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Selected Global Extreme Information

Climate Information Project (CIP): February 2001-Last Updated 12 March 2001

UPDATE OF REPORTED Global CLIMATE-WEATHER IMPACTS

(Courtesy of NOAA Office of Global Programs)

The Rapid Response Project (RRP) has been reformed as the Climate Information Project (CIP). The weekly summaries of climate-weather impacts, monthly summaries of climate conditions, and all other previous RRP activities will be continued under the CIP.

*The information provided in the CIP updates are gathered from a variety of wire and news sources as well as country and international agency reports. It does not necessarily reflect the focus or interest of NOAA's Office of Global Programs and is meant only as source of condensed information.

** All products of the CIP are archived at: Climate Information Project

See the CIP map version of U.S. Impacts

Climate Information Project: The summaries are broken down into several reports.

Impacts Reported as of 02/05/01

AFGHANISTAN (temperature extreme) Reuters reported on February 3rd that another 22 individuals died as a result of severe cold while seeking refuge outside the western city of Heart. The United Nations World Food Program reportedly said in Geneva on Friday that at least 480 Afghans have frozen to death this week as temperatures fell below -25 C.

BOLIVIA (flood) OCHA reported that according to a report from SENADECI (The National Civil Defense Service), approximately 70,000 individuals have been affected by both flooding and drought. The following areas have been severely affected,

Beni - 5,000 individuals affected when the Beni River overran its banks partly flooding the towns of Rurenbaque, Reyes and San Buenaventura

Cochabamba - suffering from severe drought since last March, but now facing floods
- the provinces of Arque, Bolivar and Tapacari have been the most severely affected
- approximately 45,000 individuals have been affected as a result of the drought and recent flooding
- La Paz - flooding in provinces of Ingavi, Murillo, Loayza, Larecaja and Camacho y Los Andres
- approximately 13,500 individuals affected
- Oruro - suburbs of the regional capital flooded - approximately 250 individuals affected

CHINA (snow) The People’s Daily reported on January 21st that 29 individuals have died in Inner Mongolia and more than 800 people have been injured. The snowstorms have reportedly devastated 31 county-level administrative areas, affected 1.64 million people, 24.2 million hectares of grasslands and 22.3 million animals, of which 220,500 have died.

CHINA (snow) The Xinhua reported that heavy snowstorms for the past 3 months have killed 108,700 head of livestock in northwestern China’s Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region causing enormous losses to the animal husbandry industry. Unusually large blizzards have hit Altay, Tacheng, Ili, Changi, Hami and other areas in northern Xinjiang, and temperatures in some cities have dropped to –45oC. Most winter grazing areas have been blanketed by snow with a thickness of 60-70cm. This heavy snow reportedly poses a threat to rare animals in the region such as wild ass, red deer and argal as they do not have enough to eat. More than 500 argals have been stranded on a snow-capped mountain for days, and more than 17 million head of livestock are reportedly suffering from lack of forage. The blizzards have also reportedly toppled 16,700 homes, leaving 354,000 individuals with only limited shelter.

ITALY (avalanche) The AP reported that an avalanche hit 3 skiers, killing 1, in Italy’s Alps on Sunday (4th). In addition, authorities in Austria reported that a snowboarder was killed in a snowslide. Heavy snows, followed by thaws over the past 2 days, have reportedly made large areas of the Austrian Alps prone to avalanches.

INDONESIA (flood) The Xinhua reported that continuous torrential rains led to massive floods that inundated thousands of homes in North Sulawesi on Sunday (4th) . In Jember, East Java province, heavy rains on Saturday and Sunday reportedly caused the Manyang River to overflow, which then led to flooding of several villages in several districts.

KENYA (flood) The Africa News Service reported that flooding in Kenya is causing numerous school closures. The worst hit districts are reportedly Nyando, Rachuonyo, Kisumu, Migori and Nyakach where more than 15 schools are closed.

MOZAMBIQUE (flood) Various media sources have reported that flooding in central Mozambique has displaced 25,000 individuals. The road linking the Mozambican port city of Beira to Zimbabwe has reportedly been cut off by floodwaters of the Pungue River in Sofala province. The levels of the Pungue and Buzi Rivers have reportedly been rising rapidly following the torrential rains that fell all weekend in Sofala. The death toll from flooding in the Zambezia province has reportedly risen to 7, and 3 others are missing and feared drowned. In Beira, dozens of homes built of flimsy material have collapsed, and storm waters have inundated many others. Approximately 1,000 people have reportedly fled their homes. In addition, the heavy rains have reportedly soaked and dispersed piles of rubbish, posing serious risks to public health. Fallen electricity cables have also reportedly caused two deaths by electrocution.

