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Climate Reconstruction

IPCC 2007 Fig.6.14, temperature reconstructions and models       CLIMAP 18KYrBP SST    

Reconstructions of past climate conditions are derived from paleoclimatology proxies. Included are reconstructions of past temperature, precipitation, vegetation, streamflow, sea surface temperature, and other climatic or climate-dependent conditions.

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The following climate reconstruction datasets are separated by type and then by coverage area. Reconstructions marked with ​σ include uncertainty estimates.

Air Temperature

Global and Hemispheric

NOAA Paleoclimatology Network, 92 Temperature Reconstructions plus Proxy and Instrumental Data
Global Temperature, RSL, Ice Volume (δ18O), 1,000,000 Years, Bintanja et al. 2005, Text or Excel
Global Temperature, RSL, Ice Volume (δ18O), 3,000,000 Years, Bintanja and van de Wal 2008, Text or Excel
Global Temperature (Geothermal Heat Flow: Boreholes), 20,000 Years, Huang et al. 2008, Text or Excel
Global & Hemispheric Temperature, NAO, and SOI (Review), 2,000 Years, Jones and Mann 2004
Global Temperature (PCA: Tree-rings, Ice Cores, Corals, Sediments, Historical), 1,000 Years, Jones et al. 1998
Global & Hemispheric Temperature (Review), Multiproxy, 2,000 Years, Ljungqvist 2009
Global Temperature (PCA: Tree-rings, Ice Cores, Corals) and Spatial Distribution, 600 Years, Mann et al. 2000
Global Gridded Temperature (Climate Field Reconstruction, Multiproxy), 1,500 Years, Mann et al. 2009 σ
Global & Hemispheric Temperature (CPS & EIV: Tree Rings, Multiproxy), 2,000 Years, Mann et al. 2008 σ
Global Temperature (PCA: Tree-rings, Ice Cores, Corals, Historical), 600 Years, Mann et al. 1998 σ
Global Temperature (Review), Last Glacial Maximum (19-23 KYrBP), Schmittner et al. 2011
Global Temperature (Glacier Length), 400 Years, Oerlemans 2005
Global and Hemispheric Temperature (Glacier Length), 400 Years, Leclercq and Oerlemans 2012
Global Temperature (Geothermal Heat Flow Analysis: Boreholes), 500 Years, Pollack et al. 1998
Global Normalized Proxy Temperature, 130 Years, Anderson et al. 2013
Global Proxy benchmarks for intercomparison of 8.2 ka simulations, 8,200 Years BP, Morrill et al. 2013
Global Ensemble Climate Reconstructions and Code Package, 600 Years BP, Tingley and Huybers 2013
Antarctic Temperature, EPICA Dome C, (Isotopes: Ice Core) 800,000 Years, Jouzel et al. 2007
Antarctic Temperature, Vostok (Isotopes: Ice Core) 414,000 Years, Petit et al. 1999
Northern Hemisphere Temperature (Tree-ring, Ice Cores, Corals), 1,000 Years, Ammann and Wahl 2007
Northern Hemisphere & Regional Temperature (Age Band Decomp.: Tree-rings), 600 Years, Briffa et al. 2001
Northern Hemisphere Temperature (Regression: Tree-rings), 600 Years, Briffa et al. 1998
Northern Hemisphere Temperature (Tree-rings, Ice Cores, Historical), 1,000 Years, Crowley & Lowery 2000
Northern Hemisphere Temperature (RCS and STD: Tree-rings), 1,300 Years, D'Arrigo et al. 2006
Northern Hemisphere Temperature (RCS: Tree-rings), 1,000 Years, Esper et al. 2002
Northern Hemisphere Temperature (Ensemble, Carbon Cycle Sensitivity), 1,000 Years, Frank et al. 2010
Northern Hemisphere Temperature, 700 Years, Hegerl et al. 2006
Northern Hemisphere Temperature (Least Sq.: Tree-rings), 1,500 Years, Hegerl et al. 2007, Text or Excel σ
Northern Hemisphere Temperature (Boreholes, Tree-ring, Ice Cores, Corals), 500 Years, Huang 2004
Northern Hemisphere Temperature (Review), 1,000 Years, IPCC Fourth Assessment, Working Group 1, 2007
Northern Hemisphere Temperature (Ice Cores), 4,000 Years, Kobashi et al. 2013, Text or Excel σ
Hemispheric Temperature, NAO, and SOI (Review), 1,000 Years, Jones et al. 2001
Northern Hemisphere 30°-90° Temperature, (LOC), Multiproxy, 2,000 Years, Christiansen and Ljungqvist 2012 σ
Northern Hemisphere 30°-90° Temperature, (Composite-plus-scale), Multiproxy, 2,000 Years, Ljungqvist 2010 σ
Northern Hemisphere 30°-90° Temperature, (LOC), Multiproxy, 1,000 Years, Christiansen and Ljungqvist 2011 σ
Northern Hemisphere Temperature (PCA: Tree-rings, Ice Cores, Corals), 1,000 Years, Mann et al. 1999 σ
Hemispheric Temperature (Historical, Tree-rings, Ice Cores, Sediment), 2,000 Years, Mann and Jones 2003 σ
Northern Hemisphere Temperature (Wavelet: Sediments, Tree-rings), 2,000 Years, Moberg et al. 2005 σ
Northern Hemisphere Temperature, Warm/Cold Spatial Extent, 1,200 Years, Osborn and Briffa 2006
Northern Hemisphere Temperature (Review/Comparison), 600 Years, Rutherford et al. 2005
Northern Hemisphere Temperature, Multiproxy, 1,000 Years, Shi et al. 2013 σ
Northern Hemisphere Temperature (Speleothem Layer Thickness), 500 Years, Smith et al. 2006
Northern Hemisphere Temperature (Tree-rings), 250 Years, Wilson et al. 2007
 

