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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Climate of 2000 - July
U.S. Regional and Statewide Analyses
Includes Year-to-Date Summary
National Climatic Data Center, 15 August 2000
Standard Regions for Temperature and Precipitation
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Contents of This Report:

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Through climate analysis, National Climatic Data Center scientists have identified nine climatically consistent regions within the contiguous United States which are useful for putting current climate anomalies into an historical perspective.

Additional information about current climate anomalies can be found at the respective Web Pages of the Southern Regional Climate Center, Western Regional Climate Center, Midwest Regional Climate Center, Southeast Regional Climate Center, High Plains Regional Climate Center, and the Northeast Regional Climate Center.

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Top of Page July 2000 Statewide Ranks

July Tmp Map
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July 2000 was the coolest such month on record for Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Seven other states ranked within the top ten cool portion including
  • Delaware - 2nd coolest
  • Maryland - 2nd coolest
  • New York - 2nd coolest
  • Virginia - 3rd coolest

Fifteen additional states ranked within the cool third portion of the historical distribution for July 2000.

It was the 7th warmest July since 1895 for Utah, 9th warmest for Wyoming, and 10th warmest for Alabama. Thirteen additional states ranked within the warm third of the historical distribution.

It was the driest July on record for Texas, the 2nd driest July for Nevada and Utah, and the 3rd driest July since 1895 for Alabama and Mississippi. Eleven other states ranked within the dry third of the distribution.

Nineteen states ranked within the wet third portion of the distribution.

July Pcp Map
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Top of Page July Regional Highlights

Based upon preliminary data, July 2000 was the tenth warmest such month since 1895 for the Southwest region. Warm Region July
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Cool Region July
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Preliminary data indicate that July 2000 was the 3rd coolest such month since 1895 for the Northeast region.

It was the 32nd wettest July on record for the Northeast. A combination of abundant cloud cover and precipitation allowed the region to be not only wetter than normal, but cooler than normal as well (see above graphic). Wet Region July
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Dry Region July
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Preliminary data indicate that July 2000 was the fifth driest such month since 1895 for the West region.
Preliminary data indicate that precipitation for the growing season-to-date, March-July 2000, averaged slightly above the long-term mean for the Primary Corn and Soybean Belt. The last six such periods have been above the long-term mean. Ag. Belt Pcp March-July
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Top of Page January-July 2000 Statewide Ranks

Jan-July Tmp Map
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Forty-five states ranked within the warm third portion of the historical distribution for January-July 2000 while 18 states ranked within the top ten warm. It was the warmest such year-to-date on record for Texas, New Mexico and Utah. It was the second warmest year-to-date for:
  • Colorado
  • Nevada
  • Wyoming

No state ranked within the cool third of the historical distribution.

January-July 2000 was the second driest such period on record for Florida. Fourteen other states ranked within the dry third portion of the distribution.

It was the third wettest January-July on record for New York and the fourth wettest January-July on record for Vermont. Sixteen other states ranked within the wet third portion of the distribution.

Jan-July Pcp Map
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Top of Page January-July Regional Highlights

Warm Region 1-7
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Preliminary data indicate that January-July 2000 was the second warmest such period since 1895 for the South region. The last three such seven-month periods have been much above the long-term mean.

Preliminary data indicate that the year-to-date, January-July 2000, was the sixth wettest such period on record for the Northeast region. Three of the last five such periods have been much wetter than the long-term mean. Wet Region Jan-July
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Dry Region 1-7
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Preliminary data indicate that January-July 2000 was the 14th driest such period since 1895 for the Southeast region. Only two of the last twelve such periods have been much below the long-term mean.
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Top of Page Regional Drought Watch - July

The Palmer Z Index shows how monthly moisture conditions depart from normal (short-term drought and wetness). The July 2000 pattern shows areas of extremely dry conditions located throughout the Rockies and in southwestern and central Texas. Extremely dry conditions were also noted from southern Louisiana through eastern Mississippi, all of Alabama into western Georgia and the panhandle of Florida. Unusually wet conditions were located over south-central Kansas, portions of the Dakotas, northwestern Wisconsin, extreme southeastern Michigan and portions of upstate New York.
U.S. Animated Z
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The animated maps show the geographical pattern of the moisture anomalies for the last 12 months. On these maps, the red shading denotes dry conditions while the green shading indicates wet conditions.

