Climate Monitoring / Climate of 2001 / November / Help

Climate of 2001 - November
Including Fall 2001
Global Regional Analysis

National Climatic Data Center, 14 December 2001

Global Analysis / Global Regional / United States / U.S. Drought / Extreme Events / Climate Indices
Use these links to access detailed analyses of Global and U.S. data.
Satellite image of a storm system which brought floods to Algeria
Algerian Floods

Contents of This Report:
  • Special Highlight
  • Asia
  • Europe
  • Australia
  • Africa
  • North and Central America
  • South America

  • This is a break in the document

    Top of Page Special Highlight

    A vigorous storm system brought very heavy rains to parts of Algeria during the 10th-11th, resulting in the worst floods in nearly 40 years for the north African nation. The flooding killed over 700 people and rendered up to 50,000 individuals homeless. While the November average monthly rainfall for Algiers is 93 mm (3.7 inches), the Algerian National Meteorology Office reported more than 100 mm (4 inches) of rain in Algiers in only a few hours.

    This is a break in the document

    Top of Page Asia (PDF map image)

    A general upper level ridge of high pressure promoted warmer than average temperatures across a large portion of central Asia, with much of southern Siberia, Mongolia and northern China experiencing below average snow cover for the fall season.

    The Europe/Asia snow cover loop
    Click for loop

    The Central Asian temperatures
    larger image

    Temperatures across this region were 1-3°C (1.8-5.4°F) above the 1992-2001 mean, with relatively cooler temperatures restricted to the southeast China coast southward into Laos and Thailand.

    Lingling developed near the Philippines around the 6th and strengthened to typhoon intensity as it moved westward across the South China Sea. The typhoon made landfall along the central coast of Vietnam on the 11th with maximum sustained wind speeds near 95 knots (~49 m/s or ~110 mph). The storm passed through the central provinces of Binh Dinh and Phu Yen and was one of the worst typhoons to hit the country in 15 years, killing 26 people and leaving 13,000 people homeless. Flooding rains killed over 170 people across the Philippines as Lingling was in its formative stages.

    A satellite image of typhoon Lingling
    larger image

    Top of Page Europe (PDF map image)

    During the month of November, a strong upper level ridge of high pressure across the eastern North Atlantic promoted drier and milder weather across extreme western Europe. The UK Met Office reported that England and Wales had the driest November since 1989 and the mildest autumn since 1978. The majority of Europe north of 50 degrees north latitude experienced temperatures that were near to or above average during fall.

    The European Temperature map
    larger image
    The precipitation time series for Porto, Portugal
    larger image
    Some of the driest conditions during November were across Portugal, where monthly precipitation deficiencies were near 150 mm (5.91 inches). Very little precipitation fell in Porto, Portugal, with only 2.3 mm (0.09 inches) recorded. Normal November rainfall in Porto is 152 mm (5.98 inches). Very dry conditions extended throughout much of the Mediterranean region, also reaching into Switzerland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Turkey.

    Top of Page Australia (PDF map imge)

    The Australian blended temperature for November
    larger image
    November temperatures were near to or below the 1992-2001 average across the majority of Australia, with negative anomalies of 1-2°C (1.8-3.6°F) throughout most of the Northern Territory and South Australia. Similar temperature distributions dominated the austral spring, with below average temperatures across the center of the continent and positive temperature anomalies restricted to the east coast and Tasmania. For more information on Australian weather and climate, see the Australian Bureau of Meteorology web site.

    Broad areas of low pressure dominated the northern parts of Australia during November, resulting in above average rainfall totals in many of these areas. Frontal systems interacted with tropical moisture to also produce wetter than normal conditions across southern Western Australia. Rainfall in Brisbane was double the normal monthly amount. Farther south in New South Wales, a storm system pelted Sydney with strong winds gusting to 29 m/s (65 mph) on the 20th, causing power outages and resulting in at least 2 deaths. Australian Premier Bob Carr declared parts of the region a disaster area. Rainfall deficiencies eased across much of Queensland, but persisted across much of Western Australia.

    The precipitation time series for Brisbane, Australia during November

    Top of Page Africa (PDF map image)

    Drier than average weather persisted during September-November across parts of Somalia and Ethiopia where long-term drought continued. The United Nations appealed for humanitarian aid for nearly 800,000 Somalis who have been most affected by the drought. An autumnal southward shift of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) defined areas of heavier precipitation across the Congo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), parts of Cameroon, Uganda and Nigeria where seasonal anomalies were 25-100 mm (0.98-3.94 inches) above the 1979-1995 CAMS mean. Persistent heavy rains in the Ugandan district of Mbarara were often accompanied by strong winds and hail, destroying many bean and banana plantations.