UNITED KINGDOM (landslide) The AP reported that a large piece of chalk off England’s famed white cliffs of Dover crashed into the sea last Wednesday (31st) . The landslide reportedly occurred over a quarter-mile stretch of coast between Dover and St. Margaret’s Bay in southeast England. The slide was reportedly blamed on periods of heavy rain followed by cold temperatures, as the rain is absorbed in the cliff-face, freezes, and expands again when the temperature increases, causing the chalk to weaken according to officials.

UNITED KINGDOM (storm) The BBC reported that a night of heavy snowfall and floods resulted in treacherous driving conditions across Scotland and northern England on Monday( 5th) . One individual died in a traffic accident in County Durham, and one individual died at South Gare in County Durham after being swept into the North Sea. Drifting snow reportedly caused many minor roads in north of England to close and made a number of major A roads impassable Monday. Snow also reportedly damaged power lines in Scotland, leaving approximately 3,000 customers without electricity Monday. The areas most affected are in Argyll, the Isle of Arran and Tayside. In addition, there is reportedly a severe flood warning in effect on the River Kym in Huntingdonshire after severe rains fell overnight. All the schools in Shetland are reportedly closed, and 70 are closed in Aberdeenshire, while Scotland’s ski resorts were also forced to close due to high winds and drifting snow.

Impacts Reported as of 02/09/01

AFGHANISTAN (temperature extreme) Various media sources reported that the 100,000 individuals living in refugee camps in the western region of the country are suffering through one of the region’s coldest winters on record. The camps, which are near the city of Heart, see nighttime temperatures of -25C, while according to UN officials, daytime temperatures are rarely above -16C. In addition, 300-500 individuals are reportedly arriving at the camps each day, and the extreme cold has forced doctors to amputate the limbs of many because of frostbite and gangrene. Reports as to the numbers of deaths occurring each day vary from 150 to 500. In addition, Afghanistan is presently suffering from its worst drought in the 30 years, and the drought is reportedly affecting 12 million of the countries 20 million people.

BOLIVIA (flood) The AP reported that according to news reports at least 20 individuals have died as a result of the flooding in Bolivia. According to the government, floods have caused housing problems for at least 45,000 families and millions of dollars of damage to crops. Thousands of homes have reportedly been damaged beyond repair, and in the capital La Paz, 16 schools have been closed indefinitely because damage caused by water could lead to their collapse.

CHINA The Xinhua reported that two herdsmen have died and more than 60 have been injured as a result of the continuous blizzards hitting the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. According to local civil affairs department sources, 50,000 other herdsmen remain stranded deep in snow in Qinghe, Fuyun and Jeminay counties, which have suffered the heaviest snowstorms. Snowfall is reportedly the heaviest the Altay region has received in the past 50 years. According to meteorological sources, the depth of snow is 75 cm in the plain areas and 2.5 metres in mountainous areas. Local herdsmen have reported that as a result of the scarcity of fodder or other food, goats have begun biting the clothes of people walking by. The blizzard has reportedly claimed the lives of 13 individuals, more than 100,000 livestock and has also crushed 16,000 homes in Xinjiang. The snowfall has also reportedly caused the death of over 20 Ahus, a rare antelope species, who face both starvation and freezing temperatures.

MOZAMBIQUE (flood) AfricaNews reported that approximately 600 families had abandoned their homes in the locality of Mafambisse by Tuesday, following continuous torrential rains in the central Mozambican province of Sofala. The Maputo daily ‘Noticias’ reportedly reported that the area was completely inundated. The road from Tica, on the Beira-Zimbabwe highway, southward to Buzi town was reportedly impassable with several sections submerged in water, and the road from Tete to Mutarara was also completely impassable. In Zambezia province, transportation was also severely disrupted by the rains and floods, as roads between the district and localities, and from the districts to the provincial capital, Quelimane, have reportedly been cut off – in several cases because small bridges have been swept away.

NORTHERN EUROPE (snow) M2 Communications reported that heavy snow across part of northern Europe led to flight delays and cancellations on February 3rd. Hundreds of air travelers in the Netherlands suffered delays, and some 60 morning flights were cancelled, and many others delayed, at Frankfurt International Airport. Munich and Dusseldorf airports also reportedly suffered from delays.