Local and Regional

Continental Temperature, Precipitation, and GDD, 6ka and 21ka, Bartlein et al. 2010 σ
Greenland Temperature, 49,000 Years, Alley 2000
Greenland Temperature Anomalies, 800 Years, Kobashi et al. 2013,  σ
Greenland Temperature, 4,000 Years, Kobashi et al. 2011, Text or Excel σ
Greenland Temperature, 1,000 Years, Kobashi et al. 2010, Text or Excel σ
Arctic Temperature, 1,400 Years, Shi et al. 2012 σ
Arctic Temperature, 2,000 Years, Kaufman et al. 2009
Arctic Temperature, 400 Years, Overpeck et al. 1997
Antarctic Temperature, 200 Years, Schneider et al. 2006 σ
Dome Fuji, Antarctica Preliminary Temperature, 340,000 Years, Kawamura et al. 2007
Dome Fuji, Antarctica Temperature, 360,000 Years, Uemura et al. 2012
 

Africa

Lake Malawi, East Africa Surface Temperature, 25,000 Years, Powers et al. 2005 σ
Lake Tanganyika, East Africa Surface Temperature, 60,000 Years, Tierney et al. 2008, Text or Excel
Sacred Lake, Mt. Kenya GDGT Temperature Reconstruction, 47,000 Years, Loomis et al. 2012
Cold Air Cave, South Africa Temperature, 350 Years, Sundqvist et al. 2013
Congo River Basin Mean Air Temperature, 25,000 Years, Weijers et al. 2007, Text or Excel
 

Asia

China Temperature, 1,000 Years, Shi et al. 2012 σ
China Temperature, 2,000 Years, Ge et al. 2013 σ
China Temperature, 2,000 Years, Yang et al. 2002
East China Winter Temperature, 2,000 Years, Ge et al. 2003 σ
Beijing, China Temperature, 2,650 Years, Tan et al. 2003 σ
North-Central China Temperature and Precipitation, 530 Years, Yi et al. 2011, Text or Excel σ
West Qinling Mountains Multiproxy Temperature, 500 Years, Yang et al. 2013
Altai, Siberia Temperature, 750 Years, Eichler et al. 2009, Text or Excel σ
Taymir, northern Siberia, Summer Temperature, 400 Years, Jacoby et al. 2000
Yamal Peninsula, western Siberia, Summer Temperature, 4,000 Years, Hantemirov and Shiyatov 2002
Yamalia, NW Siberia Summer Temperature, Tree Rings, 2,000 Years, Briffa et al. 2013
Kathmandu, Nepal, Pre- and Post- Monsoon Temperature, 550 Years, Cook et al. 2003
Hokkaido, Japan Warm Season Temperature, 440 Years, Davi et al. 2001
Lake Suigetsu, Japan Temperature, 15,700 - 10,200 YrBP, Nakagawa et al. 2006, Text or Excel
 

Australia, New Zealand

Australasia Temperature, 1,000 Years, Gergis et al. 2012, Text or Excel σ
New Zealand Temperature, 270 Years, Xiong and Palmer 2000 σ
Tasmania Temperature, 3,600 Years, Cook et al. 2000
 

Europe

European Gridded and Regional Summer Temperature, 225 Years, Briffa 1988
European Gridded Spring-Summer Temperature, 1,400 Years, Guiot et al. 2010, Text or Excel
European-wide Seasonal Temperature, plus Annual Grid Cell Data, 500 Years, Xoplaki et al. 2005
European Pattern Climatology, Gridded Monthly Temp., Precip., 500hPa Height, 340 Years, Casty et al. 2007
European Alps Temperature, 944 Years, Trachsel et al. 2012, Text or Excel
European Alps Temperature and Precipitation Reconstructions, 500 Years, Casty et al. 2005
Central Alps Temperature, 2,000 Years, Mangini et al. 2005
Central Europe Temperature, 500 Years, Dobrovolný et al. 2010, Text or Excel σ
Kõszeg, Hungary 392Yr Documentary May-July Temperature, Kiss et al. 2011, Text or Excel
Eastern Europe May-June Temperature, 1,000 Years, Büntgen et al. 2013
Central Europe Summer Temperature, 2,500 Years, Büntgen et al. 2011, Text or Excel σ
Germany/Central Europe Temperature, 1,000 Years, Glaser and Riemann 2009, Text or Excel σ
Lago dell'Accesa, Italy January Temperature, 11.7-4.6KYrBP, Finsinger et al. 2010, Text or Excel
Lake Cadagno, Switzerland MBT/CBT Temperature, 11,000 Years, Niemann et al. 2012, Text or Excel
Lake Silvaplana, Switzerland VRS Temperature, 775 Years, Trachsel et al. 2010, Text or Excel
Lake Silvaplana, Switzerland BioSi/Chironomid Temperature, 765 Years, Trachsel et al. 2010, Text or Excel
Lake Silvaplana, Switzerland Chironomid Temperature, 1,000 Years, Larocque et al. 2010, Text or Excel
Lake Silvaplana, Switzerland Chironomid Temperature, 420 Years, Larocque et al. 2009, Text or Excel
Lake Silvaplana, Switzerland Chironomid Temperature, 140 Years, Larocque et al. 2008, Text or Excel
Swiss Alps Temperature, 400 Years, Blass et al. 2007, Text or Excel σ
Switzerland Spring-Summer Temperature, 526 Years, Meier et al. 2007
Burgundy Spring-Summer Temperature, 630 Years, Chuine et al. 2004
Northern Spain Temperature, 4,000 Years, Martín-Chivelet et al. 2011, Text or Excel
Northern Fennoscandia Spring Temperature, 300 Years, Loader et al. 2011, Text or Excel σ
Northeastern Fennoscandia July Temperature, 2,000 Years, Bjune et al. 2008, Text or Excel
Fennoscandia Summer Temperature, 1,250 Years, Lindholm et al. 2010, Text or Excel
Northern Coastal Norway Temperature, 650 Years, Kirchhefer 2001
Abisko Valley, Northern Sweden Temperature, 10,000 Years, Larocque and Hall 2004, Text or Excel
Stockholm Winter/Spring Temperature, 500 Years, Leijonhufvud et al. 2010, Text or Excel σ
Jämtland Tree Ring MXD Temperature, 900 Years, Gunnarson et al. 2011
Torneträsk, Northern Sweden, Tree Ring MXD Temperature, 1,500 Years, Grudd 2008, Text or Excel
Kongressvatnet, Svalbard, Lake Sediment Alkenone Paleotemperature, 1,800 Years, D'Andrea 2012
Raufarhofn, Iceland August Temperature, 2,000 Years, Axford et al. 2008, Text or Excel
 

