mean monthly and annual number of extratropical cyclogeneses and cyclone occurrences for the Northern Hemisphere by 5 X 5 degree cells; mean and/or relative number of cyclones (without regard to cyclone type) for January, July, and the year for the world by 5 X 5 degree cells; mean number of hours of cyclone occurrence (without regard to cyclone type) for January, July, and the year for the Southern Hemisphere by 5 X 5 degree cells; mean number of polar lows (polar air cloud vortices) per winter month for the North Pacific Ocean and Southern Hemisphere by 5 X 5 degree cells; derived index of the influence of winds on coastlines in the African, Asian, and Australian monsoon regions by 1 X 1 degree cells; and mean annual sea-ice concentrations for Alaskan and U.S. coastal areas by 1 X 1 degree cells. Get the documentation in 9507 Word or 9507 PDF

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Dataset 9614: Aerosol Observation File

Abstract: In this data set, each aerosol observation file contains eight days of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) observations containing an optical thickness parameter calculated from the Griggs algorithm. The SSTs in these observations are "aerosol-corrected" SSTs, but the uncorrected SSTs are also contained within the observation. This data file consists of 4002 physical records, each with a length of 13024 bytes. The area of coverage is global and begins in 1989.

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Dataset 9616: Cyclone Tracks - Extratropical N. Hemisphere

Abstract: The major data variables and parameters are twelve hour positions with direction and speed of movements. The extratropical cyclone movements were digitized from NMC 6-hourly northern hemisphere cyclone position maps. However, the file only contains the 12-hourly positions. A related file is 9629 (C00290) which was prepared for all pressure centers (cyclones and anti cyclones) from the Northern Hemisphere historical map series for the period January 1899 through June 1939.

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Dataset 9628: Cyclone Intensity - Northern Hemisphere

Abstract: The dataset consists of storm intensity derived from the 40 year series, Northern Hemisphere Historical Map Series, source 005. The maps used were for the 15 year period 1924 through 1938. The part of the Northern Hemisphere used in this data is outlined by the following Marsden squares: (numbers are inclusive) 074-082, 109- 117, 140-153, 176-190, 214-226, 248-252 and 284-288 in the North Atlantic; and 093-097, 121-132, 157-167, 194-203, 233-235 in the North Pacific Ocean. The year, month, day, and location (by Marsden square number) were punched for each low pressure area occurring within the geographical boundaries outlined above. The isobaric difference between the center of each low pressure area and a point 400 statute miles from the center was computed separately for each of the four directions: North, East, South and West. Wind velocities to the nearest Beaufort Force were taken directly from plotted data on the map when available and when considered representative.

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Dataset 9630: Atlantic Basin and North American Hurricane Database Re-analysis Project

Abstract: This dataset consists of a re-analysis of the Atlantic basin tropical storm and hurricane database for the period of 1851 to the present time. This reworking and extension back in time of the main archive for tropical cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico was necessary to correct systematic and random errors and biases in the data as well as well as to incorporate the most recent historical analyses. The re-analysis project provides the revised tropical storm and hurricane database, a metadata file detailing individual changes for each tropical cyclone, a center fix file of raw tropical cyclone observations, a collection of U.S. landfalling tropical storms and hurricanes, and comments from replies to the National Hurricane Centers Best Track Change Committee. This record also contains comprehensive information on the only hurricane that has directly impacted the California Coast (1858) and A Re-analysis of Hurricane Andrew's Intensity (1992). HURDAT (hurricane database) is the official record of tropical storms and hurricanes for the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea and includes those that have made landfall within the United States. This database is utilized for a wide variety of purposes: setting of appropriate building codes for coastal zones, risk assessment for emergency managers, analysis of potential losses for insurance and business interests, intensity forecasting techniques, verification of official and model predictions of track and intensity, seasonal forecasting, and climatic change studies.

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Dataset 9632: Tropical Cyclone Data - North Atlantic

Abstract: The major parameters that make up this file are; sequential numbers of each storm, time, location, stage of storm, direction, speed of movement, type of movement and maximum wind speed. A number is assigned to each tropical storm day. These numbers are assigned in sequential order, beginning with the first tropical storm day in 1886. There are two cards for each assigned storm day number. Card no. 1 contains the 7am data. Card no. 2 contains the 7pm data. The 24-hour displacement of the center of tropical cyclones are computed using the 7am position or 7pm position, respectively. The 24-hour displacement is given for each card , when available. 12-hour movements are also given. The 12-hour displacements of the center of tropical cyclones are computed using the 7am position or 7pm position, respectively. Three 12-hour displacements are given on each card for each day listed, when available.