TAJIKISTAN (drought) The AP reported that Tajikistan continues to suffer from a severe drought that at present is being compounded by severely cold temperatures.

UNITED KINGDOM (flood) Various media sources reported that as of Friday, 79 flood warnings were in place in England. The south of England is reportedly the worst affected, with 30 flood warnings and 2 severe warnings on rivers in Sussex and Kent. Twenty-eight flood warnings are in place in the Anglian region, 14 in the northeast and 7 in the Midlands. Heavy rains reportedly began again Wednesday night and continued throughout Thursday. From December 1st to February 7th, 285mm of rain reportedly fell across England and Wales. In East Sussex, 50 homes have reportedly been evacuated in the village of Pett, and floods and landslips have disrupted rail traffic on commuter lines in the south and southeast.

Impacts Reported as of 02/12/01

BOLIVIA (flood) EFE via COMTEX reported that several epidemics have erupted in Bolivian towns that have been affected by flooding in the past few weeks. According to official reports, the flooding has caused at least 28 deaths while affecting some 220,000 individuals. In all nine Bolivian provinces heavy rains have caused rivers to overflow and have triggered flooding in several towns, forcing residents to temporarily abandon their homes. According to the national director of communicable disease, floodwaters are reportedly mixing with sewage and flood victims are using this serious threat of contamination as drinking water. Incidents of acute respiratory infections are reportedly up 12%, while gastrointestinal infections are up approximately 10%, compared to last year. In addition, doctors have reportedly detected 1,224 new cases of malaria - mostly in towns in northern Bolivia where heavy rains have produced favorable conditions for the breeding of increased numbers of mosquitoes that transmit the disease. The government has reportedly declared a nation-wide health emergency.

CANADA (storm) Various media sources reported that a weekend storm killed 11 individuals on Quebec roads and left 260,000 others without power. Five individuals reportedly died Friday (9th) in a series of crashes following freezing rain that left the roads in treacherous condition, while 6 people died on Saturday (10th) in traffic accidents caused by strong winds gusting at 120 km/h. Winds also knocked down poles, trees and power lines, and in Montreal the winds reportedly tore a piece of brick façade from an apartment building, leaving approximately 30 individuals homeless for the next few days. Just east of Montreal, in the Monteregie region, a house caught on fire after an electrical pole fell on its roof, and Highway 229 was closed for the day through the region because several electrical poles were leaning perilously over the road. The winds were reportedly also responsible for major delays at both the Montreal and Quebec City international airports, and the Laviolette Bridge in Trois-Riveres and the Pierre Laporte Bridge in Quebec City were temporarily closed due to falling ice left over from the freezing rainstorm on Friday (9th).

INDONESIA (landslide) Various media sources reported that at least 94 individuals died, and thousands were left homeless, after a weekend of torrential rains triggered floods and landslides in the western Indonesia region of Java. Most of those who died were reportedly buried in the landslides, while others were swept away by floodwaters. The floodwaters inundated at least 19 districts in Java, and most of the victims were reported in the hard hit area of Lebak.

MOZAMBIQUE (flood) OCHA reported that according to provincial authorities, the number of people affected and in need of assistance in the Zambezia province is 23,000. Localized flooding has occurred in north of Imhambane province and in low-lying parts of Sofala.

Impacts Reported as of 02/14/01

CHINA (snow) The Xinhua reported that heavy snow that fell on Sunday (11th) in Central China’s Henan Province forced the closure of some highways and caused delays in air travel. This was reportedly the area’s fourth heavy snowfall since January. The Xinzheng International Airport in Zhengzhou was reportedly closed from 5pm Sunday until Monday morning.

INDONESIA (flood) The Xinhua reported that no less than 20,000 houses and thousands of hectares of rice fields in 130 villages spread over 11 districts in East Java have been inundated. The Bengawan Solo River reportedly overflowed after 3 days of torrential rains in the Bojonegoro district in the western part of the province. The Cemungklung village in the Kalitidu sub district was reportedly the worst hit as floodwaters inundated some 70 homes and 140 hectares of rice fields. Material losses are estimated to be in the hundreds of millions of rupiah. In addition, the death toll in Banten province, in the west part of Java Island, following the previously reported floods and landslides has reached 122. On the Lombok islands of West Nusu Tenggara, 3 days of constant rain and strong winds have led to dozens of uprooted trees since Saturday, and caused 172 waterborne vehicles to become stranded in Lembar Port. A typhoon reportedly destroyed dozens of houses and buildings in Bandar Lampung killing 2 locals and leaving several others injured. In Bali, strong winds that have been prevailing since Saturday reportedly took roofs off of houses and uprooted dozens of trees, causing roads to be blocked in four areas of the provincial capital of Denpasar and in the regencies of Karangasem, Gianyar and Bandung.