The Palmer Drought Index maps show long-term (cumulative) drought and wet spell conditions. By the end of July 2000, long-term drought continued across a large part of the inter-mountain West and most of the Southeast from western South Carolina to central Texas. Patchy long-term wet conditions were found in New England and areas in the northern and southern Plains.
U.S. Animated PDI
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The animated maps show how the geographical pattern of the long-term moisture conditions has changed over the last 12 months. On these maps, the red shading denotes drought conditions while the green shading indicates wet conditions.

The Palmer Crop Moisture Index is computed on a weekly basis by the National Weather Service's Climate Prediction Center and is useful for following the impact of precipitation anomalies on agriculture. The animated Crop Moisture Index maps show the weekly change in topsoil moisture conditions for 2000 from March 4th through August 5th, the growing season-to-date.
U.S. Animated CMI
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The animated maps show how the geographical pattern of the long-term moisture conditions has changed over the last four months. On these maps, the red shading denotes dry conditions while the green shading indicates wet conditions.
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Top of Page The Drought In Georgia

The summer 2000 drought in the southeastern U.S. is one of the worst in the region's history. In Georgia, for example, wildfires increased during July, reservoirs dropped to dangerously low levels, and several cities were running out of water. Based on statewide averaged data, Georgia has experienced drought since mid-1998. Twenty-two of the last 27 months have had below-normal precipitation. The statewide aggregate Palmer Drought Index (PDI) indicates that this is the most severe drought since 1986. Based on the PDI, the state has been in continuous drought for the last two years, which is the longest period of uninterrupted drought since the 1950's.

Georgia PDI, 1/00-7/00
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Georgia Pcp, 1/98-7/00
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Top of Page The Drought In Florida

Drought conditions continue in Florida. Based upon preliminary data, November 1999 through July 2000 was the third driest such nine-month period since 1895 for Florida. Each of the last nine months and 21 of the last 31 months have had below normal rainfall while flows on most rivers in the panhandle of Florida remain well below ten percent of normal. As in Georgia, the statewide aggregate Palmer Drought Index (PDI) indicates that this is the most severe drought since 1986. Based on the PDI, the state has been in a near continuous drought for the last two years, which is the longest period of uninterrupted drought since the 1950's.

Florida PDI, 1/00-7/00
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Florida Pcp, 1/98-7/00
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Top of Page The Drought In Arizona

Eight of the last ten months have averaged below normal for precipitation in Arizona and the ten-month period October 1999 through July 2000 ranks as the driest such period on record. Eighteen of the last 31 months have averaged drier than normal. Although the present drought situation to date is of rather short duration, the magnitude of the present drought has surpassed that of any other drought situation in Arizona since June 1904.

Arizona PDI, 1/00-7/00
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Arizona Pcp, 1/98-7/00
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Top of Page West and Southwest Regional Summary

Fifteen of the last 31 months have averaged below normal for precipitation in the West Region and 17 of the last 31 months have averaged below normal for precipitaion in the Southwest region. Mostly dry and very warm conditions dominated the last half of July throughout the two regions where dry thunderstorms have made conditions even worse with the igniting of numerous large wildfires. The southwest monsoon had yet to establish itself through the end of July and drought conditions were expanding throughout the Southwest and West.

West Region Pcp, 98-00
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Southwest Region Pcp, 98-00
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Current and historical drought information can be found at the Web Page for the National Drought Mitigation Center. The Center monitors current droughts both in the United States and worldwide.