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Dataset 9664: TOGA Level III

Abstract: In order to understand better the tropical ocean/atmosphere system and its effect on the climate at higher latitudes, the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program was initiated in 1985 and extends over a ten-year period. TOGA is part of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP). The WCRP was established by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), with the objective to determine to what extent the climate can be predicted and the extent of man's influence on climate. ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) created level III-A atmospheric data in support of projects associated with the World Climate Research Program (WCRP). This archive is directly interpolated from the ECMWF operational, full resolution, surface and pressure level data.

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Dataset 9665: TOGA IMMT Format

Abstract: The TOGA program is a major component of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) aimed specifically at the prediction of climate phenomena on time scales of months to years. The philosophy upon which TOGA is based purposefully emphasizes the tropical oceans and their relationship to the global atmosphere. Underlying TOGA is the premise that the dynamic adjustment of the ocean in the tropics is far more rapid than at higher latitudes. Thus disturbances emanating from the western Pacific Ocean (such as El Nino) may propagate across the basin on time scales of weeks compared to years for corresponding basin-wide propagation at higher latitudes. The significance of shorter dynamic times scales near the equator is that they are similar to those of highly energetic atmospheric modes. This similarity allows the formation of coupled modes between the ocean and the atmosphere. Parameters included in this data set are upper level and surface variables.

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Dataset 9670-9677: BOMEX

Abstract: This document describes the data available from the BOMEX Permanent Archive, a depository for data collected during the Barbados Oceanographic and Meteorological Experiment (BOMEX) in 1969. Parameters included in this dataset are: boundary layer and surface air temperature, wet bulb temperature, humidity, and winds;clouds; visibility; precipitation; sea surface temperature; and waves. Procedures used in data processing are described, and an inventory of the archived data is given. With the cooperation of the Government of Barbados and with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration as lead agency, the Barbados Oceanographic and Meteorological Experiment (BOMEX) was conducted over the tropical Atlantic East of Barbados in the summer of 1969. The field operations for this multiagency national study of the ocean-atmosphere system were divided into four observation periods: May 3 to 15, May 24 to June 10, June 19 to July 2, and July 11 to July 28. The first three were devoted to the Sea Air Interaction Program--the BOMEX 'Core Experiment'--within a 500-km by 500-km square ship array. During the fourth period, the array was extended southward to incorporate the Intertropical Convergence Zone.

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Dataset 9679: TOGA Sea Surface Temperatures

Abstract: The TOGA Sea Surface Temperature dataset is a historical dataset archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This dataset is a global monthly sea surface temperature analysis which uses real-time in situ (ship and buoy) and satellite data. The method combines the advantages of both types of data: the ground truth of in situ data and the improved coverage of satellite data. The technique also effectively eliminates most of the bias differences between the in situ and satellite data. The analysis of the monthly mean global SST is on a 2-degree latitude-longitude grid for the 10-year TOGA period (1985-1994). Three analyses were produced by the U.S. National Meteorological Center (NMC): an in situ, a satellite, and a "blended" analysis.

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Dataset 9680: GATE

Abstract: The GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) was the first major international experiment of the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP). It was conducted over the tropical Atlantic and adjacent land areas under the joint auspices of the World Meteorological Organization and the International Council of Scientific Unions. The purpose of the GATE experiment was to understand the tropical atmosphere and its role in the global circulation of the atmosphere. It was the first major experiment of the Global Atmospheric Research program, whose goal was to understand the predictability of the atmosphere and extend the time range of daily weather forecasts to over two weeks. The experiment took place in the summer of 1974 in an experimental area that covered the tropical Atlantic Ocean from Africa to South America. The work was truly international in scope, and involved 40 research ships, 12 research aircraft, numerous buoys from 20 countries all equipped to obtain the observations specified in the scientific plan.

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Dataset 9682: FGGE General

Abstract: The idea of an intensive, prolonged, global, atmospheric observing experiment was conceived early in the development of the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP). This concept was later formalized by the Joint Organizing Committee (JOC) for GARP when it recommended to the executive committee of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and to the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) the implementation of a twelve-month global observing experiment to be called the FGGE. The NCDC can provide information of FGGE data transferred from designated FGGE collection centers throughout the world. Information is also available on selected national archives data that are not a part of The NCDC.

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Dataset 9697: Cyclone Tracks

Abstract: The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) maintains a computer file on North Atlantic tropical cyclones. The file contains dates, tracks, wind speeds, and central pressure values (if available) for all tropical cyclones occurring over the 110-year period, 1886 through 1996 and is updated annually.

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Dataset 9757: U.S. Navy Marine Climatic Atlas

Abstract: The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) offers the NCDC U.S. Navy DS-9757 Marine Climatic Atlas, monthly for 1850-1970. Surface Variables include: eight-point wind roses and means and standard deviations for wind force (speed), pressure, temperature, wet bulb, dewpoint, sea surface temperature, air-sea temperature difference and wave height. Also included are light and heavy superstructure icing potentials and the frequency of gales. This dataset covers January 1850 - December 1970. The period of record varies slightly depending on the ocean basin. It covers the globe with a latitude/longitude grid with 1-degree resolution and 5-degree resolution.