Impacts Reported as of 02/20/01

AFGHANISTAN (drought) The BBC reported that according to the UN at least one million Afghans who have fled the fighting and drought in Afghanistan are now threatened by famine.

BOLIVIA (flood) The BBC reported that according to authorities, 14 individuals have died in the latest storm. According to the police, the floods have washed away bridges and roads. Since the beginning of the rainy season in mid-December, 33 individuals have been killed and the government has reportedly declared half of the country a disaster area. OCHA reported that as of February 15th, 39,000 families, or 234,000 individuals, have been affected by the flooding in the western and northern highlands of the country. The following is a summary of the affected families by department, La Paz - 20, 483, Oruro - 1,726, Potosi - 3,960, Cochabamba - 8,043, Beni - 2,229, Santa Cruz - 240, Pando - 1,022, Chuquisaca - 1,710 and Tarija - 145.

CHILE (flood) EFE via COMTEX reported that the homes of 314 residents of Chile’s Arica and Parinacota provinces have been damaged, while those of 2,245 others have been cut off from surrounding areas as a result of the heavy flooding which is accompanying the fiercest winter the Andean region has experienced in 31 years. The main roads linking northern Chile with Bolivia and Peru have reportedly been rendered impassable by unusual flooding that has resulted from the heavy rains. In Parinacota 54 individuals are reportedly homeless and 1,775 are stranded in their homes, while in Arica 213 are homeless and 468 others have been cut off from outside contact. On Sunday (18th) the government reportedly declared a state of emergency in the municipalities of General Lagos, Putre Camarones and Huara, all of which are in Arica.

CHINA (extreme temperature) The Xinhua reported that in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Altay Red Cross sources have reported that as of February 5th 1,527 herdsmen were suffering from frostbite. In addition, the snow and cold temperatures affecting the region have reportedly led to the deaths of at least 38 newly born babies and 4 pregnant women.

KENYA (drought) The Xinhua reported that according to Saturday’s "The People Daily", more than 4 million individuals are threatened by starvation during this winter, which is the country’s worst drought in 60 years.

MONGOLIA (extreme temperature) The Xinhua reported that Mongolia is continuing to suffer from its second winter of extremely cold temperatures and excess snow. As of the end of January some 600,000 head of livestock had reportedly died.

MOZAMBIQUE (flood) Various sources have reported that flooding on the Pungue River in the central Mozambican province of Sofala has cut off the main road from the port of Beira to Zimbabwe. The level of the Pungue River at the main measuring station was reportedly 8.78m on Sunday (18th) , where as on Thursday (15th) it was 8.53m, and the flood alert level is 7m. The Buzi River is also reportedly in flood, and has inundated the small town of Goonda and parts of Buzi town. According to Monday’s issue of the Maputo Daily ‘Noticias’, approximately 350 individuals are trapped without food on Tolo island in Mopeia. In addition, on the south bank of the Zambezi, the road from Marromeu district to Beira is now cut. OCHA reported on February 16th that 28 lives have reportedly been lost, and 30,000 individuals have been displaced thus far in the provinces of Zambezia, Tete and Sofala.

PHILIPPINES (storm) Various media sources reported that according to a national disaster coordination official, the tropical storm that has battered the central and southern Philippines since the weekend has left at least 16 dead and 11 injured. The storm reportedly triggered a landslide on the central island of Leyte killing 6 people. Floods also resulted, and they reportedly drove more than 1,700 individuals from their homes. Winds of up to 35mph reportedly blew a ferry on to rocks causing one individual to fall over board and drown, and causing minor injuries to 27 others. In addition, at least 10 others drowned and 5 are reportedly missing after bad weather caused a motor launch to sink off the island of Tawi-Tawi in the southern Philippines Monday (19th) . The storm has reportedly caused 2.1 million dollars in damage to rice crops, a bridge and 26 homes.

SAHELIAN AFRICA (drought) The Xinhua reported that some African Sahel countries including Niger, Chad and Mali suffered from poor crops last year as a result of severe drought.

