Every February 2, crowds gather at Gobbler's Knob, in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania. Burrowed inside his heated simulated tree trunk, a groundhog, named Punxsutawney Phil, is about to step into the limelight at about 7:25 a.m. once again. The gates open at 3:00 a.m., followed by live entertainment, music, and a pre-dawn fireworks display that helps to ignite (hopefully not literally!) the crowd gathered in anticipation of Phil's forecast. The awe-inspiring fireworks are set to lively music, which is just what the crowd generally needs on a cold rural Pennsylvania morning. Phil makes the most celebrated weather forecast of the year, usually around the crack of dawn. Has spring sprung when Phil emerges from his burrow and doesn't see his shadow? Or, should he scurry back into his burrow for six more weeks of winter weather if skies are clear and fair?
History of Groundhog Day
Groundhog Day has its origins in an ancient celebration of a point midway between the winter solstice and the spring equinox. Superstition has it that fair weather was a forbearance of a stormy and cold second half to winter. The early Christians in Europe established the custom of Candlemas Day, when the clergy would bless candles and people would light them in each window of their homes to ward off the darkness of mid-winter.
But the legend of the February 2 forecast also persisted, as captured in this old English saying:
If Candlemas be fair and bright,
Winter has another flight.
If Candlemas brings clouds and rain,
Winter will not come again.
The trail of groundhog history actually leads back to Clymer H. Freas, city editor of the Punxsutawney Spirit newspaper. In 1887, he was inspired by a group of local hunters and gourmets who held a groundhog hunt followed by a picnic barbecue of, well, you know. Anyway, Freas thought it so much fun that he wrote up the group as the Punxsutawney Groundhog Club and went on to promote the Punxsutawney Groundhog as the official weather forecaster. As he embellished the story year after year, other newspapers picked it up and soon everyone looked to Punxsutawney Phil for the critical prediction of when spring would return to the nation.
|Saw Shadow||No Shadow||No Record|
|More Winter||End of Winter||---|
Punxsutawney Phil Versus the U.S. National Temperature 1988–2013
The table below gives a snapshot, by year since 1988, of whether Phil saw his shadow or not along with the corresponding monthly national average temperature departures for both February and March. The table shows no predictive skill for the groundhog during the most recent years of this analysis. Since 1993, the U.S. national temperature has been above normal 11 times in February and 12 times in March, below normal 6 times in February and 3 times in March, and near normal 4 times in February and 6 times in March.
|Year||Shadow||February Temperature Departure||March Temperature Departure|
|2013||No||Slightly Above||Slightly Below|
|2011||No||Slightly Below||Slightly Above|
|2008||Yes||Slightly Above||Slightly Below|
|2001||Yes||Slightly Above||Tied Average|
U.S. Climate Conditions in February and March 2013
In 2013, the contiguous U.S. average temperature of 52.4°F was 0.3°F above the 20th century average, and it tied with 1980 as the 37th warmest year in the 119-year period of record. The 2013 annual temperature marked the coolest year for the nation since 2009. The 2013 contiguous U.S. average temperature was 2.9°F cooler than the 2012 average temperature, which was the warmest year on record for the nation. Since 1895, when national temperature records began, the contiguous United States has observed a long-term temperature increase of about 0.13°F per decade.
The February 2013 average temperature for the contiguous United States was 34.8°F, which was 0.8°F above the 20th century average. February temperatures were near average for a large portion of the Lower 48, including the Northwest Coast, Central and Southern Plains, Midwest, Southeast, and much of the East Coast. Below-average temperatures were reported for the Southwest, while most of the Canadian-border states and parts of the Gulf Coast were warmer than average.