North America

Baffin Island Summer Temperature, 500 Years, Hughen et al. 2000
Baffin Island Summer Temperature, 1,200 Years, Moore et al. 2001
Baffin Island Summer Temperature, 1,000 Years, Thomas and Briner 2008, Text or Excel σ
Lake CF8, Baffin Island Chironomid Temperature, 200,000 Years, Axford et al. 2009, Text or Excel
Northwest Canada Temperature, 350 Years, Szeicz et al. 1995
Northwest Territories Summer Temperature, 2,000 Years, MacDonald et al. 2008, Text or Excel
Boreal Canada Regional Temperature, 12,000 Years, Viau ang Gajewski 2009, Text or Excel
Eastern Beringia Regional Temperature, 25,000 Years, Viau et al. 2008, Text or Excel
Nunavut July Temperature and Precipitation, 2,500 Years, Peros and Gajewski 2008, Text or Excel
Nunavut Summer Temperature, 2,000 Years, Porinchu et al. 2008, Text or Excel
Hanging Lake, Yukon July Temperature, 17,000 Years, Kurek et al. 2009, Text or Excel σ
Canadian Rockies Summer Temperature, 1,050 Years, Luckman and Wilson 2005
Gulf of Alaska March-May, March-Sept, and April-Sept Temperature, 400 Years, Wiles et al. 1998
Gulf of Alaska January-September Temperature, 1,300 Years, Wilson et al. 2007, Text or Excel
Northwestern Alaska Growing Season Temperature, 2,000 Years, Hu et al. 2001, Text or Excel
Firth River, Alaska Temperature, 930 Years, Anchukaitis et al. 2013
South-central Alaska July Temperature, 13,500 Years, Clegg et al. 2011, Text or Excel σ
South-central Alaska July Temperature, 6,000 Years, Clegg et al. 2010, Text or Excel σ
Western Alaska July Temperature, 39,000 Years, Kurek et al. 2009, Text or Excel σ
Southern Alaska Summer Temperature, 1,500 Years, Loso 2008, Text or Excel σ
Wrangell Mountains, Alaska Warm Season Temperature, 400 Years, Davi et al. 2003
USA Pacific Northwest Temperature, 250 Years, Wiles et al. 1996
East-central Idaho July Temperature Reconstruction, 850 Years, Biondi et al. 1999
Southern Colorado Plateau Temperature Reconstruction, 2,262 Years, Salzer and Kipfmueller 2005
West N.America Gridded & Regional Summer Temperature, 400 Years, Briffa et al. 1992
Large Scale N.American Temp. and Precip, Description, 400 Years, Fritts 1991
North American and Regional July Temperature, 14,000 Years, Viau et al. 2006, Text or Excel σ
Western North American Annual Temperature Reconstruction, 500 Years, Wahl and Smerdon 2012 σ
 

South America

Amazon Basin Temperature, 37,000 Years, Bendle et al. 2010, Text or Excel
Central Chile Austral Summer Temperature, 1,142 Years, von Gunten et al. 2008, Text or Excel
Southern Andes Temperature, Text or Excel, 350 Years, Villalba et al. 2003
Southern South America Gridded Temperature, 1,100 Years, Neukom et al. 2010 σ
 

Drought

Global

Africa

East Africa Drought, 1,100 Years, Verschuren et al. 2000
Morocco PDSI, 950 Years, Esper et al. 2007
 

Asia

North Central China Decadal Precipitation Index Reconstruction, 1,800 Years, Tan et al. 2011
Longxi, China Decadal Drought/Flood Indices, 1,000 Years, Tan et al. 2008, Text or Excel
Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas (MADA), 700 Years, Cook et al. 2010, netCDF
 

North America

NOAA/NESDIS North American Drought Variability project
(includes Tree-ring reconstructed PDSI)
A Paleo Perspective on North American Drought
North American PDSI, 2,000 Years, Cook et al. 2004, netCDF. Also, 2008 Update, netCDF
North American Great Plains Drought, 2,300 Years, Laird et al. 1996
North American Great Plains Drought, 11,000 Years, Laird et al. 1996
Central U.S. PHDI, Text or Excel, 1,093 Years, Stambaugh et al. 2011
Canadian Prairies Regional Drought, 481 Years, St. George et al. 2009
Upper Mississippi Basin Aridity, 10,000 Years, Dean et al. 1997
U.S. Drought Area Index, 270 Years, Cook et al. 1997
U.S. PDSI, text or Microsoft Excel, 280 Years, Zhang et al. 2004
Western U.S. Drought Area Index, Data and Description, 1,200 Years, Cook et al. 2004 σ
Southwest US Drought Index, 570 Years, Cook unpublished data
Southwestern US Drought Maps from Pinyon Tree-Ring δ13C, 400 Years, Leavitt et al. 2007
Valles Caldera Pleistocene Interglacial Drought, 552 - 363 KYrBP, Fawcett et al. 2011
Eastern Colorado PDSI, 440 Years, Woodhouse et al. 2001
Texas PDSI, 280 Years, Stahle and Cleaveland 1988
Texas PDSI, Text or Excel, 500 Years, Cleaveland et al. 2011
Northeastern Utah PDSI, 600 Years, Gray et al. 2003
Northern California and Nevada Multicentennial Droughts, 7,600 Years, Benson et al. 2002
East USA Lost Colony/Jamestown Droughts, 800 Years, Stahle et al. 1998
New York Climate Division 5 PDSI, Text or Excel, 472 Years, Pederson et al. 2013
Southeast U.S. PDSI, Text or Excel, 346 Years, Pederson et al. 2012
Central American Drought and the Classic Maya Civilization, 9,700 Years, Hodell et al. 1995
Mesoamerican PDSI, Text or Excel, 1,238 Years, Stahle et al. 2011
 