SOUTH KOREA (snow) Reuters reported that a heavy blizzard that hit South Korea disrupted air travel and brought road traffic to a crawl on Thursday (15th). Dozens of international flights were reportedly delayed, and even more domestic connections were cancelled. As of midnight EST on Wednesday (14th) , snowfall measured a reported 8.4 in in Seoul - the largest amount since 1969. South Korea had previously suffered from its heaviest snowfall in mid-January when up to 33inches of snow blanketed the mountainous country. At least 11 deaths and nearly 300 injuries have resulted from the bad weather.

Impacts Reported as of 02/23/01

AUSTRIA (snow) Reuters reported that much of western Austria was on a heightened avalanche alert Friday (23rd) after 4 individuals died in a massive snow slide triggered by heavy snowfall and stormy winds. Thousands of tourists were trapped at four popular ski resorts in the province of Tyrol and Voralberg after snow buried road and rail links and increased the risk of avalanches. According to local tourism authorities, more than 20 inches of snow fell on the Alpine region overnight on Thursday (22nd).

BOLIVIA (flood) Various media sources reported that heavy rains in eastern Bolivia and drought in other areas have destroyed some 93,000 hectares of crops and affected 240,000 other acres. Losses in and around of the Santa Cruz province are estimated as more than 100 million dollars and in the western part of the country losses are estimated at 8 to 12 million dollars. The hardest hit crops in Santa Cruz are reportedly sugar cane, cotton, sorghum, soy and rice. The heavy rains which began in the second week of January have reportedly affected 250,000 residents, left 3,000 homeless and have killed 41 individuals. In Monteagudo the El Banado River reportedly overflowed killing 4 farmers and injuring 14 others. The Bolivian government has declared a red alert across the country, and according to the National Civil Defense Office, as of February 19th, 252,160 flood victims have been registered in 9 provinces throughout the country. On Monday, (19th) the Banado and Grande Rivers in the provinces of Chuquisaca and Santa Cruz reportedly flooded vast croplands.

EGYPT (storm) The Xinhua reported that 3 Egyptian fishermen drowned and 4 others went missing on Wednesday (21st) after their boat sank in rough seas in the Mediterranean near the country’s Port Said. As of Wednesday the Mediterranean port of Alexandria remained closed due to heavy rains pouring over the city for the second consecutive day. On Tuesday 20th), Alexandria and the Red Sea ports of Tawfik and Adabiya were reportedly closed due to harsh weather and rough seas.

FIRE Fires and hotspots were noted in Sudan and Ethiopia. Images are available in the Daily Report or Archives of the OSEI daily reports located at: http://www.osei.noaa.gov.

IRAN (storm) The AP reported that 3 individuals died and 22 were injured following a wind storm in the northern Golestra province that hit late Wednesday (21st) . One hundred km/h winds reportedly tore the roofs off houses, mosques and schools while uprooting trees and electricity poles, resulting in power outages in some areas.

ISRAEL (storm) The AP reported that a storm caused a Ukrainian cargo ship to be blown ashore on Wednesday (21st) south of Ashdod.

JORDAN (snow) The AP reported that a blizzard battered the southern regions of Jordan on Tuesday(20th) , dumping as much as one foot of snow in some areas as well as stranding motorists and downing power lines.

LEBANON (storm) The AP reported that 500 motorists were trapped on mountain roads by Tuesday’s (20th) snowfall. In the capital city of Beirut hail and heavy rains reportedly caused flooding and numerous traffic accidents during overnight. The storms caused the supply power to most of the country to fail reportedly resulting in widespread blackouts. In addition, 2 Syrian workers reportedly died on Wednesday (21st) after the storm brought down their makeshift house in the town of Zahle in Bekaa Valley. MALAWI (flood) The Africa News Service reported that at least four people drowned and others are missing after flash floods covered a huge area in the Lower Shire River Valley of southern Malawi. In addition, at least 100,000 individuals have been displaced by the floods, which have affected several parts of the country. In the Valley district of Nsanje most of the roads are under water and at least 600 villagers had to take refuge in Mozambique. The flooding has also exacerbated the crocodile menace in the Valley districts of Nsanje and Chikwawa. According to OCHA the affected areas are Nsanje, Chikwawa, Mangochi, Phalombe and Blantyre in the southern region, Salima and Nkhotakota in the central region and Karonga and Nkhata Bay in the northern region.