Damage due to the drought has been summarized by NOAA and the Office of Global Programs in the Climatological Impacts section of the Climate Information Project. Crop impact information can be found at the USDA NASS (National Agricultural Statistics Service) and Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin pages. Drought statements by local National Weather Service Offices can be found at the NWS Hydrologic Information Center. Drought threat assessments and other information can be found at NOAA's Drought Information Center.

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Top of Page July Precipitation and Temperature Ranks, Extremes and Normals

Table 1 shows precipitation and temperature ranks for each of the 9 regions and the nation for July 2000, the two-month period of June-July 2000, the six months of February-July 2000, and the past 12 months, August 1999-July 2000.
             PRECIPITATION AND TEMPERATURE RANKS, BASED
             ON THE PERIOD 1895-2000.  1 = DRIEST/COLDEST,
             106 = WETTEST/WARMEST FOR JULY 2000,
             106 = WETTEST/WARMEST FOR JUN-JULY 2000,
             106 = WETTEST/WARMEST FOR FEB-JULY 2000,
             105 = WETTEST/WARMEST FOR AUG 1999-JULY 2000.

                        JUL    JUN-JUL    FEB-JUL   AUG 1999-
    REGION              2000     2000       2000    JUL 2000
    ------              ----  ---------  ---------  ---------

              PRECIPITATION:

   NORTHEAST             75       78         99         99
   EAST NORTH CENTRAL    76       91         80         28
   CENTRAL               61       78         64         22

   SOUTHEAST             16       16          6         14
   WEST NORTH CENTRAL    77       43         45         36
   SOUTH                  7       57         48         10

   SOUTHWEST              5       23         23         16
   NORTHWEST             38       30         46         40
   WEST                   5       22         77         41

   NATIONAL              14       48         39         16

              TEMPERATURE:

   NORTHEAST              3       16         85         94
   EAST NORTH CENTRAL    32       29        100         99
   CENTRAL               20       29         93         95

   SOUTHEAST             57       67         90         85
   WEST NORTH CENTRAL    86       78        102        104
   SOUTH                 83       59        105        103

   SOUTHWEST             97       99        105        104
   NORTHWEST             57       79         97        100
   WEST                  47       93        102        103

   NATIONAL              69*      68        106        104

   *National Temperature Rank Based on USHCN.

It should be emphasized that all of the temperature and precipitation ranks and values in Tables 1 through 5 are based on preliminary data. The ranks will change when the final data are processed.


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Table 2 shows historical extremes for July, the 1961-1990 normal, and the July 2000 value for each of the 9 regions and the contiguous U.S. for precipitation and temperature. It should be noted that the 2000 values will change when the final data are processed.
                             PRECIPITATION (INCHES)
                           DRIEST     WETTEST   NORMAL  2000
       REGION            VALUE YEAR VALUE YEAR   PCPN   PCPN
       ------            ---------- ----------  ------ ------

      NORTHEAST           2.02 1968  6.57 1897   3.81   4.23
      EAST NORTH CENTRAL  0.85 1936  6.13 1993   3.61   4.06
      CENTRAL             1.47 1930  8.27 1958   4.25   4.14

      SOUTHEAST           2.94 1983 11.55 1916   5.56   4.57
      WEST NORTH CENTRAL  0.84 1917  5.56 1993   2.02   2.31
      SOUTH               1.34 1980  6.04 1950   3.03   1.78

      SOUTHWEST           1.00 1993  3.51 1911   1.83   1.08
      NORTHWEST           0.16 1953  2.05 1983   0.73   0.44
      WEST                0.00 1903  1.18 1984   0.34   0.05

      NATIONAL            1.78 1930  3.85 1950   2.74   2.35*

                          * PRELIMINARY VALUE, CONFIDENCE
                            INTERVAL + OR - 0.29 INCHES

                             TEMPERATURE (DEGREES F)
                           COLDEST    WARMEST   NORMAL  2000
       REGION            VALUE YEAR VALUE YEAR   TEMP   TEMP
       ------            ---------- ----------  ------ ------