South America

Andes Temperate-Mediterranean Transition PDSI, Text or Excel, 657 Years, Christie et al. 2011
 

Precipitation

Africa

East African Precipitation 40,000 Years, Bonnefille and Chalié 2000 σ
Zimbabwe Summer Precipitation, 200 Years, Therrell et al. 2006, Text or Excel
Southern Africa Winter and Summer Precipitation, 200 Years, Neukom et al. 2013
 

Asia

Huashuan, China Precipitation, 400 Years, Hughes et al. 1994
North-Central China Temperature and Precipitation, 530 Years, Yi et al. 2011, Text or Excel σ
North-Central China Precipitation, 400 Years, Yi et al. 2010, Text or Excel
Mongolia Riverflow and Precipitation Reconstructions, 350 Years, Pederson et al. 2001
Lake Suigetsu, Japan Precipitation, 15,700 - 10,200 YrBP, Nakagawa et al. 2006, Text or Excel
Southern Jordan Precipitation, 400 Years, Touchan et al. 1999
 

Australia, New Zealand

Queensland, Australia Riverflow and Precipitation, 350 Years, Lough 2007
Queensland, Australia Rainfall, 350 Years, Lough 2011, Text or Excel
 

Europe

Gridded European Seasonal Precipitation, 500 Years, Pauling et al. 2006 σ
Central Europe Summer Precipitation, 2,500 Years, Büntgen et al. 2011, Text or Excel σ
Southern Central England March-July Precipitation, 1,000 Years, Wilson et al. 2012, Text or Excel
East Anglia Spring-Summer Precipitation, 1,100 Years, Cooper et al. 2012, Text or Excel σ
Scotland Precipitation, 3,600 Years, Proctor et al. 2002
Scotland Precipitation, 1,000 Years, Proctor et al. 2000 σ
Lyngen Peninsula, Norway, Winter Precipitation, Text or Excel, 20,000 Years, Bakke et al. 2005
Bavarian Forest Spring-Summer Precipitation, 500 Years, Wilson et al. 2005
Lago dell'Accesa, Italy Summer Precipitation, 11.7-4.6KYrBP, Finsinger et al. 2010, Text or Excel
Turkey Precipitation 350 Years, D'Arrigo and Cullen 2001
Southwest Turkey Precipitation 660 Years, Touchan et al. 2003
Northwest Turkey Precipitation 365 Years, Akkemik et al. 2005
South Central Turkey Precipitation 300 Years, Akkemik et al. 2005
Northern Aegean (NE Greece/NW Turkey) May-June Precipitation, 900 Years, Griggs et al. 2007, Text or Excel
Eastern Mediterranean May-August Precipitation, 600 Years, Touchan et al. 2005, Text or Excel
 

North America

Large Scale North American Temperature and Precipitation  and Description, 400 Years, Fritts 1991
Boreal Canada Regional Precipitation, 12,000 Years, Viau ang Gajewski 2009, Text or Excel
Eastern Beringia Regional Precipitation, 25,000 Years, Viau et al. 2008, Text or Excel
Southern Manitoba precipitation reconstruction, 595 Years, St. George and Nielsen 2002
Northeast USA Little Ice Age Precipitation, 2,000 Years, Gajewski 1988
Montpelier Plantation, Virginia Precipitation, 180 Years, Druckenbrod et al. 2003
Mid-Atlantic USA May Precipitation, 800 Years, Maxwell et al. 2012, Text or Excel
Southeast USA Precipitation and PDSI reconstructions, 1,000 Years, Stahle and Cleaveland 1992
Iowa Precipitation and PDSI reconstructions, 340 Years, Cleaveland and Duvick 1992
Missouri Precipitation and PDSI reconstructions, 400 Years, Cleaveland and Stahle 1996
Eastern Oregon Precipitation and PDSI, 300 Years, Garfin and Hughes 1997
Pacific Northwest Precipitation, 1,500 Years, Steinman et al. 2012
Upper Klamath River Basin Precipitation, 1,000 Years, Malevich et al. 2013
Glacier National Park Mean Summer Deficit, 460 Years, Pederson et al. 2006
Bighorn Basin Wyoming/Montana Precipitation, 739 Years, Gray et al. 2004
Uinta Basin, Utah Precipitation, 775 Years, Gray et al. 2004
El Malpais, New Mexico Precipitation, 2,129 Years, Grissino 1996
Northeast Arizona Tribal Lands Seasonal Precipitation , 400/650 Years, Faulstich et al. 2013
North American Monsoon Subannual Precipitation Index, 470 Years, Griffin et al. 2013
Rio Grande 500 Year Riverflow and Precipitation Reconstructions, 500 Years, Woodhouse et al. 2013
Arizona and New Mexico Climate Division Precipitation, 1,000 Years, Ni et al. 2002
Southern Colorado Plateau Precipitation Reconstruction, 1,425 Years, Salzer and Kipfmueller 2005
Nevada Precipitation, 8,000 Years, Hughes and Graumlich 1996
White Mountains, California Precipitation, 920 Years, Bale et al. 2011, Text or Excel
Durango, Mexico precipitation reconstruction, 610 Years, Cleaveland et al. 2003
Chihuahua, Mexico precipitation reconstruction, 350 Years, Díaz et al. 2002
Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico, precipitation reconstruction, 220 Years, Pohl et al. 2003
 