MOZAMBIQUE (flood) OCHA reported that flooding in the provinces of Zambezia, Sofala, Tete and Manica has affected approximately 400,000 individuals and displaced 70,000 in the four provinces. As of February 19th, 41 deaths were confirmed, and many roads in the center of the country were impassable, while wells in both rural areas and suburbs had flooded affecting the sanitary conditions in urban centers. An estimated 44,000 peasant farmers have reportedly been affected and 27,000 hectares of crops – mainly maize, rice and cassava - have been lost. The BBC reported that aid distribution has been disrupted because roads and bridges have been washed away in Zambezia and Sofala, and in Caia, near the border with Malawi and Zambia, the Zambezi River is nearly 2m higher than its critical level of 6m. Reuters reported that the worst hit districts are Megaza, Cocorico, Malulu, Mopeia and Marcacao in Zambezia, and according to the Xinhua the Pungue River has flooded 16km of the Beira-Zimbabwe highway, and in some areas of the road the water is 1m deep.

RUSSIA (cyclone) The Itar-Tass reported that a cyclone (winter storm) accompanied by snow and winds up to 30 metres per second swept through Kuril Paramushir isle on Tuesday (20th) . Temperatures reportedly dropped to an unusually low - 22C, and all schools, kindergartens and independent enterprises were closed.

RUSSIA (snow) The Itar-Tass reported that a snowstorm left the Black Sea resort of Sochi and neigbouring towns of Adler, Dugomys and other settlements down to the Georgia border in a blackout Thursday (22nd) . Gale winds were reportedly up to 25 metres per second and 3 high-voltage electric transmission lines were damaged.

SYRIA (storm) The AP reported that a storm that hit Syria cut power lines and contributed to the collapse of a 4-story building that killed 18 individuals and injured 37 others in the town of Idlib. Idlib and other parts of northern and central Syria reportedly received 190mm (7.6in) of rain on Wednesday (21st) . In the Deir el-Zour province strong winds up to 100km/h reportedly stirred up heavy sandstorms that uprooted trees, disrupted power supplies and left 3 individuals dead and 172 hospitalized with respiratory problems.

ZAMBIA (rain) The Xinhua reported that a critical food shortage is affecting northeastern Zambia’s Luangwa district due to the overflow of the Luangwa River, which was caused by the recent heavy rains. Food supplies are reportedly unable to reach the area due to flooding.

ZIMBABWE (flood) Africa News Service reported on Tuesday (20th) that floods that hit the Muzarabani area of northern Zimbabwe have destroyed crops and homes leaving hundreds of families homeless. Incessant rains have fallen since the beginning of February, particularly in the food-producing northern part of the country.

Impacts Reported as of 02/28/01

BRITAIN (storm) The AP reported that this winter has reportedly been the wettest since records began in 1766.

EUROPE (storm) The BBC reported that bad weather that has swept across Europe since (26th) Monday has caused traffic chaos from Genoa to Glasgow.

FRANCE (snow) Reuters reported that on Tuesday (27th) night a snowstorm blanketed southeast France for the first time in 15 years, cutting power to approximately 100,000 homes. The worst affected area is reportedly the Ardeche region northwest of the Riveria where up to 20 inches of snow forced local authorities to close all schools and colleges in the area, and order all trucks off the road. Some 500 people were reportedly forced to spend the night in their cars after several roads in the southeast became impassable.

ISRAEL (heat wave) The Jerusalem Post reported that unusually high temperatures were affecting the country on the 27th- Tuesday. In Haifa, and other coastal regions, the temperature was recorded at 25C while in Jerusalem the temperature was reported as 20C. Winter has reportedly produced less than average rainfall in the north, particularly in the catchment area of Lake Kinneret, for the third consecutive year.

ITALY (snow) Airline Industry Information via COMTEX reported that Italy's Malpensa airport in Milan was closed for several hours on February 28th due to heavy snowfall.

TANZANIA (flood) Various media sources reported that 5 individuals have died and hundreds have been left homeless following heavy rains that hit Tanzania's coastal Dar es Salaam region Monday night and Tuesday 26th and 27th) . Floods have damaged property and roads, and blocked drainage and sewer systems. By Tuesday afternoon, 130.7mm of rain was recorded at the city center, which is reportedly the highest ever-recorded in February. The areas worst affected are reportedly Kigogo, Jangwani Mtoni, Kinondoni and Manzese.

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