      NORTHEAST           66.1 1962  73.8 1955   69.3   66.7
      EAST NORTH CENTRAL  64.0 1992  76.2 1936   70.2   68.9
      CENTRAL             71.9 1947  81.2 1901   75.3   73.9

      SOUTHEAST           76.3 1947  82.7 1993   78.6   79.1
      WEST NORTH CENTRAL  62.7 1915  77.4 1936   69.5   71.3
      SOUTH               78.0 1906  85.9 1980   81.3   82.6

      SOUTHWEST           70.1 1912  75.9 1901   73.6   75.2
      NORTHWEST           58.9 1993  70.6 1906   65.9   66.5
      WEST                69.0 1903  78.2 1931   73.8   73.8

      NATIONAL*           71.7 1915  77.6 1936   73.9   74.8*

                         * National Temperature Values based
                           on USHCN

 
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Top of Page January-July Precipitation and Temperature Ranks, Extremes and Normals

Table 3 shows precipitation and temperature ranks for each of the 9 regions and the nation for January-July 2000. Based on the period 1895-2000.
                TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION RANKINGS FOR
                JAN-JUL 2000, BASED ON THE PERIOD 1895-2000.
                1 = DRIEST/COLDEST, 106 = WETTEST/HOTTEST.

       REGION                PRECIPITATION  TEMPERATURE
       ------                -------------  -----------

      NORTHEAST                  101             84
      EAST NORTH CENTRAL          74            102
      CENTRAL                     56             91

      SOUTHEAST                   10             79
      WEST NORTH CENTRAL          40            100
      SOUTH                       36            105

      SOUTHWEST                   21            106
      NORTHWEST                   56             95
      WEST                        78            104

      NATIONAL                    32            106*

      *National Temperature Rank Based on USHCN


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Table 4 shows historical extremes for January-July, the 1961-1990 normal, and the January-July 2000 value for each of the 9 regions and the contiguous U.S. for precipitation and temperature. It should be noted that the 2000 values will change when the final data are processed.
                                PRECIPITATION (INCHES)
                           DRIEST     WETTEST   NORMAL  2000
       REGION            VALUE YEAR VALUE YEAR   PCPN   PCPN
       ------            ---------- ----------  ------ ------

      NORTHEAST          16.63 1965 31.53 1996  23.49  27.98
      EAST NORTH CENTRAL 10.51 1988 22.78 1999  17.37  18.78
      CENTRAL            17.59 1936 34.59 1950  25.70  26.48

      SOUTHEAST          20.79 1986 39.59 1991  31.18  24.30
      WEST NORTH CENTRAL  6.98 1934 16.40 1993  11.12  10.84
      SOUTH              14.72 1925 29.92 1905  21.06  19.70

      SOUTHWEST           4.61 1972 12.68 1905   7.24   6.24
      NORTHWEST           8.46 1924 20.17 1983  15.35  15.34
      WEST                4.64 1924 20.76 1998   9.83  12.24

      NATIONAL           13.66 1934 20.71 1998  17.39  16.97

                             TEMPERATURE (DEGREES F)
                           COLDEST    WARMEST   NORMAL  2000
       REGION            VALUE YEAR VALUE YEAR   TEMP   TEMP
       ------            ---------- ----------  ------ ------

      NORTHEAST           41.9 1907  48.4 1921   44.5   45.8
      EAST NORTH CENTRAL  37.9 1912  48.1 1987   42.3   45.2
      CENTRAL             48.8 1978  57.1 1921   52.3   54.5

      SOUTHEAST           59.5 1940  64.6 1949   61.7   63.4
      WEST NORTH CENTRAL  37.9 1950  47.4 1934   42.8   45.9
      SOUTH               59.1 1979  64.8 1911   61.6   64.5

      SOUTHWEST           47.5 1917  55.3 2000   51.3   55.3
      NORTHWEST           42.5 1955  51.0 1934   46.2   48.2
      WEST                51.4 1913  57.8 1934   54.3   57.1

      NATIONAL*           49.7 1912  54.9 2000   51.7   54.9

                         * National Temperature Values based
                           on USHCN

 
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Top of Page Water Year River Basin Statistics, October 1999-July 2000

Table 5 shows statistics for selected river basins: Precipitation rankings are for October 1999-July 2000, where 1 = driest, and 105 = wettest, based on the period 1895 to 2000. Also shown is the areal percent of the basin experiencing severe or extreme long-term (Palmer) drought, and areal percent of the basin experiencing severe or extreme long-term (Palmer) wet conditions, as of July 2000.