South America

Southern South America Multiproxy Precipitation Reconstructions, 500 Years, Neukom et al. 2010
South American Documentary Hydrological Indices, 465 Years, Neukom et al. 2009
Patagonian Andes Lago Plomo Winter Precipitation, 470 Years, Elbert et al. 2012, Text or Excel σ
 

Streamflow

Asia

Kherlen River, Mongolia Streamflow, 385 Years, Davi et al. 2013
Selenge River, Mongolia Streamflow, 360 Years, Davi et al. 2006
Yeruu River, Mongolia Streamflow, 330 Years, Pederson et al. 2012
 

Australia, New Zealand

Burdekin River, Australia Streamflow, 350 Years, Isdale et al. 1998
Queensland, Australia Riverflow and Precipitation, 350 Years, Lough 2007
 

North America

Upper Colorado River and tributaries flow, 1,200 Years, Meko et al. 2007 σ
Colorado River and tributaries flow, Text or Microsoft Excel format, 500 Years, Stockton and Jacoby 1976
Upper Colorado River and tributaries flow, 500 Years, Woodhouse et al. 2006
Rio Grande 500 Year Riverflow and Precipitation Reconstructions, 500 Years, Woodhouse et al. 2013
California TreeFlow - Tree Ring Reconstructions of Streamflow for California
Feather River, California flow reconstruction, 1,076 Years, Meko 2001
Sacramento River, California flow reconstruction (JAWRA), 1,109 Years, Meko et al. 2001
Sacramento River, California flow reconstruction (CDWR), 1,076 Years, Meko 2001
Salinas River, California flow reconstruction, 595 Years, Griffin 2005
TreeFlow Project - Tree Ring Reconstructions of Streamflow for Colorado σ
Clear Creek Colorado Annual Flow Reconstruction, 300 Years, Woodhouse 2000
Middle Boulder Creek Colorado Flow Reconstruction, 280 Years, Woodhouse 2001
Snake River, Idaho flow reconstruction, 415 Years, Wise 2010
Yellowstone River, Montana flow reconstruction, 270 Years, Graumlich et al. 2003 σ
Potomac River May-September Streamflow, Text or Excel, 1,000 Years, Maxwell et al. 2011
White River, Arkansas flow reconstruction, 963 Years, Cleaveland 2000
White River, Arkansas flow reconstruction, 280 Years, Cleaveland and Stahle 1989
 

Other Hydroclimate

Global

Africa

Sahara and Sahel Paleohydrological Database, 10,000 Years, Lézine et al. 2011, Text or Excel
East African MCEOF Hydroclimatic Lake Proxy Data Synthesis, 675 Years, Tierney et al. 2013
NW Africa Continental Humidity Index Reconstruction, 116KYr, Tjallingii et al. 2009
 

Asia

Arid Central Asia Synthesized Moisture, 1,000 Years, Chen et al. 2010, Text or Excel
Sugan Lake, Northwest China Chironomid Salinity, 1,000 Years, Chen et al. 2009, Text or Excel
 

Europe

Northern England Peatland Water Table, 4,800 Years, Charman 2000
Northern Britain Stacked Water Table Record, 4,400 Years, Charman et al. 2006
Folgefonna Glacier, Norway, Equilibrium-Line Altitude, Text or Excel, 6,000 Years, Bakke et al. 2005
Lyngen Peninsula, Norway, Glacier Equilibrium-Line Altitude, Text or Excel, 4,000 Years, Bakke et al. 2005
Western Norway Lake Kråkenes and Nordic sea Sediment data, Text or Excel, 12,900 Years, Bakke et. al. 2010
Forfjorddalen, Norway Tree Ring δ13C Cloud Cover, Text or Excel, 1,000 Years, Young et al. 2012
Mauntschas Mire, Switzerland Water Table Depth, Text or Excel, 140 Years, Lamentowicz et al. 2010 σ
Slowinskie Bog, Poland Water Table Depth, Text or Excel, 1,000 Years, Lamentowicz et al. 2009 σ
Stazki Bog, Poland Water Table Depth, Text or Excel, 1,000 Years, Lamentowicz et al. 2008 σ
Lake Allos, Mediterranean French Alps Flood Deposit Data, Text or Excel, 1,360 Years, Wilhelm et al. 2012
 

North America

Chesapeake Bay Salinity reconstructions, Text or Excel, 550 Years, Cronin et al. 2000
Michigan Water Table Depth Reconstruction, 3,500 Years, Booth and Jackson 2003
North American Cordillera Snow Water Equivalent Reconstructions, 1600 Years, Pederson et. al 2011
Gunnison River Basin Snow Water Equivalent Reconstruction, 430 Years, Woodhouse 2003
Central Mexico Maize Yield Reconstruction, 525 Years, Therrell et al. 2006
San Francisco Bay Salinity reconstructions, 390 Years, Stahle et al. 2001
Caribbean Sea Salinity reconstructions, 130,000 Years, Schmidt et al. 2004
 

Atmospheric Circulation Patterns

Regional

Arctic Oscillation & Snow Events, 2,000 years, Chu et al. 2008, Text or Excel
Arctic Oscillation Warm Season SAT & SLP Indices, 325 Years, D'Arrigo et al. 2003
Increase in the Asian SW Monsoon During the Past Four Centuries, 400 Years, Anderson et al. 2002
Western Indian Ocean low-level cross-equatorial jet, 342 years, Gong & Luterbacher 2008, Text or Excel σ
Indian Ocean Dipole Mode Index (DMI), 150 years, Abram et al. 2008, Text or Excel
Southern Annular Mode (SAM) Index, 600 Years, Villalba et al. 2012
 