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Dataset 9781: World Marine Surface Atlas - Digitized Isopleths

Abstract: The major data variables and parameters are means and standard deviations of wind, pressure, air temperature, dew point temperature, sea temperature, air-sea temperature difference, and wave heights. The data base came from the marine atlas files that were generated to produce the 5 volume series of U.S. Navy Marine Climatic Atlas of the World.

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Dataset 9786: Spectral Ocean Wave Parameterized

Abstract: In December 1974 the Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center (FLENUMOCEANCEN) in conjunction with the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) adopted the Spectral Ocean Wave Model (SOWM) developed by Dr. Willard J. Pierson and others to produce the operational spectral wave data for the Northern Hemisphere. The SOWM is a computer-based procedure that produces a directional variance spectrum at specified grid points spaced at up to 180 nautical mile intervals. This spectrum defines the sea surface at each grid point through a two-dimensional (direction/frequency) matrix of 12 directions and 15 frequency bands. This atlas contains climatological summaries for seven parameters. Four of these parameters have already been summarized in other climatic atlases (U.S. Navy, 1974 and 1987). These include wind speed and direction,significant wave height (hereafter referred to as the wave height), and wave direction, i.e., the direction from which the highest waves are moving (hereafter referred to as primary wave direction). The other three parameters contained in the wave climate summaries for this atlas are: wave slope parameter, model wave period, and directionality of the waves (hereafter referred to as the directionality). Data in this atlas are derived using winds and waves from the period January 1973 to December 1982, i.e., 10 years.

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Dataset 9797: Global Spectral Ocean Wave Model

Abstract: The major data variables which make up this file are: beginning of record flag, time information, ocean basin, grid point, sub-projection, wind direction, friction velocity, white caps, wind speed, array position, and wave energy. The Global Spectral Wave Model (GSOWM) is based on a 2.5 by 2.5 degree latitude/longitude grid beginning at 90 (deg N) and 60 (deg E). This model removes artificial boundaries that were in the other SOWM models. The Global Spectral Wave Model replaced the Northern Hemisphere Spectral Wave Ocean Model (SOWM) on June 23, 1985.

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Dataset 9938: Polar Ice Data

Abstract: Polar Ice is digital data set DS-9938, archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). It is also available as a CD-ROM. It is a joint NCDC, US Navy, and National Ice Center (NIC) product. DS-9938 contains weekly ice data in the "International Sea Ice in the Digital Form" (SIGRID) format for 1972-1994 for the Arctic and 1973-1994 for the Antarctic. The SIGRID format was designed to meet the sea ice requirements of large scale climate and statistical studies. The .25 degree grid structure includes total ice concentration, thickness stage, and form of ice for the complete period of record.

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Dataset 9958: Sea Ice Charts

Abstract: Sea Ice Charts is digital data set DS-9958, archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This is sea ice charts and data. Data was derived from remote sensed data and observations. RADARSAT, DMSP/OLS, NOAA/TIROS, and DMSP/SSM/I sensors comprised the majority of the sensors used in the analysis. The data contains information pertaining to the concentration of sea ice in the Arctic and Southern Oceans and marginal seas. The data also contains estimates of ice thickness through the use of satellite data and theoretical methods. The data also includes the forms of sea ice, whether it is in belts and strips or if the ice is fasted (connected) to the coast. NCDC has in archive data since 1995. Data includes total ice concentration; partial concentrations, forms, and stages of development of thickest, second thickest, and third thickest forms of ice; predominant and secondary forms of ice; and stage of development of any remaining class of ice not otherwise reported. If you are using a recent version of Microsoft Internet Explorer, you can view the 9958 complete document

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Dataset 9973: Pre-MOPS Marine Data (Raw)

Abstract: The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) data base file name is Marine Data. In the late 1960's marine data stored on punched cards were written to magnetic tape in various TD-11 formats. An edited version of these data were used to produce marine atlases and are generally referred to as Atlas tapes (DS-9760) or pre-70's data. In 1980 and 1982 all available marine data for the 1970's decade were merged in a standard format and known errors were removed. The first merge (1980) was referred to as the 70's rehab or DS-1127. Data were stored in a 140 character common format. The 1982 merge was completed to add additional data for the 70's period, correct other errors in the data and provide a format that would accommodate the 1982 international code changes. These 1970's data are referred to as 70's Decade data or DS-1129. They are in a 148 character format that is also used in current processing. The period of record of the current data base includes the years 1854 through the present. Get the documentation in 9973 Word or 9973 PDF

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