                                PRECIPITATION  % AREA  % AREA
  RIVER BASIN                       RANK        DRY     WET
  -----------                   -------------  ------  ------

  MISSOURI BASIN                     16         26.1%   11.9%
  PACIFIC NORTHWEST BASIN            45         15.2%    0.0%
  CALIFORNIA RIVER BASIN             50         37.6%    0.0%

  GREAT BASIN                        11         82.9%    0.0%
  UPPER COLORADO BASIN                4        100.0%    0.0%
  LOWER COLORADO BASIN                2        100.0%    0.0%
  RIO GRANDE BASIN                   10         70.5%    0.0%

  ARKANSAS-WHITE-RED BASIN           57          0.0%   11.4%
  TEXAS GULF COAST BASIN             22         25.6%    0.0%
  SOURIS-RED-RAINY BASIN             38          0.0%   39.1%
  UPPER MISSISSIPPI BASIN            39          0.0%    0.0%

  LOWER MISSISSIPPI BASIN             6         32.7%    0.0%
  GREAT LAKES BASIN                  72          0.0%    7.2%
  OHIO RIVER BASIN                   48          0.4%    0.0%
  TENNESSEE RIVER BASIN              17         12.3%    0.0%

  NEW ENGLAND BASIN                  80          0.0%    7.7%
  MID-ATLANTIC BASIN                 78          0.0%   24.3%
  SOUTH ATLANTIC-GULF BASIN           6         53.4%    0.0%

The river basin regions are defined by the U.S. Water Resources Council.

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For more information, refer to ...References:

Thomas R. Karl and Albert J. Koscielny, 1982: "Drought in the United States: 1895-1981." Journal of Climatology, vol. 2, pp. 313-329.

Thomas R. Karl and Walter James Koss, 1984: "Regional and National Monthly, Seasonal, and Annual Temperature Weighted by Area, 1895-1983." Historical Climatology Series 4-3, National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC, 38 pp.

NOAA's National Climatic Data Center is the world's largest active archive of weather data. The preliminary temperature and precipitation rankings are available from the center by calling: 828-271-4800.

Historical precipitation and temperature ranking maps are also available on the Internet courtesy of the Climate Prediction Center.

NOAA works closely with the academic and scientific communities on climate-related research projects to increase the understanding of El Niño and improve forecasting techniques. NOAA's Climate Prediction Center monitors, analyzes and predicts climate events ranging from weeks to seasons for the nation. NOAA also operates the network of data buoys and satellites that provide vital information about the ocean waters, and initiates research projects to improve future climate forecasts. The long lead climate outlooks are available from the Climate Prediction Center.

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For all climate questions other than questions concerning this report, please contact the National Climatic Data Center's Climate Services Division:

Climate Services Division
NOAA/National Climatic Data Center
151 Patton Avenue
Asheville, NC 28801-5001
fax: 828-271-4876
phone: 828-271-4800
email: ncdc.orders@noaa.gov
For further information on the historical climate perspective presented in this report, contact:

William Brown
NOAA/National Climatic Data Center
151 Patton Avenue
Asheville, NC 28801-5001
fax: 828-271-4328
email: william.brown@noaa.gov
-or-
Jay Lawrimore
NOAA/National Climatic Data Center
151 Patton Avenue
Asheville, NC 28801-5001
fax: 828-271-4328
email: jay.lawrimore@noaa.gov
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