Pacific

Pacific Decadal Oscillation, 330 Years, Biondi et al. 2001
Pacific Decadal Oscillation, 420 Years, D'Arrigo and Wilson 2006, Text or Excel
Pacific Decadal Oscillation, 300 Years, D'Arrigo et al. 2001
Pacific Decadal Oscillation, 120 Years, Felis et al. 2010, Text or Excel
Pacific Decadal Oscillation, 1,000 Years, MacDonald and Case 2005
Pacific Decadal Oscillation, 530 Years, Shen et al. 2006
Winter Pacific North American pattern, 275 Years, Trouet and Taylor 2009, Text or Excel
Niño 1+2, 3, 3.4, and 4 Indices, 700 Years, Cook et al. 2008, Text or Excel
Niño 3.4 Index, 700 Years, Li et al. 2013
Niño 3.4 Index, 460 Years, Wilson et al. 2010, Text or Excel
Niño 3 Index, 575 Years, Cook unpublished
Niño 3 Index and Description, 330 Years, Mann et al. 2000
ENSO Multiproxy Reconstructions, 450 Years, Braganza et al. 2009, Text or Excel
ENSO Multiproxy Event Reconstructions, 470 Years, Gergis and Fowler 2009, Text or Excel
ENSO Index Reconstruction, 1,100 Years, Li et al. 2011, Text or Excel
El Niño Events, 500 Years, Quinn and Neal 1983
Southern Oscillation Index, 270 Years, Stahle et al. 1998
Southern Oscillation Index, 2,000 Years, Yan et al. 2011, Text or Excel
Fiji-Tonga Interdecadal-Decadal Pacific Oscillation Index, 350 Years, Linsley et al. 2008, Text or Excel σ
Unified ENSO Proxy Reconstruction, 350 Years, McGregor et al. 2010, Text or Excel
 

Atlantic

Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation Index, 420 Years, Gray et al. 2004
North Atlantic Oscillation Index, 600 Years, Cook et al. 2002
North Atlantic Oscillation Index, 280 Years, Cook et al. 1998
Summer North Atlantic Oscillation Index, 300 Years, Folland et al. 2009, Text or Excel
North Atlantic Oscillation Index, 218 Years, Goodkin et al. 2010, Text or Excel
North Atlantic Oscillation Index, 550 Years, Glueck and Stockton 2001
North Atlantic Oscillation Index, 500 Years, Luterbacher et al. 2002
North Atlantic Oscillation Index, 275 Years, Timm et al. 2004, Text or Excel
North Atlantic Oscillation Index, 950 Years, Trouet et al. 2009
North Atlantic Oscillation Index, Southern Oscillation Index, 1,000 Years, Jones et al. 2001
North Atlantic, Europe, and Mediterranean Sea Level Pressure Reconstruction, 250 Years, Küttel et al. 2009
Eastern North Atlantic-European Sea Level Pressure Reconstruction, 500 Years, Luterbacher et al. 2002
 

Sea Surface Temperature

Global and Regional

Global LGM SST and Description, 18,000 YBP, Mix et al. 1999
Global Sea Surface Temperature, Holocene/Modern, Bollmann et al. 2002
Global Gridded LGM SST-SSS and Description, 18,000 YrsBP, Paul and Schäfer-Neth 2003
Global Gridded LGM Sea Surface Temperature and Description, 18,000 YBP, Hostetler and Mix 1999
Global CLIMAP LGM Sea Surface Temperature, 18,000 Years Before Present, CLIMAP Members 1981
Southern Ocean Sea Surface Temperature, 200,000 Years, Brathauer et al. 1999
Southern Ocean Sea Surface Temperature, 290,000 Years, Mashiotta et al. 1999
Southern Ocean SST and Sea Ice Presence, 288,000 years, Crosta et al. 2004, Text or Excel
Southern Ocean SST and Sea Ice Presence, 12,500 years, Nielsen et al. 2004, Text or Excel
Southern Ocean Sea Surface Temperature, 160,000 years, Pahnke and Sachs 2006, Text or Excel
Southern Ocean, South Australia SST, 30,000 years, Calvo et al. 2007, Text or Excel
Southern Ocean Miocene Sea Surface Temperature, 17 - 11 MYrBP, Shevenell et al. 2004, Text or Excel
Atlantic/Pacific Bottom Water Temperature, 331,000 years, Martin et al. 2002, Text or Excel
Tropical Sea Surface Temperature, 3,500,000 Years, Herbert et al. 2010, Text or Excel
Tropical Sea Surface Temperature, 250 Years, Wilson et al. 2006
 

