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Model Datasets

Several categories of model data are available through NOAA's National Operational Model Archive and Distribution System (NOMADS). These broad categories of data are Reanalysis, Numerical Weather Prediction, Climate Prediction, and Derived/Other Model Data. Model data are typically gridded data with varying temporal and spatial coverage. Model datasets can be thought of as three-dimensional cubes of weather information over a span of time. The kinds of weather information, resolution, coverage, and the period of record vary with each available dataset.


  • Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR)
    CFSR provides a global reanalysis (a best estimate of the observed state of the atmosphere) of past weather from January 1979 through March 2011 at a horizontal resolution of 0.5°.
  • North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR)
    NARR is a regional reanalysis of North America containing temperatures, winds, moisture, soil data, and dozens of other parameters at 32km horizontal resolution.
  • Reanalysis-1 / Reanalysis-2 (R1/R2)
    Reanalysis-1 / Reanalysis-2 are two global reanalyses of atmospheric data spanning 1948/1979 to present at a 2.5° horizontal resolution.

Numerical Weather Prediction

  • Climate Forecast System (CFS) 
    CFS provides a global reanalysis, a global reforecast of past weather, and an operational, seasonal forecast of weather out to nine months.
  • Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS)
    GDAS is the set of assimilation data, both input and output, in various formats, for the Global Forecast System model, which has been archived since 2004.
  • Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS)
    GEFS is a global-coverage weather forecast model made up of 21 separate forecasts, or ensemble members, used to quantify the amount of uncertainty in a forecast. GEFS is produced four times a day with weather forecasts going out to 16 days.
  • Global Forecast System (GFS)
    The GFS model is a coupled weather forecast model, composed of four separate models which work together to provide an accurate picture of weather conditions. The entire globe is covered by the GFS down to a horizontal resolution of 28km.
  • North American Mesoscale (NAM)
    NAM is a regional weather forecast model covering North America down to a horizontal resolution of 12km. Dozens of weather parameters are available from the NAM grids, from temperature and precipitation to lightning and turbulent kinetic energy.
  • Rapid Refresh (RAP)
    RAP is a regional weather forecast model of North America, with separate sub-grids (with different horizontal resolutions) within the overall North America domain. RAP forecasts are generated every hour with forecast lengths going out 18 hours.  RAP replaced the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) model on May 1, 2012.

Ocean Models

Climate Prediction

  • CM2 Global Coupled Climate Models (CM2.X)
    CM2.X consists of two climate models, which were designed to model the changes in climate over the past century and into the 21st century.
  • Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5)
    The U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) coordinates global analysis of climate models under the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP). CMIP5 is in its fifth iteration. Data are available through the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) website.

Derived / Other Model Data

  • Service Records Retention System (SRRS)
    SRRS is a store of weather observations, summaries, forecasts, warnings, and advisories generated by the National Weather Service for public use.
  • NOMADS Ensemble Probability Tool
    The NOMADS Ensemble Probability Tool allows a user to query the Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) to determine the probability that a set of forecast conditions will occur at a given location using all of the 21 separate GEFS ensemble members.
  • National Digital Forecast Database (NDFD)
    NDFD are gridded forecasts created from weather data collected by National Weather Service field offices and processed through the National Centers for Environmental Prediction. NDFD data are accessed by WMO header or by date range.
  • National Digital Guidance Database (NDGD)
    NDGD consists of forecasts, observations, model probabilities, climatological normals, and other digital data that complement the National Digital Forecast Database.