The March 2013 average temperature for the contiguous United States was 40.8°F, which was 0.9°F below the 20th century average. This was in stark contrast to temperatures from one year prior when March 2012 was the warmest such month on record for the nation. March 2013 marked the coolest March since 2002, when the monthly nationally averaged temperature was 2.2°F below average. Much of the eastern United States was cooler than average during March, with the exception of New England, which was slightly warmer than average. Eleven states in the Ohio Valley, along the Gulf Coast, and in the Southeast had March temperatures that were among their 10 coolest. In fact, Florida, Georgia, Alabama, South Carolina, and North Carolina had March 2013 temperatures that were cooler than January 2013.
The Arctic Oscillation is a measure of pressure patterns across the Arctic and can relate to temperatures in the middle latitudes, including the United States, during the winter and spring months. The Arctic Oscillation was in a strongly negative phase during most of the month. The monthly averaged Arctic Oscillation index was the most negative value on record for March and was associated with the prolonged cold air outbreak that impacted states from the Canadian border to the Southeast.
Temperatures were above average for parts of the West. Arizona, California, and Nevada each had March temperatures ranking among their 10 warmest. Above-average temperatures were also observed in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Utah, and New Mexico.
Take a look at the February and March 2013 maps which give a pretty good idea of the distribution of temperatures across the United States. It really isn't a "bright" idea to take a measure such as a groundhog's shadow and use it as a predictive meteorological tool for the entire United States.
Interested in doing your own analysis? More data are available from the Punxsutawney Groundhog club on Phil's past predications, and historical temperature data are available through NCDC's Climate at a Glance tool. More temperature rankings maps, like the ones above, are available on the National Temperature and Precipitation Maps page.
Other Groundhogs Around the United States
Punxsutawney can't keep something this big to itself. Other prognosticating rodents are popping up to claim a piece of the action. Most of these furry "forecasters" have a following that includes locals, visitors and the media. The revered groundhogs typically preside over festival events before making their grand appearance to check for shadows on the morning of February 2. Some of these notable contenders include General Beauregard Lee of Atlanta, Georgia; Wiarton Willie of Wiarton, Ontario, Canada; Sir Walter Wally of Raleigh, North Carolina; and Jimmy of Sun Prairie, Wisconsin.
There are even more "groundhog forecasters" in the running such as Octorara Orphie of Quarryville, Pennsylvania—competition right next door to Phil—Staten Island Chuck from the Staten Island Zoo, Unadilla who hails from Nebraska, Buckeye Chuck from Ohio, French Creek from West Virginia and the Cajun Groundhog from Louisiana. Ridge Lea Larry is a "stuffed groundhog" from Western New York, and the Tennessee Groundhog of Silver Point, Tennessee, is actually someone dressed up like a groundhog on a motorcycle.
The Growing Fame of Groundhog Day
The comedy film, "Groundhog Day," brought in more than $100 million worldwide and was the most popular movie in the country for two weeks in 1993. In the movie, Bill Murray plays Phil, a grouchy weatherman who hates almost everything. On February 2, Phil gets assigned to cover the Punxsutawney Phil groundhog event. On the way back home after the big event, traffic is so bad that he can't get out of the town. Phil decides to stay in town overnight, but the next morning, he wakes up at 6:00 to his alarm clock playing the exact same song from the day before. He listens to the radio broadcast and realizes that they are playing the same program from the day before. Everything he does begins to repeat itself. And somehow, Phil is the only one who remembers anything.
The film, and Groundhog Day on February 2, are ways to have a little fun at mid-winter but generally climate records and statistics tell us that winter isn't over. Climatologically speaking the three coldest months of the year are December, January and February. So, winter still has a bit to go before spring has sprung. Over the last several years, the Winter of 2009–2010 was historically active and powerful. The Winter of 2011–2012 was the fourth warmest winter for the nation and precipitation was below average. The Winter of 2003–2004 was quite cold and snowy across portions of the East, especially New England, with fairly mild weather across the Deep South and a good deal of the Southwest. Are you interested in climate averages or normals? See the monthly data tables in NCDC's Comparative Climatic Data to find out what average monthly conditions are like in your area.