Pacific

Pacific SST Reconstructions and Description, 400 Years, Evans et al. 2002 σ
Eastern Tropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperature, 1,830,000 Years, Liu and Herbert 2004
Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sea Surface Temperature, 30,000 Years, Dubois et al. 2009, Text or Excel
Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sea Surface Temperature, 100,000 Years, Dubois et al. 2011, Text or Excel
Eastern Equatorial Pacific Subsurface Temperature, 5,880,000 Years, Ford et al. 2012
Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sea Surface Temperature, 36,000 Years, Kienast et al. 2006, Text or Excel
Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sea Surface Temperature, 5,089,000 Years, Lawrence et al. 2006, Text or Excel
Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sea Surface Temperature, 13,000 Years, Marchitto et al. 2010, Text or Excel
Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sea Surface Temperature & SSS, 90,000 Years, Leduc et al. 2007, Text or Excel
Southeast Pacific Sea Surface Temperature, 25,000 - 10,000 Years BP, Lamy et al. 2007, Text or Excel
Central Equatorial Pacific Niño 3.4 SST, 850 Years, Emile-Geay et al. 2013
Galápagos Sea Surface Temperature, 135,000 Years, Lea et al. 2006, Text or Excel
Southwest Pacific Sea Surface Temperature, 1,185,000 Years, Crundwell et al. 2008
Southwest Pacific Sea Surface Temperature, 340,000 Years, Pahnke et al. 2003
Southwest Pacific LGM Sea Surface Temperature and Description, 18,000 YBP, Barrows et al. 2000
Equatorial Pacific Sea Surface Temperature, 470,000 Years, Lea et al. 2000
Equatorial Pacific Sea Surface Temperature, 1.5 - 0.5 MMYrBP, McClymont and Rosell-Melé 2006
Western Tropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperature, 1,750,000 Years, de Garidel-Thoron et al. 2005
Western Tropical Pacific SST, 21,000 Years, Stott et al. 2007
Western Tropical Pacific SST and Salinity, 15,000 Years, Stott et al. 2004, Text or Excel
Western Tropical Pacific SST, 67,000 Years, Stott et al. 2002, Text or Excel
Western Tropical Pacific SST, 1,340,000 Years, Medina-Elizalde and Lea 2005, Text or Excel
Western Pacific Warm Pool multiproxy SST, 21,000 Years, de Garidel-Thoron et al. 2007, Text or Excel
Western Pacific Warm Pool Makassar Strait SST and δ18Osw 14,000 Years, Linsley et al. 2010 σ
Indo-Pacific Warm Pool SST and δ18Osw, Text or Excel, 40,000 Years, Mohtadi et al. 2010
Indo-Pacific Warm Pool SST and SSS, Text or Excel, 1,000 Years, Newton et al. 2006
Indo-Pacific Warm Pool SST and δ18Osw, Text or Excel, 2,000 Years, Oppo et al. 2009 σ
Indo-Pacific Warm Pool SST and fossil coral Sr/Ca, Text or Excel, 7,500 Years, Abram et al. 2009 σ
Amédée, New Caledonia coral Sr/Ca SST, Text or Excel, 350 Years, DeLong et al. 2012 σ
Coral Sea SST, Text or Excel, 815,000 Years, Lawrence and Herbert 2005
Coral Sea SST, Text or Excel, 1,543,000 Years, Russon et al. 2010
Sea of Okhotsk alkenone SST, Text or Excel, 120,000 Years, Harada et al. 2006
Northwest Pacific alkenone SST, Text or Excel, 144,000 Years, Yamamoto et al. 2005
Okinawa Trough SST, 18,000 Years, Sun et al. 2005
South China Sea Alkenone SST Estimates, Plio-Pleistocene Intervals, Clemens et al. 2008, Text or Excel
South China Sea Alkenone Deglacial SST Estimates, 3,000-16,000 Years Before Present, Kienast et al. 2001
South China Sea Alkenone SST Estimates, Steinke et al. 2008, Text or Excel
South China Sea Coral Sr Data and SST Reconstruction, 100 Years, Sun et al. 2004
South China Sea Mg/Ca SST Estimates, Wei et al. 2007, Text or Excel
California Current Collapse, LGM, 18,000 Years Before Present, Herbert et al. 2001
California Current alkenone SST, 136,000 Years, Yamamoto et al. 2007, Text or Excel
Gulf of California Biogenic SST, 25 - 6 KYrBP, McClymont et al. 2012, Text or Excel
Guaymas and Cariaco Basin Alkenone SST, 300 Years, Goni et al. 2006
Northeast Pacific Geoduck/Tree Ring SST, 100 Years, Black et al. 2009, Text or Excel
Strait of Juan de Fuca SST, 155 Years, Strom et al. 2004
Rarotonga Sea Surface Temperature Reconstruction, 270 Years, Linsley et al. 2000
Southern Peru-Chile Current Sea Surface Temperature Reconstruction, 8,000 Years, Lamy et al. 2002
Southeast Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Reconstruction, 70,000 years, Kaiser et al. 2005
Southern Peru-Chile Current Sea Surface Temperature Reconstruction, 50 KyrBP-8 KYr BP, Lamy et al. 2004
Chilean Margin Alkenone SST, 33,000 Years, Kim et al. 2002, Text or Excel
Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, SST, 16,000 Years, Samson et al. 2005, Text or Excel σ
Tasmanian Gateway SST, 500,000 Years, Nürnberg et al. 2004, Text or Excel
Tasman Sea SST, 600,000 Years, Nürnberg and Groeneveld 2006, Text or Excel
South Tasman Rise SST, 155,000 Years, Sikes et al. 2009, Text or Excel
Great Barrier Reef Sea Surface Temperature Reconstruction, 440 Years, Wörheide 1998
Vanuatu Sea Surface Temperature, 4,200 Years Before Present, Correge et al. 2000
 

