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Statistical Weather and Climate Information

An example of a temperature data analysis that shows high, low, and average temperatures throughout a year

An example of a temperature data analysis that shows high, low, and average temperatures throughout a year.

NCDC offers several types of climate information generated from examination of the data in the archives. These types of information include record temperatures, record precipitation and snowfall, climate extremes statistics, and other derived climate products.

Temperature, Precipitation, and Drought

This collection of tools builds on monthly values of temperature, precipitation, and several drought indices for each of the 344 climate divisions in the contiguous United States. These can be aggregated into statewide, climate region, and contiguous U.S. values.

  • Temperature, Precipitation, and Drought Time Series
    View how a certain parameter in a certain place has changed since 1895. The user can define the month or season and place of interest.
  • Temperature and Precipitation Rankings
    Ranks the warmest, coldest, driest, and wettest periods on record for each of the climate divisions, states, climate regions, and the contiguous United States. Place any month, season, or year into historical perspective.
  • Temperature and Precipitation Maps
    Color-coded maps that represent the rank of a particular month and season versus history. For example, regions, states, or divisions that are coded blue had a cooler-than-normal month or season for the time period selected.
  • Daily ASOS Temperature and Related Fields Maps
    These maps provide daily snapshots of the unusualness of the day's temperature, or heating/cooling degree days, across the United States. While the data are considered preliminary and final quality control has not been performed, the maps nevertheless provide a strong general picture of the temperature conditions versus normal for a given day. The user can create animations up to one month long.

Other Statistical Products

  • U.S. Records
    This tool lists and maps records tied or broken on a given date for weather stations across the 50 United States. Records are distinguished as daily (largest/smallest for that day on the calendar), monthly (largest/smallest value during that month), or all-time (largest/smallest value ever observed at that station). Summary information for recent periods (year-to-date, month-to-date, last 30 days) is provided in tabular format.
  • Climate Extremes Index
    This index charts the occurrence of specific extreme events over time since 1910. In most cases, extreme events are defined as lying in the outermost (“most unusual”) ten percent of a place’s history. Analyses are available at national and regional levels.
  • Regional Snowfall Index
    NCDC produces the Regional Snowfall Index (RSI) for significant snowstorms that impact the eastern two thirds of the United States. The RSI ranks snowstorm impacts on a scale from 1 to 5, similar to the Fujita scale for tornadoes or the Saffir-Simpson scale for hurricanes.
  • Global Climate at a Glance
    The Global Climate at a Glance (GCAG) web application can be used to retrieve monthly and annual global temperature anomaly maps that date back to 1880. Users can also create time series for locations around the globe by selecting a point on the map. The interactive interface allows users to adjust the vertical and horizontal axes of the time series plots to view selected range of months or years of data or to view the entire period of record.
  • Global Temperature Anomalies
    This page provides direct access and explanatory material for NCDC's global-scale and near-global-scale temperature anomalies products. Values are broken out by hemisphere (southern, northern) or by surface type (land, ocean). The values are compared to the 20th century average (positive numbers: warmer than the 20th century average; negative numbers: cooler).
  • Global Temperature and Precipitation Maps
    The user can select temperature or precipitation anomalies as they were reported by NCDC's Climate Monitoring Branch.
  • Global-Scale Microwave Sounding Unit Temperatures
    Microwave Sounding Units (MSU) measure radiation emitted by the Earth's atmosphere from NOAA polar orbiting satellites. The MSU products provide insight into the temperature trends and patterns in three different slabs of the atmosphere, from the lowest: lower troposphere, middle troposphere, and lower stratosphere.
  • Climatic Data for Frost Protected Shallow Foundations
    A frost protected shallow foundation (FPSF) is a practical alternative to deeper, more-costly foundations in cold regions with seasonal ground freezing and the potential for frost heave. The objective of this web page is to provide U.S. builders, designers, code officials, and others with the air freezing index (AFI) data necessary to employ FPSF technology.