    CPC/CAMS precipitation estimates from IRI
    CAMS precipitation estimates

    Heavy rains which persisted across much of Botswana and South Africa since September continued through November, with over 200 mm (7.9 inches) recorded at East London, South Africa. Farther to the east various media outlets reported flooding in the Mozambique capital of Maputo with heavy rains occurring during the 16th-18th. November rainfall in Maputo totaled nearly 300 mm (11.8 inches) which is more than three times the long-term average.

    The blended temperatures for Africa
    larger image
    During November, temperatures were 1-3°C (1.8-5.4°F) above average across the sub-Saharan region, with cooler than average temperatures restricted to the south African nations, where clouds and rain kept temperatures in check.

    Top of Page North and Central America (PDF map image)

    The North American blended temperature map
    larger image
    A vigorous upper level ridge of high pressure that was centered just west of the Great Lakes brought unseasonably warm weather to much of the United States and Canada during November. Temperatures ran more than 4°C (7.2°F) above the 1992-2001 mean across a large area of the northern Plains and Midwest.

    A fast Pacific jet stream brought a parade of storm systems into the Northwest, resulting in repeated bouts of heavy rains and mountain snows. Many areas of the West that had been experiencing severe long-term drought received significant precipitation during the month of November, ending a prolonged stretch of dry weather. Farther east, severe weather which affected the Mid-South region during the 23rd and again on the 24th was followed by significant flooding on the 28th-29th. Memphis, Tennessee recorded their 24 hour/50-year rainfall event with 5.86 inches (149 mm) observed. Dry weather in November intensified the drought along the eastern seaboard, with little significant precipitation falling until the last week of the month.

    Infrared satellite image of hurricane Michelle
    larger image
    In the Atlantic, hurricane Michelle developed as a tropical depression along the east coast of Nicaragua on October 29th and reached hurricane intensity by November 2nd. Michelle continued to strengthen, and made landfall along the south coast of Cuba on the 4th. Maximum sustained winds at the time of landfall were 135 mph (~60 m/s or 115 knots) making Michelle a category-4 hurricane and the strongest hurricane to strike Cuba since 1952. Michelle was responsible for 5 deaths, destroyed at least 2,000 homes and left nearly half the island nation without power, according to the Associated Press.

    Two other Atlantic hurricanes formed in November (Olga and Noel), although they did not directly impact any land areas. This marks the first time in recorded history that three hurricanes have formed in the Atlantic basin during the month of November.

    Top of Page South America (PDF map image)

    A precipitation time series for Buenos Aires, Argentina
    larger image
    Heavy rains that have plagued the Pampas region of Argentina during the last 4 months continued during November, causing delays in planting between five and six million hectares (~12-15 million acres) of land due to flooding. Some of the worst flooding in many years resulted in the evacuation of over 6,000 people from the Buenos Aires province. September-November precipitation in Buenos Aires was nearly 150 percent of normal, with around 400 mm (15.8 inches) of rain. A week of heavy rains caused flooding and mudslides in eastern Brazil's Espirito Santo state, resulting in at least 5 deaths and displacing 5,000 from their homes.
    An upper level trough of low pressure was responsible for slightly cooler than average temperatures in southern Argentina and Chile, with clouds and rainfall restricting warmth farther north in central Argentina. Elsewhere, temperatures were 1-2°C (1.8-3.6°F) above average in extreme northern Argentina and Paraguay, as well as parts of northern and eastern Brazil. The South American blended temperature map
    larger image

    Top of Page References:

    Basist, A., N.C. Grody, T.C. Peterson and C.N. Williams, 1998: Using the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager to Monitor Land Surface Temperatures, Wetness, and Snow Cover. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 37, 888-911.

    Peterson, Thomas C. and Russell S. Vose, 1997: An overview of the Global Historical Climatology Network temperature data base. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 78, 2837-2849.

    For all climate questions other than questions concerning this report, please contact the National Climatic Data Center's Climate Services Division:

    Climate Services Division
    NOAA/National Climatic Data Center
    151 Patton Avenue, Room 120
    Asheville, NC 28801-5001
    fax: 828-271-4876
    phone: 828-271-4800

    For more information, refer also to ...
    SSMI Derived Products
    Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN)
    The Blended GHCN - SSM/I Product
    The Global Temperature Anomalies
    CLIMVIS - Global Summary of the Day
    CAMS data provided by IRI
    Top of Page

    For further information on the historical climate perspective presented in this report, contact:

    Scott Stephens
    NOAA/National Climatic Data Center
    151 Patton Avenue
    Asheville, NC 28801-5001
    fax: 828-271-4328
    Jay Lawrimore
    NOAA/National Climatic Data Center
    151 Patton Avenue
    Asheville, NC 28801-5001
    fax: 828-271-4328
    Top of Page
    Climate Research / Climate of 2001 / November / Help