Atlantic

Subpolar North Atlantic Holocene SST, 11,000 - 500 YrBP, Came et al. 2007, Text or Excel
Subpolar North Atlantic SST, 191,000 years, Oppo et al. 2006, Text or Excel
Subpolar North Atlantic Holocene SST, 11,800 years, Thornalley et al. 2009, Text or Excel
Subpolar North Atlantic Alkenone SST, 2,000 years, Sicre et al. 2011, Text or Excel
Subpolar North Atlantic Reykjanes Ridge Diatom August SST, 230 Years, Miettinen et al. 2011, Text or Excel
North Icelandic Shelf alkenone SST, 10,170 Years, Bendle and Rosell-Melé 2007, Text or Excel
North Iceland Shelf Holocene Diatom August SST, 11,500 Years, Justwan et al. 2008, Text or Excel
North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature, 107,000 Years, Bard 2002
North Atlantic alkenone SST, 3,200,000 Years, Lawrence et al. 2010, Text or Excel
North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature and Salinity, 59,000 - 45,000 Years Before Present, Schmidt et al. 2006
North Atlantic 8200BP Event Summer and Winter SST, 9,200 - 7,200 YrBP, Ellison et al. 2006, Text or Excel
Northeast North Atlantic Faunal SST, 56 - 40 KYrBP, Dickson et al. 2008, Text or Excel σ
Northeast North Atlantic Younger Dryas SST/SSS, 13 - 10 KYrBP, Ebbesen and Hald 2004, Text or Excel
Northeast North Atlantic Alkenone SST, 4,012,000 Years, Lawrence et al. 2009, Text or Excel
Northeast North Atlantic Feni Drift Mg/Ca SST, 2,400 Years, Richter et al. 2009, Text or Excel
Emerald Basin Alkenone SST, 1,600 years, Keigwin et al. 2003, Text or Excel
Gulf of Maine, 1,000 years, Wanamaker et al. 2008, Text or Excel
Chesapeake Bay Spring Temperature, 2,200 Years, Cronin et al. 2003
Subtropical North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature, 60 - 30 KYrBP, Sachs and Lehman 1999, Text or Excel
Subtropical Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature, 23,000 Years, deMenocal et al. 2000
Tropical Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature, 29,000 Years, Rühlemann et al. 1999
Southeast Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature, 41 - 10 KYrBP, Sachs et al. 2001, Text or Excel
Eastern South Atlantic Alkenone SST, 21,000 Years, Kim et al. 2002, Text or Excel.
Angola-Benguela Front Alkenone SST, 25,000 Years, Kim et al. 2003, Text or Excel
Equatorial East Atlantic SST/SSS, 155,000 Years, Weldeab et al. 2007
Equatorial East Atlantic SST, SSS, and δ18Osw, text or Excel, 21,000 Years, Weldeab et al. 2005
Equatorial East Atlantic SST, 275,000 Years, Nürnberg et al. 2000
South-east Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature, 1.5 - 0.5 MMYrBP, McClymont et al. 2005
Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperature, 52 KYrBP, Cacho et al. 1999, Text or Excel
Western Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperature, 52 KYrBP, Cacho et al. 2001, Text or Excel
Equatorial Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature and Description, 30,000 Years, Sikes and Keigwin 1994
Equatorial and North Atlantic SST and Description, 125,000 Years, Waelbroeck et al. 1998 σ
Western Tropical Atlantic SST, SSS, and δ18Osw, text or Excel, 21,000 Years, Weldeab et al. 2006
Bahamas Coral SST, 450 Years, Saenger et al. 2009, Text or Excel σ
Florida Straits Mg/Ca SST and δ18Osw, 20,000 Years, Schmidt et al. 2011, Text or Excel
Orca Basin, Gulf of Mexico, 44 - 28 KYrBP, Hill et al. 2006, Text or Excel
Orca Basin, Gulf of Mexico, 10.5 - 7 KYrBP SST, LoDico et al. 2006, Text or Excel
Orca Basin, Gulf of Mexico, 18 - 10 KYrBP, Williams et al. 2010, Text or Excel
Guaymas and Cariaco Basin Alkenone SST, 300 Years, Goni et al. 2006
Cariaco Basin Sea Surface Temperature, 25,000 Years, Lea et al. 2003
Cariaco Basin Sea Surface Temperature, 800 years, Black et al. 2007, Text or Excel
Northeast Caribbean Sea Surface Temperature, 1,950 Years, Nyberg et al. 2002 σ
Northeast Caribbean Sea Surface Temperature, 300 Years, Winter et al. 2000
Western Caribbean Sea Surface Temperature, 475,000 Years, Schmidt et al. 2006
Yucatan SST, 230 Years, Vásquez-Bedoya et al. 2012, Text or Excel
Subantarctic Atlantic SST, 1,100,000 Years, Martínez-Garcia et al. 2009, Text or Excel
Subpolar Atlantic SST, 3,600,000 Years, Martínez-Garcia et al. 2010, Text or Excel
 

Indian

Arabian Sea Surface Temperature Patterns, 20,000 Years, Dahl and Oppo 2006, Text or Excel
E. Tropical Indian Ocean SST and Thermocline, 133,000 Years, Mohtadi et al. 2010, Text or Excel
Indian Ocean Sea Surface Temperature, 131,000 Years, Saraswat et al. 2005, Text or Excel
Indian Ocean Sea Surface Temperature, 171,000 Years, Bard et al. 1997
 

Other Reconstructions

Earth Surface Conditions

Alaska Palaeo-Glacier Atlas (Version 2), 70,000 Years, Kaufman et al. 2011
Global Ice Topography, 21,000 Years, Peltier 1994
Global Ice Coverage, 21,000 Years, Peltier 1994
Upper Grindelwald Glacier Fluctuations, 9,000 Years, Luetscher et al. 2011
Global Relative Sea Level Histories, 21,000 Years, Peltier and Tushingham 1992
North American Vegetation, 18,000 Years Before Present, Overpeck et al. 1992
European Vegetation (BIOME6000), 6,000 Years Before Present, Prentice et al. 1996
Tahiti Relative Sea Level History, 13,000 Years, Bard et al. 1996
Red Sea Sea Level, Text or Excel format, 380,000 Years, Siddall et al. 2003
Red Sea Relative Sea Level, 150,000 Years, Grant et al. 2012
Sea Level and Deep Water Temperature, Text or Excel format, 430,000 Years, Waelbroeck et al. 2002 σ
Millennial-Scale Sea Level, Text or Excel, 83,000 - 13,000 Years BP, Arz et al. 2007
Southwest Pacific pH, 300 Years, Pelejero et al. 2005
 

Miscellaneous

Western North Atlantic Intense Hurricane Activity, 5,000 Years, Donnelly and Woodruff 2007
Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Activity, 1,500 Years, Mann et al. 2009
Estimated Number of Major Atlantic Hurricanes and Vertical Windshear, 260 Years, Nyberg et al. 2007
"Climate Since AD 1500" Collected reconstructions, 500 Years, Bradley and Jones 1992
Fennoscandia Summer Sunshine, Text or Excel, 1,100 Years, Gagen et al. 2011 σ
Torneträsk, Sweden Tree Ring d13C Sunshine, 1,100 Years, Loader et al. 2013.

Contributing Data                             

Investigators who wish to contribute their data to our climate reconstructions archive can find information on contributing below. Data and study description information can be contributed by emailing your data to paleo@noaa.gov.